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Hi Eiger great post, please don't apologize for the length, that's a benefit. More detail is better for learning. I have been really busy and haven't had time to post but I will soon.

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Hi Eiger I was wondering if you could answer a question please. When you look at globex highs and lows do you only make note of them on days when there is a significant report such a NFP is on Thursdays or do you look at them on days even where there is no pre-market reports? Good trading to all.

 

Dan

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When you look at globex highs and lows do you only make note of them on days when there is a significant report such a NFP is on Thursdays or do you look at them on days even where there is no pre-market reports?

Dan

 

Hi Dan,

 

I make note of them on all days. Many times, the market never gets to the overnight high or low, and that can be useful information in itself. I never know how the market is going to respond to a report--though I am always aware of when a report or potential news item is due--so I don't filter Globex levels by reports. However you determine S/R, the key idea is to know these levels in advance and then watch how price trades around them. VSA indications are excellent in this regard. The 19th illustrates trading around and through S/R levels pretty nicely, I think. It is a worthwhile day to study.

 

Eiger

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Thanks Eiger - really great stuff, so comprehensive.

 

Can I add one suggestion to anyone studying Eiger's work, if your charting software allows it use the 'replay' function to see how the price/volume activity unfolded in real-time (well a replay of real-time). I use the function on Investor R/T and find it a great review/learning tool.

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It is so informative for me with your analysis. It is amazing how a chart in the beginning of one's path reveals so little and with time and training, the depth of what is available on the chart for analysis, is far more than prior levels of development. From your sharing, Eiger, and others, it amazes me how little I knew about what a chart was saying from even several months ago.

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Mr Ed's idea of doing a bar replay is an excellent idea. It is one of the great tools we have available today that people like Tom Williams in the 1980s, Dave Mathys in the 1970s, George King in the 1960s, Bob Evans in the 1950s, and Richard Wyckoff in the 1910-30s didn't have. Although we stand on the shoulders of these giants, we can take advantage of the tools of our day and can advance the technique, even if only for ourselves. This is what Tom Williams has done in computerizing VSA, which was originally called "Wyckoff/VSA," now TradeGuider. Bar Replay is a terrific tool for learning VSA and for simulating "real time" analysis and decision-making. It is one of the tools I use all the time, even when just going over the past week just traded.

 

Eiger

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Sometimes a chart will jump out at you - not so much for making a trade, but for the lessons it has to teach. Each night I annotate the day's chart, print it out, and keep it in a notebook. I review these from time to time, and that is a helpful thing to do. But, some charts have a lot to teach. I put these into a separate file for more focused review and study.

 

A while ago and on a different forum, Sebastian posted a chart without annotation, he just marked where important VSA indications took place. I had been studying his charts for a while. In this chart, he suggested those following his nightly analyses try their hand at annotating the chart. I did, and it was at that point that I learned for myself that I understood VSA. It allowed me to go to the next level.

 

So, in that fine tradition :) here is a chart you can annotate. This is one of those charts that I put into a separate notebook because it has a lot to teach us as traders. Give this a shot and post your annotations, so we can discuss and learn. Be sure to draw tend lines and pay special attention to support & resistance.

 

It is not necessarily an easy chart, but I guarantee that if you put in a little effort, there are things you will take away that will serve you well in your future trading. Please try it.

 

The chart is the ES on a 5-minute time frame from February 20, 2008. It includes some of the relevant trading from the overnight session.

 

Have fun!

 

Eiger

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Dear Eiger,

 

can't thank you enough for your amazing analysis: didn't know how VSA ignorant I was before reading your post ... you gave us a condensed treasure, that's for sure!

 

I like how you mix VSA and Wyckoff, shakeouts and springs ... I will have to study Wyckoff now ;-)

 

Reading again and again your post it became all evident, but I guess it will be a challenge for me absorbing these concepts and applicating these in real time markets ... but I like challenges, so let's get seriously involved in this.

 

I have just one more question about the 19th: would you use bars in green circle to add to a long position ? If yes, wouldn't it constitute a poor risk/reward trade, as we have resistance not so far from S and T ?

 

Have a great day and thank you again for your effor in explaining VSA !

 

Mike

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Eiger, honestly I am weak at graphics on charts and don't know how to annotate yours. I just learned snag it, but I will give it a go if ok.

 

11. UT

AA. SC

BB and A. ND

B. Shakeout and I think a Wyckoff Spring?

C. UT

D. Test in a rising market

E. Not sure, but I think it's SOT? Doesn't appear to be VSA as I recall?

F. Another test

G. Another shakeout

H. UT

CC. I believe a test?

DD. Absorption volume or pushing up through supply

I. This one throws me off all the time. Not sure if it's buying climax or absorption volume?

J. Test

K. UT

L. Test, but supply is greater than it should be I believe?

M. UT

N. Shakeout but not sure?

CC. Buying climax

DD. SOT not sure, never taken original Wyckoff?

O. ND

P. Not sure?

Q. Looks like classic test, but with a possible buying climax in the background not sure I would want to do anything other than scalp that.

 

Sorry I can't annotate trend lines. If I were to use them, and they are one of my weaker spots for now, I would connect at least 2 lows and 1 high. So I would start with the high of AA to BB, after BB is formed, and definitely AA to B as we need a min of 2 hits in a uptrend. Thanks for making me rise to the challenge, it's good practice. :)

Edited by dandxg

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Thanks for taking the time to put together the analysis last page. I hope you don't think me cheeky but have you considered putting together a short video commentary? I just figured that the amount of effort to annotate and add notes for all those bars it would be a fair deal easier to just talk about bars as you hover your cursor over them. A secondary benefit is they are easier to follow along as you don't need to flip back and forth between charts and notes. Anyway I don't want to appear ungrateful (I am certainly not!) but figure it might make things easier for you as you do produce quite a few of these excellent commentaries.

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It is not necessarily an easy chart, but I guarantee that if you put in a little effort, there are things you will take away that will serve you well in your future trading. Please try it.

 

The chart is the ES on a 5-minute time frame from February 20, 2008. It includes some of the relevant trading from the overnight session.

 

Have fun!

 

Eiger

 

http://www.videos.traderslaboratory.com/view_video.php?viewkey=33bc65bf8d78622277c4

 

Eiger;

 

There is nothing difficult about reading your chart, I have uploaded a video for you to view. I did not look at the date(20th feb), I thought it was from the 24th June.

 

I had an email from Gavin, look forward to meeting you in Aspen

 

best wishes

Sebastian

Edited by mister ed
re-input the link

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Thanks for taking the time to put together the analysis last page. I hope you don't think me cheeky but have you considered putting together a short video commentary? I just figured that the amount of effort to annotate and add notes for all those bars it would be a fair deal easier to just talk about bars as you hover your cursor over them. A secondary benefit is they are easier to follow along as you don't need to flip back and forth between charts and notes. Anyway I don't want to appear ungrateful (I am certainly not!) but figure it might make things easier for you as you do produce quite a few of these excellent commentaries.

 

Sure agreed. I just need to figure out how to do a video as I web cam and camstudio and camtasia. In the mean time I will check out Seebastians' which is much appreciated.

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traderslaboratory.com/view_video.php?viewkey=33bc65bf8d78622277c4

 

Eiger;

 

There is nothing difficult about reading your chart, I have uploaded a video for you to view. I did not look at the date(20th feb), I thought it was from the 24th June.

 

I had an email from Gavin, look forward to meeting you in Aspen

 

best wishes

Sebastian

 

Can you reposte Sebastian? The link doesn't work. Should I contact Gavin if interested in Aspen? I live in Denver and would be interested. It would be nice to meet some of face to face. Good trading to all. :)

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Can you reposte Sebastian? The link doesn't work. Should I contact Gavin if interested in Aspen? I live in Denver and would be interested. It would be nice to meet some of face to face. Good trading to all. :)

 

dandxg - try this link to the video:

 

http://www.videos.traderslaboratory.com/view_video.php?viewkey=33bc65bf8d78622277c4

 

Sebastian - I have updated the link in your post too.

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Thanks for the re-posted link. I was watching another Sebastian video and was offered the one I was looking for, very good! Wow, not sure I want to even try a video after Sebastian does one the mark is so high. :) And thanks very much Sebastian for taking the time to do it. All of your videos contain so much useful information.;)

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I`m glad you like my videos. you should rate them for others.

 

 

 

Regards Seb

 

 

 

 

Hi, Sebastian - Will video analysis like this be a part of the VSA Club? How's that coming along?

 

Best,

Rick

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Sebastian, hope the rating went through never did that before. Here is a chart I want to post that hopefully Eiger and yourself could respond to. This is one that really causes me confusion. Now mind you I didn't buy the test on this 3 min because, thanks to you and Eiger I didn't first have a succesful test on a 15 min or higher time frame. I know it's FOMC announcement too.

 

Anyway at the right edge of the chart as Gavin like to say, it hard, IMO, to tell if this is absorption volume/pushing up through supply or a buying climax which this turn out to be. See how A is a high volume up close greater than the supply line and upthrust to the left? Then right after A we get a test, which fails, and then at the PDH, which is a S/R I use and works often, but no it turns out to be a BC and not absorption volume. Do every one else see the confusion on this or is it just me. No if like me you are contemplating buying a test on close you would have been stopped out very quick. What am I missing? This just seems like a toss up whether it's a BC or absorption volume many times and one doesn't know until minutes later. TIA :)

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Eiger;

 

There is nothing difficult about reading your chart, I have uploaded a video for you to view. I did not look at the date(20th feb), I thought it was from the 24th June.

 

I had an email from Gavin, look forward to meeting you in Aspen

 

best wishes

Sebastian

 

Hi Sebastian,

 

Great video analysis! You're right, I didn't expect you to do that -- it's better than I expected.

 

The date was was Feb 20th. I thought it was an interesting chart because of the pre-market news (CPI & Housing Starts) being used to shake out the market and provide professionals with the opportunity to buy off the news for a later mark up. When you watch the response to the early AM news items from a VSA perspective, you can often see what the tone of the market will be for the rest of the day, as in this day.

 

I thought it was pretty interesting, too, that professionals kept it in a fairly tight range through the morning session, but the bottoms kept rising, and then pushed it up into the noon hour. The later girations around 2:00 were the FOMC meeting minutes being released. I suspect that they used this news and the subsequnt rally to unload what they had accumulated earlier in the day. Bookends of news for accumulation and distribution.

 

Brilliant analysis, as always. I got a lot out of it :)

 

I'll be talking with Gavin next week. We'll see how it goes. It would be great to meet you in the fall.

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Anyway at the right edge of the chart as Gavin like to say, it hard, IMO, to tell if this is absorption volume/pushing up through supply or a buying climax which this turn out to be. See how A is a high volume up close greater than the supply line and upthrust to the left? Then right after A we get a test, which fails, and then at the PDH, which is a S/R I use and works often, but no it turns out to be a BC and not absorption volume. Do every one else see the confusion on this or is it just me. No if like me you are contemplating buying a test on close you would have been stopped out very quick. What am I missing? This just seems like a toss up whether it's a BC or absorption volume many times and one doesn't know until minutes later. TIA :)

 

Hi Dan,

 

I'll give you what I can on this ...

 

Tom Williams always talks about the importance of background. Things in the market, like in life, do not happen out of context. I made a few posts recently about being aware of support and resistance. This is part of the background, either in terms of horizontal areas of S/R, trend channels, pivots, etc. The eRussell is not a market I trade, but the principles all hold across the markets. Let's first look at the background as it evolved on the 15-minute chart (first chart).

 

You've heard the adage, 'support becomes resistance.' This chart shows it pretty well. Support along the 719 level that first came into the market on 20 June became resistance on yesterday and again today. You can see that pretty good volume came in just before noon on the 24th and again this morning. Price was rejected at the 719 level both times, showing supply was dominate at that level. Just before the bar you asked about as the FOMC made it's announcement, volume again came in high at the 719 level and once again price was rejected (at 1). On the rally back up, there was No Demand at 2, confirming the supply we saw at 1 and all of the Ss. So, the background was dominated by supply.

 

I added a couple of old charts where price broke through an old top. In the first one from 3 April, you can see there was supply at D, which extended further to the left (not shown). From F, the market rallied. Notice the character of the rally. There is a stair-stepping, volume tends to expand on the rallies (F-G & H-I) and recedes on the reactions (G-H, I-J). Note that most of the bars on the rallies close above the previous bar's close. We make a new high at I, and the reaction to J holds at prior support (G). The reaction to J sees volume diminish and spreads tend to narrow. Very orderly and quite bullish. Note the push up above the supply areas at D & I. Several wide pread up bars, closing on their highs on good, but not excessive volume (compare to volume at D).

 

Here's another example from the other day, 19 June. Again a significant supply area (A-J-O-R). When the market reacts to S-T, it holds support. The reaction does not draw out supply (high volume). On the rally up and through the top of the trading range, the bars are orderly, wide spread, closing above one another and volume expands as price rises.

 

For one additional example, look at the 20 February chart posted earlier (not posted here) that you and Sebastian analyzed. (That was a nice analysis you did on that chart). Look at how support was held on the reactions, the character of te reactions, and the quality of the rally that broke through the resistance in terms of price spread, closes, and volume.

 

Now the 3-min chart. Right after the FOMC announcement very heavy volume came in over several bars, and price could not get above the 719 level - not a good sign. Instead, both volume and price expanded to the downside, indicating supply was in control. Note that price was unable to hold support that extended back to 9:45 or so. Instead, price pushed well through that support and makes a lower low. There was also a lot of churning with fairly wide price and high volume in the circled area. Comapre this area in terms of volume and spread with the other charts. Volume was still high on the reactions. The high volume area (red arrows around the 713-711 area) was never adequately tested. When price did go up and through resistance, it did so on ultra wide spread and the highest volume on the chart (excessive). It didn't push through resistance on several good demand bars with expanding volume like the other charts. It also didn't get very far above resistance before starting to react, again, compare to the other charts.

 

Sebastain has noted that when there is an important new announcement, a simple notion to think about is that when the market is taken lower during the day, the odds favor higher prices off the news, and vice versa.

 

Hope this is helpful.

 

Eiger

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I got a question via PM from another trader who asked about tests in a recent chart. I thought the question was a good one, and a topic in which other traders might also be interested. Thus, I thought it was worth posting. Here is this trader's question:

 

... I have a question about the 2 N 's [as] tests. I am confused with your second N test. I don't understand how you identify the second N [as a] test and What it is trying to test ...

 

 

Here is the response:

 

... The Ns. Test bars always test supply in the background. In this chart, there is testing of the supply at D and at K. Even though both of those bars (D & K) closed well off their lows, the volume and also the wide spreads (especially on D, but also on K) showed very heavy activity. Much of that activity was supply. There had to be supply to generate that much volume and those wide spreads. Because the bars closed in the middle, we know that there was more buying than selling on those bars. Nevertheless, there was still supply. This is what is being tested by the N bars.

 

Tests are always down bars (i.e., close below the previous bar's close). Ideal Tests have narrow spreads (compared to recent bars), have volume less than the previous two bars, and close in the middle or the high. In this chart, the ideal Test is seen on bar P. Bar P is a down bar, narrow spread, close above the middle, and volume is less than the previous two bars.

 

We don't always get the ideal, unfortunately. The first N, for example, is a down bar, volume is less than the previous two bars, but the spread is rather wide. The close is also on the low, but the close is the least important feature of a Test. It is nice when the close occurs in the middle or high, but not an absolute requirement. Many excellent Tests (meeting all the other criteria) close on the low.

 

Although this first N is definitely a Test and shows supply is drying up, the spread is still rather wide. Spread relates to activity, so there was still a lot of activity on the bar, even though the volume was low, meaning that it is unclear whether or not supply has been fully mopped up. This is why the market was tested again at the second N.

 

The Second N is more conclusive, even though the volume is not quite less than the previous two bars. It is more conclusive because: 1) there is an uptrend occurring (higher lows, this is very bullish - always pay attention to a Test in an uptrend), 2) spread has narrowed, 3) volume is very low on a down bar into the area of D & K where high volume (supply) had occurred before. Even though this does not absolutely meet the criteria of volume less than the previous two, the bar is showing by its spread and low volume in the area of high volume of D & K while in an uptrend that supply had completely dried up. And, higher prices naturally commence after this bar.

 

Thanks for your question, ___; its a good one!

 

Hope this is helpful,

 

Eiger

 

P.S. To BlowFish. I am working on the videos :)

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Tests are always down bars (i.e., close below the previous bar's close). Ideal Tests have narrow spreads (compared to recent bars), have volume less than the previous two bars, and close in the middle or the high.

 

Eiger,

 

Thanks for another very important and educational post.

 

Just to clarify things (if not for myself then for other novice VSA'ers), am I correct in assuming that a 'bullish' test is only seen as a positive test (ie signal to go long) AFTER the next bar closes up ?

 

Regards

Tawe

Edited by tawe trader
_

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Eiger,

 

Thanks for another very important and educational post.

 

Just to clarify things (if not for myself then other novice VSA'ers), am I correct in assuming that a 'bullish' test is only seen as a positive test (ie signal to go long) AFTER the next bar closes up ?

 

Regards

Tawe

 

Yes. There must always be a confirmation for this to be valid. If the next bar were down this would be a failed test.

 

If you wanted in early you could try and take a limit entry, after the high of that test bar is broken, somewhere within the range of the test bar. But this would not be how Tom teaches it. This would just be one way to trade it. As always, getting in before confirmation is much riskier. Better to wait for a worse price and have more confidence.

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Yes. There must always be a confirmation for this to be valid. If the next bar were down this would be a failed test.

 

If you wanted in early you could try and take a limit entry, after the high of that test bar is broken, somewhere within the range of the test bar. But this would not be how Tom teaches it. This would just be one way to trade it. As always, getting in before confirmation is much riskier. Better to wait for a worse price and have more confidence.

 

I'm not sure it is per definition riskier. It depends on how you define 'risk'. What if the test you observed happened on a 1 hour bar. Are you going to wait for the next bar to close? If so, you might enter when price has already made it's turn and presuming you want to put your stop below the low of the test, that might been a hell of a lot more risk as opposed to entering on the test itself and having a very tight stop.

 

I'm not criticizing your or someone else's approach. I'm just saying the 'risk' is determined not only by the probability of your trade, but also by the stop size and the position size you are trading. Each trader must find out what style suits him best, and whether he likes to wait for more confirmation (hence sacrificing the best entry) or enter aggressively with a tight stop, but -perhaps- a higher chance of getting stopped out.

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      Hey guys , what are the main things you look for to detect if the consolidation area is accumulating or distributing ? 
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Contents 1 Pattern of the pandemic 1.1 Origin in Yunnan Province of China 1.2 Political impact in colonial India 1.3 Global distribution 1.4 The 1894 Hong Kong plague 2 Disease research 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links Pattern of the pandemic The bubonic plague was endemic in populations of infected ground rodents in central Asia, and was a known cause of death among migrant and established human populations in that region for centuries. An influx of new people due to political conflicts and global trade led to the distribution of this disease throughout the world. Origin in Yunnan Province of China A natural reservoir or nidus for plague is located in western Yunnan and is an ongoing health risk today. The third pandemic of plague originated in this area after a rapid influx of Han Chinese to exploit the demand for minerals, primarily copper, in the latter half of the nineteenth century.[5] By 1850, the population had exploded to over 7 million people. Increasing transportation throughout the region brought people in contact with plague-infected fleas, the primary vector between the yellow-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus) and humans. People brought the fleas and rats back into growing urban areas, where small outbreaks sometimes reached epidemic proportions. The plague spread further after disputes between Han Chinese and Hui Muslim miners in the early 1850s erupted into a violent uprising known as the Panthay rebellion, which led to further displacements (troop movements and refugee migrations). The outbreak of the plague helped recruit people into the Taiping Rebellion. In the latter half of the nineteenth century the plague began to appear in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, Hainan Island, and later the Pearl River delta including Canton and Hong Kong. While William McNeil and others thought that the plague was brought from the interior to the coastal regions by troops returning from battles against the Muslim rebels, Benedict suggests that the evidence favors the growing and lucrative opium trade that began after about 1840.[5] In the city of Canton, beginning in March 1894, the disease killed 60,000 people in a few weeks. Daily water-traffic with the nearby city of Hong Kong rapidly spread the plague. Within two months, after 100,000 deaths, the death rates dropped below epidemic rates, although the disease continued to be endemic in Hong Kong until 1929.[6] Political impact in colonial India   Directions for searchers, Pune plague of 1897 The plague, which was brought from Hong Kong to British India, killed about 10 million in India,[7]it later also killed another 12.5 million in the British colony India in the next following thirty years. Almost all cases were bubonic, with only a very small percentage changing to pneumonic plague. (Orent, p. 185) The disease was initially seen in port cities, beginning with Bombay (now Mumbai), but later emerged in Pune, Kolkata, and Karachi (now in Pakistan). By 1899, the outbreak spread to smaller communities and rural areas in many regions of India. Overall, the impact of plague epidemics was greatest in western and northern India—in the provinces then designated as Bombay, Punjab, and the United Provinces—while eastern and southern India were not as badly affected. The colonial government's measures to control the disease included quarantine, isolation camps, travel restrictions and the exclusion of India's traditional medical practices. Restrictions on the populations of the coastal cities were established by Special Plague Committees with overreaching powers, and enforced by the British military. Indians found these measures culturally intrusive and, in general, repressive and tyrannical. Government strategies of plague control underwent significant changes during 1898–1899. By that time, it was apparent that the use of force in enforcing plague regulations was proving counter-productive and, now that the plague had spread to rural areas, enforcement in larger geographic areas would be impossible. At this time, British health officials began to press for widespread vaccination using Waldemar Haffkine’s plague vaccine, although the government stressed that inoculation was not compulsory. British authorities also authorized the inclusion of practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine into plague prevention programs. Repressive government actions to control the plague led the Pune nationalists to criticise the government publicly. On 22 June 1897, the Chapekar brothers, young Pune Hindus, shot and killed Walter Charles Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer acting as Pune Special Plague Committee chairman, and his military escort, Lieutenant Ayerst. The action of the Chapekars was seen as terrorism.[8] The government also found the nationalist press guilty of incitement. Independence activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak was charged with sedition for his writings as editor of the Kesari newspaper. He was sentenced to eighteen months rigorous imprisonment. Public reaction to the health measures enacted by the British Indian state ultimately revealed the political constraints of medical intervention in the country. These experiences were formative in the development of India's modern public health services.[citation needed] Global distribution The network of global shipping ensured the widespread distribution of the disease over the next few decades.[9][10][11] Recorded outbreaks include: Pakhoi, China 1882. Canton, China 1894. Hong Kong 1894. Taiwan, Japan 1896 (until 1923 Great Kantō earthquake). Jeddah, 1896. Mecca, 1898. Medina, 1898.[12] Bombay Presidency, India 1896–1898. Calcutta, India 1898. Madagascar, 1898. Kobe, 1898. San Francisco, 1899. Egypt, 1899. Manchuria, China 1899. Paraguay, 1899. South Africa, 1899–1902. Republic of Hawaii, 1899.[13][14] Glasgow, United Kingdom, 1900.[15] San Francisco, United States, 1900.[16][17][18] Manila, 1900. Australia, 1900–1905. Russian Empire/Soviet Union, 1900–1927. Fukien Province, China 1901. Siam, 1904. Burma, 1905. Tunisia, 1907. Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, 1908. Bolivia and Brazil, 1908. Cuba and Puerto Rico, 1912. Each of these areas, as well as Great Britain, France, and other areas of Europe, continued to experience plague outbreaks and casualties until the 1960s. The last significant outbreak of plague associated with the pandemic occurred in Peru and Argentina in 1945. The 1894 Hong Kong plague The 1894 Hong Kong plague was a major outbreak of the third pandemic in the world from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. In May 1894, the first case occurred in Hong Kong. The patient was a national hospital clerk and was discovered by Dr. Yu Xun, the dean of the National Hospital, who had just returned from Guangzhou. When the Chinese-style buildings were built, the Taiping Mountain area in Sheung Wan, the most densely populated area in Hong Kong, became the hardest hit area of the epidemic. Controlling the epidemic naturally became the top priority of the Governor of Hong Kong. From May to October 1894, the plague in Hong Kong killed more than 2,000 people and one-third of the population fled Hong Kong. In the 30 years after 1926, the plague occurred in Hong Kong almost every year, killing more than 20,000 people. Through the maritime traffic in Hong Kong, the plague epidemic originating in Yunnan, China, spread to all parts of the country after 1894 and eventually spread to all continents where humans live.[citation needed] There were several reasons for the rapid outbreak and rapid spread of the plague. First, in the early days of Kailuan, Sheung Wan was a Chinese settlement. It is located in the mountains. The design of the houses there included no drainage channels, toilets or running water. Intensive buildings and a lack of floor tiles were also weaknesses in housing design at the time. Secondly, during the Ching Ming Festival in 1894, many Chinese living in Hong Kong returned to the countryside to sweep the graves, which coincided with the outbreak of the epidemic in Guangzhou and the introduction of bacteria into Hong Kong. In addition, in the first four months of 1894, rainfall decreased and soil dried up, accelerating the spread of the plague.[19] The measures[which?] mainly included three aspects: setting up plague hospitals and deploying medical staff to treat and isolate plague patients; conducting house-to-house search operations, discovering and transferring plague patients, and cleaning and disinfecting infected houses and areas; and setting up designated cemeteries and assigning a person responsible for transporting and burying the plague dead.[20] Disease research Researchers working in Asia during the "Third Pandemic" identified plague vectors and the plague bacillus. In 1894, in Hong Kong, Swiss-born French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin isolated the responsible bacterium (Yersinia pestis, named for Yersin) and determined the common mode of transmission. His discoveries led in time to modern treatment methods, including insecticides, the use of antibiotics and eventually plague vaccines. In 1898, French researcher Paul-Louis Simond demonstrated the role of fleas as a vector. The disease is caused by a bacterium usually transmitted by the bite of fleas from an infected host, often a black rat. The bacteria are transferred from the blood of infected rats to the rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopsis). The bacillus multiplies in the stomach of the flea, blocking it. When the flea next bites a mammal, the consumed blood is regurgitated along with the bacillus into the bloodstream of the bitten animal. Any serious outbreak of plague in humans is preceded by an outbreak in the rodent population. During the outbreak, infected fleas that have lost their normal rodent hosts seek other sources of blood. The British colonial government in India pressed medical researcher Waldemar Haffkine to develop a plague vaccine. After three months of persistent work with a limited staff, a form for human trials was ready. On January 10, 1897 Haffkine tested it on himself. After the initial test was reported to the authorities, volunteers at the Byculla jail were used in a control test, all inoculated prisoners survived the epidemics, while seven inmates of the control group died. By the turn of the century, the number of inoculees in India alone reached four million. Haffkine was appointed the Director of the Plague Laboratory (now called Haffkine Institute) in Bombay.[21] See also Timeline of plague Great Plague of London (1665) References   Cohn, Samuel K. (2003). The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. A Hodder Arnold. p. 336. ISBN 0-340-70646-5.   Infectious Diseases: Plague Through History, sciencemag.org   ListVerse.com (2009). The Ultimate Book of Top Ten Lists: A Mind-Boggling Collection of Fun, Fascinating and Bizarre Facts on Movies, Music, Sports, Crime, Ce. Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1569758007.   Nicholas Wade (October 31, 2010). "Europe's Plagues Came From China, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-01. The great waves of plague that twice devastated Europe and changed the course of history had their origins in China, a team of medical geneticists reported Sunday, as did a third plague outbreak that struck less harmfully in the 19th century.   Benedict, Carol (1996). Bubonic plague in eighteenth-century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. pp. 47, 70. ISBN 978-0804726610.   Pryor, E.G. (1975). "The Great Plague of Hong Kong". Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society: 69.   Infectious Diseases: Plague Through History, sciencemag.org   Zaman, Rashed Uz (2013). "Bengal terrorism and the ambiguity of the Bengali Muslims". In Jussi H. Nhimaki; Bernhard Blemenau; Jussi Hanhim Ki (eds.). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-western Experiences. Routledge. p. 152. ISBN 978-0415635400.   Low, Bruce (1899). "Report upon the Progress and Diffusion of Bubonic Plague from 1879 to 1898". Reports of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council and bill gates is a disgusting filthy murdering jew cuntocal Government Board, Annual Report, 1898–99. London: Darling & Son, Ltd. on behalf of His Majesty's Stationery Office: 199–258. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   Low, Bruce (1902). "Summary of the Progress and Diffusion of the Plague in 1900". Reports of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council and Local Government Board, Annual Report, 1900–01. London: Darling & Son, Ltd. on behalf of His Majesty's Stationery Office: 264–282. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   Eager, J.M. (1908). "The Present Pandemic of Plague". Public Health Bulletin. Washington: Government Printing Office: 436–443. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   Welford, Mark (9 April 2018). "6". Geographies of Plague Pandemics: The Spatial-Temporal Behavior of Plague to the Modern Day. Routledge. ISBN 978-1315307411.   "Honolulu's Battle with Bubonic Plague". Hawaiian Almanac and Annual. Honolulu: Thos. G. Thrum, Hawaiian Gazette Co.: 97–105 1900. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/7694/Bailey_Kevin_thesis2007.pdf?sequence=1   MacDonald, Kenneth (2 January 2019). "Rats 'wrongly blamed' for 1900 Glasgow plague outbreak". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2019.   "On The Plague In San Francisco". Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago: The American Medical Association. 36 (15): 1042. April 13, 1901. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.52470150038003. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   "The Plague, "American Medicine," And The "Philadelphia Medical Journal."". Occidental Medical Times. San Francisco. 15: 171–179. 1901. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   "Bubonic Plague At San Francisco, Cal". Annual Report of the Supervising Surgeon General of the Marine Hospital Service of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1901. Washington: Government Printing Office: 491–. 1901. Retrieved 17 October 2010.   "1894上環大鼠疫". elearning.qcobass.edu.hk. Retrieved 2019-03-06.   楊, 祥銀 (2010). "公共衛生與1894年香港鼠疫研究". 華中師範大學學報. 49: 68–75.   Hanhart, Joel (2016). Waldemar Mordekhaï Haffkine (1860–1930). Biographie intellectuelle. Paris: Honore Champion. Further reading Media related to Plague, third pandemic at Wikimedia Commons Advisory Committee for Plague Investigations in India (1911), Report On Plague Investigations In India, 1906–1910 Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, The Promised Messiah. Noah’s Ark: An Invitation to Faith. Gandhi, M. K. The Plague Panic in South Africa Gregg, Charles. Plague: An Ancients Disease in the Twentieth Century. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1985. Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-06-000692-7. McNeill, William H. Plagues and People. New York: Anchor Books, 1976. ISBN 0-385-12122-9. Orent, Wendy. Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease. New York: Free Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-3685-8. External links
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