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Tradewinds

How I Would Charge for a Trading Course/system

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There is no first, second third place in trading.....there is profit and loss.

 

Yes, so true. I don't need to be in first place, or even in 50th place. As long as I'm making more money than I could in the working world, then I'm doing just fine. That is an attitude that I need to work on.

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Yes, so true. I don't need to be in first place, or even in 50th place. As long as I'm making more money than I could in the working world, then I'm doing just fine. That is an attitude that I need to work on.

 

One of the things a lot of new traders miss, is that often they are underfunded and would be better off working, and giving their money to those that trade for a living..... assuming you get someone not in the 95% of unprofitable traders.

Often they dont do the very straightforward maths and work out that to make more trading than working they either need to return 100s % or take excessive risks to get a satisfactory absolute return on their trades.

not likely to end in a happy story.....which is probably why a lot end up selling systems.

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If I were going to sell a trading system, or have someone pay me for a trading course, I would make them a guarantee. I would guarantee that they will make money in simulated trading within a certain time period, or I will give them 110% of their money back. That is the way I would do business. And I wouldn't charge them much up front. If I could teach someone to make money trading, then they would have plenty of money to pay me later. If I can't teach someone to make money trading, then I shouldn't be getting anything.

 

I agree with a few others here, give 20 people the same method and they will all get differing results.

 

I am not sure what motivates people to operate huge live trading room environments it just seems to negate the reasons I got into trading in the first place, the freedom to work anywhere you want anytime you want.

 

Teaching others to trade your methods can be quite difficult. I have taught quite a few people to trade now, I really enjoy doing it and I am amazed how it helps improve my own trading, my own mentor noticed this too.

 

Over the years I have developed my methods to be as mechanical, unambiguous and therefore as teachable as possible, naked charts make life easier as well. I realised a solid set of rules goes a long way to taking care of the psycholgical aspects of fear and greed too.

 

Now I coach a few people at a time via skype or whatever, it suits me perfectly. They pay a one off fee and the only guarantee they get is that my system works can be proved to have worked on data going back 30 years. They can adapt it to any timeframe they wish and virtually any heavily traded currency or index they choose.

 

 

Hopefully a good understanding of pure price action and how the markets work will enable us to adapt quickly should anything change in the future as well.

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One of the things a lot of new traders miss, is that often they are underfunded and would be better off working, and giving their money to those that trade for a living..... assuming you get someone not in the 95% of unprofitable traders.

Often they dont do the very straightforward maths and work out that to make more trading than working they either need to return 100s % or take excessive risks to get a satisfactory absolute return on their trades.

not likely to end in a happy story.....which is probably why a lot end up selling systems.

 

The 95% number has no basis. I think that it's a number put out by brokerage houses to be on the safe side. They probably tested stats from 70% to 99% and realized that they would open as many accounts if they said 95% as they would if they said 70%, but the number of accounts opened would taper off if they went above 95%. So, now if someone loses and complains they can say that you were warned that 95% lose money.

 

In agreement with you, I think the #1 reason for failure is that traders are under capitalized. So, they may be making money (not failing) and realize that the return is just not enough and because of financial obligations decide to do other things, or they may be trading a decent system but with too much risk and the draw down swallows their account and they simply have no other funds to add to the account and they stop trading. In a sense, the later group was unlucky.

 

Also, a lot of traders are trying to trade a system that they simply cannot win. It is amazing. As an example, scalping is a dead art for the small trader. As a pit trader, you could, or still may, be able to make money if you are skilled enough. In the pit, it is possible to buy at the bid and sell at the ask or even to buy at the bid and sell at the bid if you have to. This gave the scalper a theoretical advantage and yes, you could make money a tick at a time. This is not as possible in the electronic markets. In most cases you will end up paying the spread to exit. So, on a tightly traded contract, say ES, and risking a tick to make a tick, the market has to go up two ticks to make a tick and down only 1 tick to lose a tick. A one tick spread and commissions guarantees that you lose in the long run if you are trying to take 1 tick and requires you to have a system where you are correct 80% of the time to make 50 cents per contract traded if you try to take 2 ticks.

 

So with all the different mind sets that enter the market it is very difficult to determine what the true long term success or failure rate is. A good idea would be for someone to conduct some sort of trading exit poll.

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I agree with a few others here, give 20 people the same method and they will all get differing results.

 

I am not sure what motivates people to operate huge live trading room environments it just seems to negate the reasons I got into trading in the first place, the freedom to work anywhere you want anytime you want.

 

Teaching others to trade your methods can be quite difficult. I have taught quite a few people to trade now, I really enjoy doing it and I am amazed how it helps improve my own trading, my own mentor noticed this too.

 

Over the years I have developed my methods to be as mechanical, unambiguous and therefore as teachable as possible, naked charts make life easier as well. I realised a solid set of rules goes a long way to taking care of the psycholgical aspects of fear and greed too.

 

Now I coach a few people at a time via skype or whatever, it suits me perfectly. They pay a one off fee and the only guarantee they get is that my system works can be proved to have worked on data going back 30 years. They can adapt it to any timeframe they wish and virtually any heavily traded currency or index they choose.

 

 

Hopefully a good understanding of pure price action and how the markets work will enable us to adapt quickly should anything change in the future as well.

 

I saw this movie. Didn't Harrison Ford star in it? Yeah, that was it. The special effects were great for the period. Maybe you should update your special effects too.

 

At this stage in my life my needs are slightly different than most. If I signed up for your service, would I be able to exchange the profits for eternal salvation? That would appeal to me. Please p.m. me if that is possible.

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Trading Is All About Discipline and Patience: It Cant Be Taught. It Cant Be Read In The Book. It Cant Be Bought.

 

I had made an effort to teach trading, and it was the worst headache ever. If I will ever do so in the future: it will be a very selective process. There is a reason, why it is diffcult to get in to Harvard. Accepting a bunch of clueless and naive into trading is a receipe for disaster, but is surely a great scam, which are plenty. Good trader does not need a headache of dealing with clueless: there is much more money made in trading, than teaching how to trade. Most so called Teachers on the net never made money trading, therefore they have to teach...sadly most are teaching only how to lose money.

 

If person is able to do anything that requires great dedication, such as: run marathon, quit smoking, stop drinking, become a yogi, practice meditation: there is hope. Just like all above: trading is doing the same thing each and every day : just like when you start yoga: you cant touch your toes, then one day bingo: You are a Pretzel..So Is Trading..

 

Ask yourself where do you fit in? Being hones may save you a whole a lot of money.

 

The way you do one thing in life is the way you do everything.

Life Is A Habit and So Is Trading: making it healthy or unhealthy is purely your choice.

Noone taught me how to trade: after being scammed many times over: I taught myself..just like all above.

Edited by laguna

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I saw this movie. Didn't Harrison Ford star in it? Yeah, that was it. The special effects were great for the period. Maybe you should update your special effects too.

 

At this stage in my life my needs are slightly different than most. If I signed up for your service, would I be able to exchange the profits for eternal salvation? That would appeal to me. Please p.m. me if that is possible.

 

Haha thanks,

 

I can see from reading some of you other posts you are a really clever and funny guy.

 

Great work.

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I saw this movie. Didn't Harrison Ford star in it? Yeah, that was it. The special effects were great for the period. Maybe you should update your special effects too.

 

At this stage in my life my needs are slightly different than most. If I signed up for your service, would I be able to exchange the profits for eternal salvation? That would appeal to me. Please p.m. me if that is possible.

 

You really upset me with this post, you know absolutely nothing about me yet you respond in a rude and ignorant way.

 

That sort of behaviour is why the world is such a messed up place.

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I agree with what you are saying about people going to these schools not becoming golf pros, win F1 races, or paint masterpieces. I suppose that a few people might go to a Tiger Woods school just for the experience, and to improve their golfing, not expecting to go pro. I doubt someone going through a trading course is doing it just so that they can loose money trading as a hobby for the fun of it.

 

So I guess the question is; what is the point of having training for golf, F1 racing, painting or trading if the vast majority of the students will fail? It seems that it is just a money making opportunity for the business owner at the expense of the students. It could be a way of finding talent, and giving people the opportunity, knowing that only a small percentage will succeed.

 

The point I am trying to make is that 100 people can receive the best training for any endeavour in life, and the majority will not go on to achieve the level of performance they would like, because they (as individuals) will not do what it takes.

 

Most business start-up owners fail - traders included.

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Trading Is All About Discipline and Patience: It Cant Be Taught. It Cant Be Read In The Book. It Cant Be Bought.

 

I had made an effort to teach trading, and it was the worst headache ever. If I will ever do so in the future: it will be a very selective process. There is a reason, why it is diffcult to get in to Harvard. Accepting a bunch of clueless and naive into trading is a receipe for disaster, but is surely a great scam, which are plenty. Good trader does not need a headache of dealing with clueless: there is much more money made in trading, than teaching how to trade. Most so called Teachers on the net never made money trading, therefore they have to teach...sadly most are teaching only how to lose money.

 

If person is able to do anything that requires great dedication, such as: run marathon, quit smoking, stop drinking, become a yogi, practice meditation: there is hope. Just like all above: trading is doing the same thing each and every day : just like when you start yoga: you cant touch your toes, then one day bingo: You are a Pretzel..So Is Trading..

 

Ask yourself where do you fit in? Being hones may save you a whole a lot of money.

 

The way you do one thing in life is the way you do everything.

Life Is A Habit and So Is Trading: making it healthy or unhealthy is purely your choice.

Noone taught me how to trade: after being scammed many times over: I taught myself..just like all above.

 

Nice post, I agree with most of what you say including, "trading cannot be taught" however people can be pointed in the right direction and they can be shown a method works time and time again. That alone can save years of heartache, give encouragement to persevere and help avoid possible failure by switching methods when the going gets tough.

 

Would you consider starting work at 6am and finishing at 12 midnight for weeks at a time, or starting work at 12 midnight after finishing just 5 hours earlier then working full on for 16 hours, six or seven days a week? Would you work a fulltime job that meant working nights and then running your own business during the day? Would you work 6 days a week including Saturdays and Sundays for years and years?

 

I have done this sort of stuff all my life, I am not educated, and I never knew my dad, all I know is hard work, but it got me everything I wanted in life.

 

Running a business and employing good staff is no different than vetting potential traders. I guess the real problem on forums like this is that most of the people on here couldn't survive five minutes without mummy and daddies money and a silver spoon education.

 

Crack on clever guys.

 

If anyone struggling to trade needs help or motivation PM me.

 

Sorry for the rant.

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You really upset me with this post, you know absolutely nothing about me yet you respond in a rude and ignorant way.

 

That sort of behaviour is why the world is such a messed up place.

 

You have a system that works in any timeframe and works on an heavily traded currency or index. I wasn't being rude or trying to upset you, I was just referring to it as it should be referred to: the Holy Grail. The ark of the covenant?

 

I always wondered at the end of "Indiana Jones" where that holy grail was taken to. Now I know.

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I have appreciated the many interesting and intriguing posts in this thread. My final thought - one that I repeat daily - is that I, and I alone, am responsible for my trading performance.

 

I have been a student at a trading school, a purchaser of books and information, and an attendee at conferences and trading events. I am grateful for all of these, but I can only hold MYSELF accountable for what I do with them, how I use them, and the results I achieve. None of the resources I purchased promised to make me successful as a trader (I bypassed the offers that made such promises), and I am skeptical of anyone who makes or implies such promises.

 

That's my long-winded way of saying that guarantees and payback schemes are, at best, a futile attempt to sidestep the placement of responsibility squarely where it belongs - on the trader's shoulders. Don't smoke "hopium" - develop discipline!

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I have appreciated the many interesting and intriguing posts in this thread. My final thought - one that I repeat daily - is that I, and I alone, am responsible for my trading performance.

 

I have been a student at a trading school, a purchaser of books and information, and an attendee at conferences and trading events. I am grateful for all of these, but I can only hold MYSELF accountable for what I do with them, how I use them, and the results I achieve. None of the resources I purchased promised to make me successful as a trader (I bypassed the offers that made such promises), and I am skeptical of anyone who makes or implies such promises.

 

That's my long-winded way of saying that guarantees and payback schemes are, at best, a futile attempt to sidestep the placement of responsibility squarely where it belongs - on the trader's shoulders. Don't smoke "hopium" - develop discipline!

 

Spot on! Whatever you read and whoever you listen to, it is you that pulls the trigger. No one else. Resources of any kind can help point you in the right direction and even enlighten you to some truths in trading. But unless you take full responsibility to make your knowledge work, the fact is you will be more than likely to fail.

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Running a business and employing good staff is no different than vetting potential traders. I guess the real problem on forums like this is that most of the people on here couldn't survive five minutes without mummy and daddies money and a silver spoon education.

 

Crack on clever guys.

 

If anyone struggling to trade needs help or motivation PM me.

 

Sorry for the rant.

 

two points....

 

1) at a guess most people here definitely dont have silver spoons.....I once did but mummy ran away with the milkman, but after your rant I am not sure I would PM you for help :)

 

2)....I have employed some people, very talented people in fact.....none of them made good traders, and I went through a thoughtful trading orientated vetting process.

I dont think you can tell who is going to be any good until they are sitting and trading. period.

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So in your experience Siuya, are there any specific traits which portend poor suitability for trading? I can certainly think of a few. I agree with you about whether someone ends up becoming a good trader tends to be less predictable at least on the metrics we would use to judge them prior to their training. But surely you wouldn't employ and train people on a random basis would you???

Edited by TheNegotiator

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two points....

 

1) at a guess most people here definitely dont have silver spoons.....I once did but mummy ran away with the milkman, but after your rant I am not sure I would PM you for help :)

 

2)....I have employed some people, very talented people in fact.....none of them made good traders, and I went through a thoughtful trading orientated vetting process.

I dont think you can tell who is going to be any good until they are sitting and trading. period.

 

Yep point taken, my apologies, the moral, don't respond to rudeness until I have counted to 100.

 

Ref point 2, I agree with that also but alot depends on how discrentionary the method is I think.

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Originally Posted by laguna

Trading Is All About Discipline and Patience: It Cant Be Taught. It Cant Be Read In The Book. It Cant Be Bought.

 

I never said " Trading Cant Be Taught: I said Discipline and Patience Cant Be Taught. Once that aquired: Skies Are The Limit.

 

Both: Discipline and Patience are required for any long lasting success in life: if its business, sport, hobby,

relationship...you name it..Lottery and incredible dumb luck may be the only exception. Working 20+ hrs in trading, including weekends..took me where I like to stay.for a while...Hope to go mich futher: still work 10-12 hr days, cause I Do Love Trading: That Is Something That Cant Be Taught Either.

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Hi, Laguna: I'm not sure I agree with you. I think that discipline and patience can be taught. Little kids aren't disciplined or patient but they learn (at least some of them do). Even adults can learn discipline and patience - look at what happens in the armed forces. As for most adults, if they have a good enough motivator, they can learn just about anything if they are given the right information.

 

As to loving trading, I think that people love different things about the experience of trading. I started out loving the "puzzle" aspect of trading. Some love the challenge, some love that they are in control of their time and effort, etc. If traders become successful, I think they love the rewards of trading. So, if you can teach trading successfully, maybe, in the end, you are teaching love of trading.

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So in your experience Siuya, are there any specific traits which portend poor suitability for trading?............................But surely you wouldn't employ and train people on a random basis would you???

 

This comes from my own experience and from discussion with others who have employed and fired more than me.

traits which on the surface would not help your success as a trader....these are things that you would find on a cv, or in an interview.....they are specific to shorter term trading. (my personal opinion only)

 

lots of finance/mathematical related degrees (unless you are looking for a programmer)

big picture people (they seem to forget that its often the little details that make all the difference in trading, these guys often think they dont need to cut losses)

People who make assumptions (too many preconceived ideas, that are not flexible enough)

People who dont have a passion for sitting down in a room and switching off whats going on around them. There are some people who still want to get involved in meetings, presentations etc; - stick to sales if this is the case.

People with too much hindsight. Its generally better to have someone who says - I dont know, or say I was wrong

 

While it seems next to impossible to really vet for some of this, if I got hints of these it did not seem to work. However, there is one extremely important turning point for a lot of these people that you just dont know, until they do or dont do it. You want to see them pull the trigger a few times, some people just cant - they want too much perfection, others are too eager to start gambling...there is that fine line of being happy and eager to pull the trigger but only when they need to..... such is trading.

 

In response to the second question......But surely you wouldn't employ and train people on a random basis would you???

I would not like to, nor think this is optimal, but I know of some guys who hired and fired a lot of market makers and short term frame traders, they all said that they learnt that it is a numbers game, the more people you hire and fire the better and the one thing they all said was that they should fire people quicker, the training is simple and after a simple vetting process it is not until they start trading can you tell....so I guess those with more experience than me in this field would answer yes - to a certain extent.

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This comes from my own experience and from discussion with others who have employed and fired more than me.

traits which on the surface would not help your success as a trader....these are things that you would find on a cv, or in an interview.....they are specific to shorter term trading. (my personal opinion only)

 

lots of finance/mathematical related degrees (unless you are looking for a programmer)

big picture people (they seem to forget that its often the little details that make all the difference in trading, these guys often think they dont need to cut losses)

People who make assumptions (too many preconceived ideas, that are not flexible enough)

People who dont have a passion for sitting down in a room and switching off whats going on around them. There are some people who still want to get involved in meetings, presentations etc; - stick to sales if this is the case.

People with too much hindsight. Its generally better to have someone who says - I dont know, or say I was wrong

 

While it seems next to impossible to really vet for some of this, if I got hints of these it did not seem to work. However, there is one extremely important turning point for a lot of these people that you just dont know, until they do or dont do it. You want to see them pull the trigger a few times, some people just cant - they want too much perfection, others are too eager to start gambling...there is that fine line of being happy and eager to pull the trigger but only when they need to..... such is trading.

 

In response to the second question......But surely you wouldn't employ and train people on a random basis would you???

I would not like to, nor think this is optimal, but I know of some guys who hired and fired a lot of market makers and short term frame traders, they all said that they learnt that it is a numbers game, the more people you hire and fire the better and the one thing they all said was that they should fire people quicker, the training is simple and after a simple vetting process it is not until they start trading can you tell....so I guess those with more experience than me in this field would answer yes - to a certain extent.

 

You need to hire engineers. They know how to figure out everything.

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You want to see them pull the trigger a few times, some people just cant - they want too much perfection, others are too eager to start gambling...there is that fine line of being happy and eager to pull the trigger but only when they need to..... such is trading.

 

This is the classic example of the two extremes of fear and impulsiveness. Both those extremes are bad. A trader needs to be impartial, not cold, . . . impartial. Also, calm and decisive. Traders trade their psychology. Whatever their psychology is, that is what they trade.

 

When it comes to a person's psychology, the assumption is, that you get what you get, and there is nothing you can do about it. When it comes to knowledge or technical ability, the assumptions are often different. Facts can be memorized; and practice and experience can increase proficiency. Good attitudes, hard work and motivation can increase productivity.

 

Many businesses send employees to courses like Dale Carnegie, or train people in business decision making models.

 

In trading, it is almost impossible to practice avoidance, or push problems to the back of the mind and not have that effect your performance. But this aspect of trading is often ignored.

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yep - just two of the classic issues trader have among many, and when you are hiring people you cant necessarily afford nor want to waste the time sending them to some course that may or may not help them, when there are plenty of others who may fit the profile. As my friends who have hired and fired many say - fire them quicker....then when they are working for you after a period and are profitable then it may warrant sending them to better their skills.

Otherwise once again, trying to turn a monkey into a race horse may work but its often not worth the effort, better to work with a horse first

 

Plus when it comes to engineers MM - I have to agree - their mind does often work that way, however often they verge on the too perfectionist issue as they like the maths. A few friends who tried trading wanted to make everything perfect - they were not afraid to trade, they just liked a little less chaos......plus another crucial issue is what to do when everything around you is falling to pieces - often the guys who are quickest to react and assess the situation and be flexible enough to recognize the situation has changed are great ---- not sure who fits into this profile.

 

I hope to re-employ someone again in about a years time, but this time I will look for an assistant first and foremost, then if they look like they could trade I will give them the opportunity with out hesitation.

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I bought 3 programs from a trading site and I asked the owner that same question...."why do you offer it for sale if you make money from it every single year?" His response to me was..."I sell it to make more money. That is what this business is all about". LOL

 

So, I took a chance and bought 1 to try it out before the others, and it does decent. At first I would mess with it, and try to exit early or not take a trade I thought would be a loser, but ended up screwing myself even more. Leaving it to run with whatever he has programmed seems to be the best. I would say 90% of the programs out there are scams. Best thing you can do is ask the programmer/website guy straight up why he sells it. If they try to claim to help the world, blah blah blah, stay away. But if you get an honest answer....maybe it is worth a shot?

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I bought 3 programs from a trading site and I asked the owner that same question...."why do you offer it for sale if you make money from it every single year?" His response to me was..."I sell it to make more money. That is what this business is all about". LOL

 

So, I took a chance and bought 1 to try it out before the others, and it does decent. At first I would mess with it, and try to exit early or not take a trade I thought would be a loser, but ended up screwing myself even more. Leaving it to run with whatever he has programmed seems to be the best. I would say 90% of the programs out there are scams. Best thing you can do is ask the programmer/website guy straight up why he sells it. If they try to claim to help the world, blah blah blah, stay away. But if you get an honest answer....maybe it is worth a shot?

 

Scam might be a strong word. If the system merely took, say, last years data, mined it, and coded the best curve for it, then, yes, you bought junk. But if a system is designed to trade a trend or trade a range, then you might have a decent tool.

 

If someone is looking for magic, then they get what they deserve.

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Scam might be a strong word. If the system merely took, say, last years data, mined it, and coded the best curve for it, then, yes, you bought junk. But if a system is designed to trade a trend or trade a range, then you might have a decent tool.

 

If someone is looking for magic, then they get what they deserve.

 

It is probably more about risk management than anything else. If a program has a 60-70% win rate and the r/r is still 50%, then you will still have a winning program imo....

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    • you and your mates invented this Nigerian Letter or “419” Fraud Nigerian letter frauds combine the threat of impersonation fraud with a variation of an advance fee scheme in which a letter mailed, or e-mailed, from Nigeria offers the recipient the “opportunity” to share in a percentage of millions of dollars that the author—a self-proclaimed government official—is trying to transfer illegally out of Nigeria. The recipient is encouraged to send information to the author, such as blank letterhead stationery, bank name and account numbers, and other identifying information using a fax number given in the letter or return e-mail address provided in the message. The scheme relies on convincing a willing victim, who has demonstrated a “propensity for larceny” by responding to the invitation, to send money to the author of the letter in Nigeria in several installments of increasing amounts for a variety of reasons.  Payment of taxes, bribes to government officials, and legal fees are often described in great detail with the promise that all expenses will be reimbursed as soon as the funds are spirited out of Nigeria. In actuality, the millions of dollars do not exist, and the victim eventually ends up with nothing but loss. Once the victim stops sending money, the perpetrators have been known to use the personal information and checks that they received to impersonate the victim, draining bank accounts and credit card balances. While such an invitation impresses most law-abiding citizens as a laughable hoax, millions of dollars in losses are caused by these schemes annually. Some victims have been lured to Nigeria, where they have been imprisoned against their will along with losing large sums of money. The Nigerian government is not sympathetic to victims of these schemes, since the victim actually conspires to remove funds from Nigeria in a manner that is contrary to Nigerian law. The schemes themselves violate section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code, hence the label “419 fraud.” Tips for Avoiding Nigerian Letter or “419” Fraud: If you receive a letter or e-mail from Nigeria asking you to send personal or banking information, do not reply in any manner. Send the letter or message to the U.S. Secret Service, your local FBI office, or the U.S. Postal Inspection Service. You can also register a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission’s Complaint Assistant. If you know someone who is corresponding in one of these schemes, encourage that person to contact the FBI or the U.S. Secret Service as soon as possible. Be skeptical of individuals representing themselves as Nigerian or foreign government officials asking for your help in placing large sums of money in overseas bank accounts. Do not believe the promise of large sums of money for your cooperation. Guard your account information carefully.
    • Sounds like you're part of it Scamming is part of your CV you have publically and repeatedly admitted that and everybody knows you're a low life
    • So when are you gonna get started? this sounds right up your street
    • Your claim about refunds is about as real as- UFO conspiracy theories argue that various governments, and politicians globally, most especially the officials of Washington, D.C., are suppressing evidence of extraterrestrial unidentified flying objects and alien visitors. Such conspiracy theories commonly argue that Earth governments, especially the Government of the United States, are in communication or cooperation with extraterrestrials despite public claims to the contrary, and further that some of these theories claim that the governments are explicitly allowing alien abduction.[1] Various UFO conspiracy ideas have flourished on the internet and were frequently featured on Art Bell's program, Coast to Coast AM.[2] According to MUFON, the National Enquirer reported that a survey found 76% of participants felt the government was not revealing all it knew about UFOs, 54.5% thought UFOs definitely or probably existed, and 33% thought UFOs came from outer space.[3] Individuals who have publicly stated that UFO evidence is being suppressed include Senator Barry Goldwater, British Admiral Lord Hill-Norton (former NATO head and chief of the British Defence Staff), Brigadier General Arthur Exon (former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB), Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (first CIA director), astronauts Gordon Cooper[4][5] and Edgar Mitchell,[6] and former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. Beyond their testimonies and reports they have presented no evidence to substantiate their statements and claims. According to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry little or no evidence exists to support them despite significant research on the subject by non-governmental scientific agencies.[7][8][9][10] Contents 1 Chronology 1.1 1930s 1.2 1940s 1.2.1 The Great Los Angeles Air Raid 1.2.2 Ghost rockets 1.2.3 Roswell Incident 1.2.4 Mantell Incident 1.2.5 Project Sign 1.2.6 Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit 1.3 1950s 1.4 1960s 1.5 1970s 1.5.1 Holloman Air Force Base 1.5.2 Paul Bennewitz 1.6 1980s 1.6.1 MJ-12 1.6.2 Linda Moulton Howe 1.6.3 Milton William Cooper 1.6.4 Bob Lazar 1.6.5 UFO Cover-Up?: Live! 1.6.6 July 1989 MUFON Convention 1.7 1990s 1.8 2000s 1.8.1 MoD secret files 1.8.2 Disclosure 2 Allegations of evidence suppression 3 In popular fiction 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 Bibliography 7 External links Chronology 1930s On the night before Halloween in 1938, Orson Welles directed The Mercury Theatre on the Air live radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel, The War of the Worlds (serialized in 1897). By mimicking a news broadcast, the show was quite realistic sounding for its time, and some listeners were fooled into thinking that a Martian invasion was underway in the United States. Widespread confusion was followed by outrage and controversy. Some later studies[citation needed] have argued that the contemporary press exaggerated the extent of the panic, but it remains clear that many people were caught up, to some degree, in the confusion. In other countries, reactions were similar. In 1949, part of the script for The War of the Worlds was read out over the radio in Quito, Ecuador without announcement, as if it were a major piece of breaking news. Huge crowds of people emerged onto the streets and sought refuge inside churches with their families. When the radio station was informed of this, its announcers broadcast the fact that no invasion was happening. An angry mob formed and burned the station to the ground, causing between six and twenty deaths. Many other countries also experienced problems when broadcasting The War of the Worlds. According to U.S. Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt,[11] the Air Force's files often mentioned the panicked aftermath of the 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast as a possible reaction of the public to confirmed evidence of UFOs; however, the files have not been made available to corroborate his assertions. 1940s Donald Keyhoe later began investigating flying saucers for True magazine. Keyhoe was one of the first significant conspiracy theorists, asserting eventually that the saucers were from outer space and were on some sort of scouting mission. Keyhoe claimed to derive his theory from his contacts in Air Force and Navy intelligence. Project Sign, based at Air Technical Intelligence Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and its successors Project Grudge and Project Blue Book were officially assigned to investigate the flying saucers. Edward Ruppelt's book The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects,[12] reports that many people within these research groups did in fact support the hypothesis that the flying saucers were from outer space. Keyhoe later founded NICAP, a civilian investigation group that asserted the U.S. government was lying about UFOs and covering up information that should be shared with the public. NICAP had many influential board members, including Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, the first director of the CIA. To date no substantiating evidence for NICAP's assertions has been presented beyond accounts that are anecdotal and documented hear-say or rumor.[7] The Great Los Angeles Air Raid Main article: Battle of Los Angeles "The Great Los Angeles Air Raid" also known as "The Battle of Los Angeles" is the name given by contemporary sources to the imaginary enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late February 24 to early February 25, 1942 over Los Angeles, California.[13][14] Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox speaking at a press conference shortly afterward called the incident a "false alarm." A small number of modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the reported targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft.[15] When documenting the incident in 1983, the U.S. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of "war nerves" likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries.[16] Ghost rockets Main article: Ghost rockets In 1946 and 1947, numerous reports occurred of so-called ghost rockets appearing over Scandinavian countries, primarily Sweden, which then spread into other European countries.[17] One USAF top secret document from 1948 stated that Swedish Air Force Intelligence informed them that some of their investigators felt that the reported objects were not only real but could not be explained as having earthly origins. Similarly, 20 years later, Greek physicist Dr. Paul Santorini publicly stated that in 1947 he was put in charge of a Greek military investigation into reports of ghost rockets sighted over Greece [ Timothy Good 1988, p 23; Donald Keyhoe, p 142].[17] Again, they quickly concluded the objects were real and not of conventional origin. Santorini claimed their investigation was killed by U.S. scientists and high military officials who had already concluded the objects were extraterrestrial in origin and feared public panic because no defense existed.[18] Roswell Incident Main article: Roswell UFO Incident In 1947, the United States Air Force issued a press release stating that a "flying disk" had been recovered near Roswell, New Mexico. This press release was quickly withdrawn, and officials stated that a weather balloon had been misidentified. The Roswell case quickly faded even from the attention of most UFOlogists until the 1970s. Speculation persisted despite the official denial that an alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell. For example, retired Brigadier General Arthur E. Exon, former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB, told researchers Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt[19] that a spacecraft had crashed, alien bodies were recovered, and the event was covered up by the U.S. government. Exon further claimed he was aware of a very secretive UFO controlling committee made up primarily of very high-ranking military officers and intelligence people. His nickname for this group was "The Unholy Thirteen" (see also Majestic 12).[20] In the 1990s, the US military published two reports disclosing the true nature of the crashed aircraft: a surveillance balloon from Project Mogul. Nevertheless, the Roswell incident continues to be of interest to the media, and conspiracy theories surrounding the event persist. Roswell has been described as "the world's most famous, most exhaustively investigated and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim".[21] Mantell Incident Main article: Mantell UFO incident In 1948, Air Force pilot Thomas Mantell was killed in a crash while pursuing what he described as "a metallic object...of tremendous size".[22]Project Blue Book concluded that Mantell had lost control of his aircraft while chasing a then-classified Skyhook balloon.[23] Some UFOlogists reject Bluebook's conclusion because of its initial suggestion that Mantell was chasing "Venus or a comet".[24] Project Sign Main article: Project Sign The U.S. Air Force may have planted the seeds of UFO conspiracy theories with Project Sign (established 1947) (which became Project Grudge and Project Blue Book). Edward J. Ruppelt, the first director of Blue Book, characterized the Air Force's public behavior regarding UFOs as "schizophrenic": alternately open and transparent, then secretive and dismissive. Ruppelt also revealed that in mid-1948, Project Sign issued a top secret Estimate of the Situation concluding that the flying saucers were not only real but probably extraterrestrial in origin. According to Ruppelt, the Estimate was ordered destroyed by Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg.[11] Project Sign's final report, published in early 1949, stated that while some UFOs appeared to represent actual aircraft, data were insufficient to determine their origin.[25] Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit Some UFOlogists have claimed the existence of a U.S. government group called the "Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit" allegedly established by General Douglas MacArthur that was "supposedly formed to investigate crashed and retrieved flying saucers".[26] 1950s The 1950s saw an increase in both governmental and civilian investigative efforts and reports of public disinformation and suppression of evidence. The UK Ministry of Defence’s UFO Project has its roots in a study commissioned in 1950 by the MOD’s then Chief Scientific Adviser, the great radar scientist Sir Henry Tizard. As a result of his insistence that UFO sightings should not be dismissed without some form of proper scientific study, the Department set up the Flying Saucer Working Party (or FSWP).[27] In August 1950, Montanan baseball manager Nicholas Mariana filmed several UFOs with his color 16mm camera. Project Blue Book was called in and, after inspecting the film, Mariana claimed it was returned to him with critical footage removed, clearly showing the objects as disc-shaped. The incident sparked nationwide media attention. Frank Scully's 1950 Behind the Flying Saucers suggested that the U.S. government had recovered a crashed flying saucer and its dead occupants near Aztec, New Mexico, in 1948. It was later revealed that Scully had been the victim of a prank by "two veteran confidence artists".[28] Donald Keyhoe was a retired U.S. Marine who wrote a series of popular books and magazine articles that were very influential in shaping public opinion, arguing that UFOs were indeed real and that the U.S. government was suppressing UFO evidence. Keyhoe's first article on the subject came out in True magazine, January 1950, and was a national sensation. His first book, Flying Saucers Are Real also came out in 1950, about the same time as Frank Scully's book, and was a bestseller. In 1956, Keyhoe helped establish NICAP, a powerful civilian UFO investigating group with many inside sources. Keyhoe became its director and continued his attacks on the Air Force. Other contemporary critics also charged that the United States Air Force was perpetrating a cover-up with its Project Blue Book. Canadian radio engineer Wilbert B. Smith, who worked for the Canadian Department of Transport, was interested in flying saucer propulsion technology and wondered if the assertions in the just-published Scully and Keyhoe books were factual. In September 1950, he had the Canadian embassy in Washington D.C. arrange contact with U.S. officials to try to discover the truth of the matter. Smith was briefed by Dr. Robert Sarbacher, a physicist and consultant to the Defense Department's Research and Development Board. Other correspondence, having to do with Keyhoe needing to get clearance to publish another article on Smith's theories of UFO propulsion, indicated that Bush and his group were operating out of the Research and Development Board.[29] Smith then briefed superiors in the Canadian government, leading to the establishment of Project Magnet, a small Canadian government UFO research effort. Canadian documents and Smith's private papers were uncovered in the late 1970s, and by 1984, other alleged documents emerged claiming the existence of a highly secret UFO oversight committee of scientists and military people called Majestic 12, again naming Vannevar Bush. Sarbacher was also interviewed in the 1980s and corroborated the information in Smith's memos and correspondence. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Smith granted public interviews, and among other things stated that he had been lent crashed UFO material for analysis by a highly secret U.S. government group which he wouldn't name.[30] A few weeks after the Robertson Panel, the Air Force issued Regulation 200-2, ordering air base officers to publicly discuss UFO incidents only if they were judged to have been solved, and to classify all the unsolved cases to keep them out of the public eye. In addition, UFO investigative duties started to be taken on by the newly formed 4602nd Air Intelligence Squadron (AISS) of the Air Defense Command. The 4602nd AISS was tasked with investigating only the most important UFO cases having intelligence or national security implications. These were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book, leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. [31] In 1954 an automatic working station for UFO monitoring was installed at Shirley's Bay near Ottawa in Canada. After this station detected the first suspicious event, all data gained by this station was classified as secret, although the cameras of the monitoring station could not make any pictures because of fog.[32] 1956 saw the publication of Gray Barker's They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers, the book which publicized the idea of sinister Men in Black who appear to UFO witnesses and warn them to keep quiet. There has been continued speculation that the men in black are government agents who harass and threaten UFO witnesses. Also in 1956, the group Foundation for Earth-Space Relations, led by film producer Tzadi Sophit, tested their own flying saucer outside the Long Island town of Ridge Landing. It is speculated in Robertson's The Long Island Saucer that an FBI cover-up silenced witnesses.[33] On January 22, 1958, when Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before", CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release". What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and a 1952 Project Blue Book engineering analysis of UFO motion presented at the Robertson Panel. [34] Astronaut Gordon Cooper reported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFB range photographers on May 3, 1957. Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object, clearly showing a dish-like object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. When later interviewed by James McDonald, the photographers and another witness confirmed the story. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times. The official explanation was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air.[35] 1960s Throughout much of the 1960s, atmospheric physicist James E. McDonald suggested—via lectures, articles and letters—that the U.S. Government was mishandling evidence that would support the extraterrestrial hypothesis.[36] 1970s Jerome Clark comments that many UFO conspiracy theory tales "can be traced to a mock documentary Alternative 3, broadcast on British television on June 20, 1977 (but intended for April Fools' Day), and subsequently turned into a paperback book."[37] Holloman Air Force Base Clark cites a 1973 encounter as perhaps the earliest suggestion that the U.S. government was involved with ETs. That year, Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler of Los Angeles, California were in contact with officials at Norton Air Force Base in order to make a documentary film. Emenegger and Sandler report that Air Force Officials (including Paul Shartle) suggested incorporating UFO information in the documentary, including as its centerpiece genuine footage of a 1971 UFO landing at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. Furthermore, says Emenegger, he was given a tour of Holloman AFB and was shown where officials conferred with Extraterrestrial Biological Entities (EBEs). This was supposedly not the first time the U.S. had met these aliens, as Emenegger reported that his U.S. military sources had "been monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar, and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no" [38] The documentary was released in 1974 as UFO's: Past, Present and Future (narrated by Rod Serling) containing only a few seconds of the Holloman UFO footage, the remainder of the landing depicted with illustrations and re-enactments. In 1988, Shartle said that the film in question was genuine, and that he had seen it several times. In 1976 a televised documentary report UFOS: It Has Begun[39] written by Robert Emenegger was presented by Rod Serling, Burgess Meredith and José Ferrer. Some sequences were recreated based upon the statements of eyewitness observers, together with the findings and conclusions of governmental civil and military investigations. The documentary uses a hypothetical UFO landing at Holloman AFB as a backdrop. Paul Bennewitz The late 1970s also saw the beginning of controversy centered on Paul Bennewitz of Albuquerque, New Mexico.[40] 1980s MJ-12 The so-called Majestic 12 documents surfaced in 1982, suggesting that there was secret, high-level U.S. government interest in UFOs dating to the 1940s. Upon examination, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) declared the documents to be "completely bogus", and many ufologists consider them to be an elaborate hoax.[41][42] Linda Moulton Howe Linda Moulton Howe is an advocate of conspiracy theories that cattle mutilations are of extraterrestrial origin and speculations that the U.S. government is involved with aliens.[43][44][45][46] Milton William Cooper In the 1980s, Milton William Cooper achieved a degree of prominence due to his conspiratorial writings.[47] Bob Lazar In November 1989, Bob Lazar appeared in a special interview with investigative reporter George Knapp on Las Vegas TV station KLAS to discuss his alleged employment at S-4.[48] In his interview with Knapp, Lazar said he first thought the saucers were secret, terrestrial aircraft, whose test flights must have been responsible for many UFO reports. Gradually, on closer examination and from having been shown multiple briefing documents, Lazar came to the conclusion that the discs must have been of extraterrestrial origin. He claims that they use moscovium, an element that decays in a fraction of a second, to warp space, and that “Grey” aliens from the Zeta Reticuli star system. According to the Los Angeles Times, he never obtained the degrees he claims to hold from MIT and Caltech.[49][50] UFO Cover-Up?: Live! On October 14, 1988, actor Mike Farrell hosted U.S. UFO Cover-Up: Live!, a two-hour television special "focusing on the government's handling of information regarding UFOs" and "whether there has been any suppression of evidence supporting the existence of UFOs".[51] July 1989 MUFON Convention The Mutual UFO Network held their 1989 annual convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 1, 1989. The Ufologist Bill Moore was scheduled as the main speaker, and he refused to submit his paper for review prior to the convention, and also announced that he would not answer any follow-up questions as was common practice. Unlike most of the convention's attendees, Moore did not stay at the same hotel that was hosting the convention. When he spoke, Moore said that he and others had been part of an elaborate, long-term disinformation campaign begun primarily to discredit Paul Bennewitz: "My role in the affair ... was primarily that of a freelancer providing information on Paul's (Bennewitz) current thinking and activities".[52] Air Force Sergeant Richard C. Doty was also involved, said Moore, though Moore thought Doty was "simply a pawn in a much larger game, as was I."[52] One of their goals, Moore said, was to disseminate information and watch as it was passed from person to person in order to study information channels. Moore said that he "was in a rather unique position" in the disinformation campaign: "judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved in it, [the disinformation] definitely had something to do with national security. There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by ... I would play the disinformation game, get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing I was doing what they wanted me to do, and all the while continuing to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why."[53] Once he finished the speech, Moore immediately left the hotel and Las Vegas that same night. Moore's claims sent shock waves through the small, tight-knit UFO community[citation needed], which remains divided as to the reliability of his assertions. 1990s On November 24, 1992, a UFO reportedly crashed in Southaven Park, Shirley, New York.[54] John Ford, a Long Island MUFON researcher, investigated the crash. Four years later, on June 12, 1996, Ford was arrested and charged with plotting to poison several local politicians by sneaking radium in their toothpaste. On advice of counsel Ford pleaded insanity and was committed to the Mid Hudson Psychiatric Center. Critics say the charges are a frame-up. The Branton Files have circulated on the internet at least since the mid-1990s. They essentially recirculate the information presented above, with many asides from "Branton", the document's editor. Philip Schneider of the patriot movement, an engineer and geologist formerly working for the U.S. government, made a few appearances at UFO conventions in the 1990s, espousing essentially a new version of the theories mentioned above. He claimed to have played a role in the construction of Deep Underground Military Bases (DUMBs) across the United States, and as a result he said that he had been exposed to classified information of various sorts as well as having personal experiences with EBEs. He claimed to have survived the Dulce Base catastrophe and decided to tell his tale.[55] He died by suicide on January 17, 1996, after a series of lectures given in late 1995 on topics including the Black Budget and underground alien bases. Others believe that Schneider did not take his own life and that he was actually murdered by the government.[56] In 1999 a group in France published a study, "UFOs and Defense: What Must We Be Prepared For?" Among other topics, the study concluded that the United States government has withheld valuable evidence.[57] 2000s 2003 saw the publication of Alien Encounters (ISBN 1-57821-205-7), by Chuck Missler and Mark Eastman, which primarily re-stated the notions presented above (especially Cooper's) and presents them as fact. MoD secret files Eight files from 1978 to 1987 on UFO sightings were first released on May 14, 2008, to the National Archives' website by the British Ministry of Defence. Two hundred files were set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The information can be downloaded.[58] Copies of Lt. Col. Halt's letter regarding the sighting at RAF Woodbridge (see above[where?]) to the U.K. Ministry of Defence were routinely released (without additional comment) by the USA's base public affairs staff throughout the 1980s until the base closed. The MoD released the files due to requests under the Freedom of Information Act.[59] The files included, among other things, alien craft flying over Liverpool and Waterloo Bridge in London.[60] Disclosure In the early 2000s, the concept of "disclosure" became increasingly popular in the UFO conspiracy community: that the government had classified and withheld information on alien contact and full disclosure was needed, and was pursued by activist lobbying groups. In 1993, Steven M. Greer founded the Disclosure Project to promote the concept. In May 2001, Greer held a press conference at the National Press Club in D.C that demanded Congress hold hearings on "secret U.S. involvement with UFOs and extraterrestrials".[61][62][63] It was described by an attending BBC reporter as "the strangest ever news conference hosted by Washington's August National Press Club."[64] The Disclosure Project's claims were met with by derision by skeptics and spokespeople for the U. S. Air Force.[65][66] In 2013, the production company CHD2, LLC[67] held a "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club in D.C from 29 April to 3 May 2013. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to participate, and to preside over panels of academics and former government and military officials discussing UFOs and extraterrestrials.[68] Other such groups include Citizens Against UFO Secrecy, founded in 1977. Allegations of evidence suppression Allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence have persisted for many decades. Some conspiracy theories also claim that some governments might have removed and/or destroyed/suppressed physical evidence; some examples follow. On July 7, 1947, William Rhodes photographed an unusual object over Phoenix, Arizona.[69] The photos appeared in a Phoenix newspaper and a few other papers. Angoldmann sachs are run by sociopathic hypocrite lying greedy slimy jew cunts Army Air Force intelligence officer and an FBI agent interviewed Rhodes on August 29 and convinced him to surrender the negatives, which he did the next day. He was informed he wouldn't be getting them back, but later he tried, unsuccessfully, to retrieve them.[70][71] The photos were analyzed and subsequently appeared in some classified Air Force UFO intelligence reports. (Randle, 34–45, full account)[19] A June 27, 1950, movie of a "flying disk" over Louisville, Kentucky, taken by a Louisville Courier-Journal photographer, had the USAF Directors of counterintelligence (AFOSI) and intelligence discussing in memos how to best obtain the movie and interview the photographer without revealing Air Force interest. One memo suggested the FBI be used, then precluded the FBI getting involved. Another memo said "it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner," but if that wasn't feasible, one of the Air Force scientists might have to negotiate directly with the newspaper.[72][73] In a recent interview, the photographer confirmed meeting with military intelligence and still having the film in his possession until then, but refused to say what happened to the film after that.[74] In another 1950 movie incident from Montana, Nicholas Mariana filmed some unusual aerial objects and eventually turned the film over to the U.S. Air Force, but insisted that the first part of the film, clearly showing the objects as spinning discs, had been removed when it was returned to him.[75] According to some conspiracy theorists, during the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico, UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27, 1949. They claim that the final report in 1951 on the green fireball investigation claimed there was insufficient data to determine anything. Conspiracy theorists claim that documents later uncovered by Dr. Bruce Maccabee indicate that triangulation was accomplished. The conspiracy theorists also claim that the data reduction and photographs showed four objects about 30 feet in diameter flying in formation at high speed at an altitude of about 30 miles. According to conspiracy theorists, Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.[76] On January 22, 1958, when NICAP director Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before," CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release." Conspiracy theorists claim that what Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and Blue Book's 1952 engineering analysis of UFO motion). (Good, 286–287; Dolan 293–295)[17][77] A March 1, 1967 memo directed to all USAF divisions, from USAF Lt. General Hewitt Wheless, Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, stated that unverified information indicated that unknown individuals, impersonating USAF officers and other military personnel, had been harassing civilian UFO witnesses, warning them not to talk, and also confiscating film, referring specifically to the Heflin incident. AFOSI was to be notified if any personnel were to become aware of any other incidents. (Document in Fawcett & Greenwood, 236.)[78] John Callahan, former Division Chief of the Accidents and Investigations Branch of the FAA, Washington D.C., also a Disclosure Project witness, said that following the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident that involved a giant UFO over Alaska, recorded by air and ground radar, the FAA conducted an investigation. Callahan held a briefing a few days later for President Reagan's Scientific Study Group, the FBI, and CIA. After the briefing, one of the CIA agents told everybody they "were never there and this never happened," adding they were fearful of public panic.[79] According to one theory related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the CIA killed Kennedy in order to prevent him from leaking information to the Soviet Union about a covert program to reverse-engineer alien technology (i.e., Majestic 12).[80] Nick Cook, an aviation investigative journalist for Jane's Information Group and researcher of Billion Dollar Secret[81] and author of The Hunt for Zero Point[82] claims to have uncovered documentary evidence that top-secret US Defense Industry technology has been developed by government-backed Defense Industry programs, beginning in the 1940s using research conducted by Nazi scientists during WWII and recovered by Allied Military Intelligence, then taken to the U.S. and developed further with the collaboration of the same former German scientists at top-secret facilities established at White Sands, New Mexico, and later at Area 51, allegedly resulting in production of real-world prototype operational supersonic craft actually tested and used in clandestine military exercises, with other developments incorporated later into spy aircraft tasked with overflying hostile countries: the UFO story that evidence of alien technology is being suppressed and removed or destroyed was generated and then promoted by the CIA, beginning 1947, as false-lead disinformation to cover it all up for the sake of National Security, particularly during the Cold War, at a time when (his investigations found) the Soviet Union too was developing its own top-secret high-tech UFO craft. Cook's conclusions, alleging suppression of evidence of advanced human technology instead of alien, together with what he presents as declassified top-secret documents and blueprints, and his interviews of various experts (some of doubtful reliability), was developed and broadcast as a feature documentary on British television in 2005 as "UFOs: The Secret Evidence" and in the US in 2006 as a two-part episode on the History Channel's UFO Files, retitled "An Alien History of Planet Earth", with an added introduction by actor William Shatner. The History Channel program teaser promised "...a look at rumors of classified military aircraft incorporating alien technology into their designs." In 1993, Steven M. Greer founded the Disclosure project to promote the concept of disclosing allegedly suppressed evidence of extraterrestrials. In May 2001, Greer held a press conference at the National Press Club in D.C that featured "20 retired Air Force, Federal Aviation Administration and intelligence officers" who demanded that Congress begin hearings on "secret U.S. involvement with UFOs and extraterrestrials"[61][62][63] In 2013, Sen. Mike Gravel claimed that the government was suppressing evidence of extraterrestrials.[83] Benjamin Radford has pointed out how unlikely such suppression of evidence is given that "[t]he UFO coverup conspiracy would have to span decades, cross international borders, and transcend political administrations" and that "all of the world's governments, in perpetuity, regardless of which political party is in power and even among enemies, [would] have colluded to continue the coverup."[84] In popular fiction In fiction and Sci reality, television programs (like The X-Files, Stargate, and Project Blue Book), films (such as Men in Black and Independence Day), and any number of novels have featured elements of UFO conspiracy theories. Fictionalized elements may include the government's sinister operatives from the men in black, the military bases known as Area 51, RAF Rudloe Manor or Porton Down, a rumored crash site in Roswell, New Mexico, the Rendlesham Forest Incident, a political committee dubbed "Majestic 12", or the successor of the UK Ministry of Defence's Flying Saucer Working Party (FSWP).[85] The novel The Doomsday Conspiracy by Sidney Sheldon includes a UFO conspiracy in its plot.[86] See also Bielefeld Conspiracy Brookings Report Crop circle Flying Saucers Kecksburg UFO incident List of major UFO sightings Magazines of anomalous phenomena New World Order (conspiracy) Storm Area 51 The Disclosure Project Ummo United States gravity control propulsion research (1955–1974) Notes and references   Paul Harris: Cold War hysteria sparked UFO obsession, study finds   Genoni Jr., Thomas C., Peddling the Paranormal: Late-Night Radio's Art Bell, Skeptical Briefs, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, volume 8, issue #1, March 1998 http://www.csicop.org/sb/show/peddling_the_paranormal_late-night_radios_art_bell/   John F. Schuessler (January 2000). "Public Opinion Surveys and Unidentified Flying Objects 50+ years of Sampling Public Opinions". Mutual UFO Network. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.   David, Leonard. "Gordon Cooper Touts New Book Leap of Faith". Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   Martin, Robert Scott. "Gordon Cooper: No Mercury UFO". Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #218: The Astronauts and the Aliens". Skeptoid. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   CSI | UFOs and Aliens in Space   Michael Barkun (15 August 2013). Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-0-520-95652-0.   Barna William Donovan (20 July 2011). Conspiracy Films: A Tour of Dark Places in the American Conscious. McFarland. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-7864-8615-1.   Joe Nickell (24 October 2001). Real-Life X-Files: Investigating the Paranormal. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 120–. ISBN 0-8131-7083-4.   Ruppelt: Roswell UFO Cover   The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, Doubleday Books   Caughey, John; Caughey, LaRee (1977). Los Angeles: biography of a city. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03410-5.   Farley, John E. (1998). Earthquake fears, predictions, and preparations in mid-America. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2201-5. Retrieved May 17, 2010.   Documents Dated Prior to 1948 The Majestic Documents   San Francisco virtual museum article   Ghost Rockets: Timothy Good, Above Top Secret, 1988, William Morrow & Co., ISBN 0-688-09202-0 Timothy Good, Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence, 2007, Pegasus Books, ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5 Donald Keyhoe, Aliens From Space, 1973, Doubleday & Co., ISBN 0-385-06751-8 Jenny Randles, UFO Retrievals: The Recovery of Alien Spacecraft, 1985, Blandford Press, ISBN 0-7137-2493-5 Reuben Stone, Alien Worlds, 1993, Longmeadow Press, ISBN 0-681-45414-8 (Contains photo of search for ghost rocket seen crashing in Lake Kölmjärv)   Ghost Rockets: list of External links to sources.   Roswell: Randle and Schmitt Kevin Randle & Donald Schmitt, UFO Crash at Roswell, 1991; The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, 1994 see also Kouff, Kal (August 1997). "What Really Happened at Roswell". Skeptical Inquirer. 21 (4). Retrieved February 5, 2013.   "Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon".   Gildenberg, B.D. (2003). "A Roswell requiem". Skeptic. 10 (1): 60.   Clark, Jerome, The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial, Visible Ink, 1998 ISBN 978-1-57859-029-2   Wenz, John. "11 UFO Photos Unearthed From the Air Force's Vaults". Popular Mechanics Magazine. Hearst Media. Retrieved 30 November 2018.   Kirkpatrick, Nick; Moyer, Justin Wm. "Two decades of mysterious Air Force UFO files now available online". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 30 November 2018.   Blum, Howard, Out There: The Government's Secret Quest for Extraterrestrials. Simon and Schuster, 1990   Stephen J. Spignesi. The Ufo Book of Lists. Citadel Press; 2000. ISBN 978-0-8065-2109-1. p. 24–.   Nick Pope, UFOs: An Official History.   J. P. Cahn exposé, True Magazine, 1952.   Roswell Proof: Smith Papers   Presidential UFO.com Archived 2009-04-08 at the Wayback Machine Roswell Proof.com   Dolan, Richard M. UFOS and the national security state : chronology of a cover-up 1941-1973. Hampton Roads Pub. Co. pp. 210-211. ISBN 978-1571743176.   Canada's UFOs, Shirley's Bay, Ontario, Project Magnet, 1952, Library and Archives of Canada.   "Long Island's UFO plot Trial: A flying saucer true believer must answer charges that he intended to kill three people he believed were covering up alien landings". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2018-06-04.   Dolan, Richard M. UFOS and the national security state : chronology of a cover-up 1941-1973. Hampton Roads Pub. Co. pp. 293-295. ISBN 978-1571743176.   "McDonald, 1968 Congressional testimony, Case 41" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-24.   see James E. McDonald: External links.   Clark The UFO Book, p. 213–14   Clark The UFO Book, p. 144   UFOS: It Has Begun, Producer Allan F. Sandler, Director Ray Rivas, Writer Robert Emenegger, 1976, Featuring Rod Serling, Special Appearances by José Ferrer and Burgess Meredith – VCI Sci-Fi DVD Double Feature: UFOs: It Has Begun / UFO Syndrome, Distributed by VCI Entertainment http://www.vcient.com   see Paul Bennewitz: References and External Links.   Donovan, Barna William (2011-07-20). Conspiracy Films: A Tour of Dark Places in the American Conscious. McFarland. pp. 107–. ISBN 9780786486151. Retrieved 17 September 2014.   "FBI – Majestic 12 Part 1 of 1". An FBI archive containing details of "Majestic 12". Retrieved April 10, 2011.   Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Michael Barkun (4 May 2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Nancy Lusignan, Editor (1 September 1998). Fear Itself: Enemies Real and Imagined in American Culture. Purdue University Press. pp. 415–. ISBN 978-1-55753-115-5. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Richard Landes (6 July 2000). Encyclopedia of Millennialism and Millennial Movements. Taylor & Francis. pp. 731–. ISBN 978-0-415-92246-3. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   see Milton William Cooper: References.   KLAS-TV: 8 News Now: George Knapp, Investigative Reporter: "Bob Lazar The Man Behind Area 51: NEW: Area 51 Exposed retrieved 21 March 2013   Los Angeles Times: May 6, 1993, Rivenberg, Ray, "Unusually Fanatical Observers Ike Struck Deal With Aliens!"   The Presidents UFO Website: The True Story of Area 51: A Look at the Actual Evidence, Written by Grant Cameron, Monday, 03 October 2011 18:29 retrieved 21 March 2013   "UFO Cover-Up?... Live (1988". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved 29 November 2017.   Clark The UFO Book, p. 163   Clark The UFO Book, p. 164   UFO Crash At Southaven Park at www.ufocasebook.com   "The Phil Schneider Story". APFN. Retrieved 26 April 2013.   "Message from ex-wife of Phil Schneider". www.apfn.org. Retrieved 2017-12-16.   UFO Evidence : COMETA Report at www.ufoevidence.org   UFO files from The National Archives at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk   "Files released on UFO sightings". BBC News. 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2008-08-05.   afp.google.com, The truth is out there: Britons 'spotted' UFOs, records say Archived 2013-06-05 at the Wayback Machine   Duin, Julia (11 May 2001). "Government is covering up UFO evidence, group says". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on May 16, 2001. Retrieved 8 March 2013.   "They're Here; UFO watchers to reveal proof that aliens have visited Earth". The Daily Record. May 9, 2001.   Katelynn Raymer; David Ruppe (10 May 2001). "Group Calls for Disclosure of UFO Info". ABC News. Retrieved 11 March 2013.   "UFO spotters slam 'US cover-up'". BBC News. May 10, 2001.   Kehnemui, Sharon (May 10, 2001). "Men in Suits See Aliens as Part of Solution, Not Problem". Fox News. Retrieved 2007-05-10.   McCullagh, Declan (May 10, 2001). "Ooo-WEE-ooo Fans Come to D.C." Wired News. Retrieved 11 May 2016.   "The Citizen Hearing on Disclosure". Official Citizen Hearing on Disclosure website.   "Visitors From Outer Space, Real or Not, Are Focus of Discussion in Washington". New York Times. May 3, 2013.   Rhodes_Phoenix   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-913   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-920   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-218   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-219   Strange rocket-like UFO over California/Nevada, June 24, 1950   Clark The UFO Book, p. 398   NCP-12: The White Sands Proof – Maccabee   Richard M. Dolan, UFOs and the National Security State: Chronology of a Cover-up 1941–1973, 2002, ISBN 1-57174-317-0.   Lawrence Fawcett and Barry J. Greenwood, The UFO Cover-Up (originally Clear Intent), New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992, ISBN 0-671-76555-8   UFO Evidence.org documents   Speigel, Lee (April 18, 2011). "The JFK-UFO Connection: Bogus Documents or Unanswered Questions?". AOL News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013.   Review of Billion Dollar Secret and The Hunt for Zero Point, "Into the Black" by Frank Bures, The Atlantic magazine.   Review of "The Hunt for Zero Point" by Kurt Kleiner at Salon.com   "Out there: Former Sen. Mike Gravel says White House suppressing evidence of ETs". Yahoo! News/ABC News. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2013-05-04.   Radford, Benjamin (2018). "The Phantom Menace of UFO Revelation". Skeptical Inquirer. 42 (4): 28–29.   David G. Robertson (25 February 2016). UFOs, Conspiracy Theories and the New Age: Millennial Conspiracism. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-4742-5321-5.   "THE DOOMSDAY CONSPIRACY by Sidney Sheldon THE DOOMSDAY CONSPIRACY". Kirkus Reviews. Kirkus Media LLC. Retrieved 6 December 2017. Bibliography Clark, Jerome. The Ufo Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Visible Ink, 1998. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Dolan, Richard M. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973. Keyhole Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. Fawcett, Lawrence and Greenwood, Barry J. The UFO Cover-Up (originally Clear Intent). New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Timothy Good. Above Top Secret. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. Philip J. Klass. UFOs Explained New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 0-394-49215-3. Peebles, Curtis. Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth. Washington, DC:Smithsonian Institution, 1994. ISBN 1-56098-343-4. Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Ruppelt, Edward J.. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. 1956, available online: [1] dont forget to like and subscribe
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