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Date : 28th February 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 28th February 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Bond and stock markets came under pressure during the Asian session.
  • The US-North Korea summit ended abruptly and without any ceremony, which weighed on investor sentiment and saw stock markets heading south in Asia.
  • Chinese manufacturing PMI numbers, which fell back to 49.2 from 49.5, and escalating tensions between India and Pakistan added to the risk-off backdrop.
  • Topix and Nikkei both lost -0.79%, the Hang Seng is down -0.19%, CSI and Shanghai Comp lost -0.14% and -0.38%, but the Shenzen Comp managed to claw back some of yesterday’s marked losses.
  • The ASX and Nifty outperformed and managed slight gains.
  • US futures are also heading south, as oil prices are lower on the day and the April WTI future is trading at USD 56.76 per barrel.
  • Oil was a big mover yesterday, up and then down on reports of record US production, after the Inventories showed a draw-down of 8 million barrels against expectations of a increase off 2.8 million.

Charts of the Day

[IMG]

Main Macro Events Today

  • US GDP and PCE – US Q4 GDP is expected to have grown by 2.3% on an annualised rate, compared to 3.4% in Q3. PCE inflation is expected to have stood at 1.7%, increasing from 1.5% in the previous quarter.
  • Canada Current Account – The Canadian current account deficit is expected to have widened in the final quarter of 2018, with consensus forecasts standing at 13.5B, compared to 10.3B in the previous quarter.
  • Chicago PMI – The Chicago PMI is expected to have increased to 57, compared to 56.7 in January.
  • Tokyo Core CPI and Japan Unemployment Rate – The Tokyo Core CPI, a proxy for overall Japanese inflation, is expected to have stood at 1% y/y in February, compared to 1.1% in January.

Support and Resistance

[IMG] 
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 1st March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 1st March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Asian stock markets rallied driven from MSCI, weighted on Bonds.
  • MSCI Inc. announcement that will increase the weight of Chinese stocks in its global benchmarks also underpinned bourses.
  • The strong manufacturing PMI reading out of China, following on the heels of better than feared US GDP readings yesterday helped to underpin risk appetite.
  • The Yen has weakened concomitantly with rising stock markets in Asia.
  • German January retail sales much stronger than expected at 3.3% m/m
  • Eurozone HICP inflation seen ticking up to 1.5% y/y from 1.4%.
  • EURUSD dropped back from 3-week highs to mid 1.13s.
  • USDJPY rallied to 10-week high of 111.80.
  • Gold slide on better US GDP, higher yields and stronger Dollar.

Charts of the Day


[IMG]
Main Macro Events Today

  • EU Final Manufacturing PMI – They are expected to confirm the overall Eurozone reading at 49.2, which would leave it in contraction territory.
  • EU CPI and core – The overall Eurozone HICP is seen ticking up to 1.5% y/y from 1.4%, while core inflation is likely to hold at just 1.1% y/y.
  • German jobless numbers – Jobless data is seen rising 1K (median -3K), which should leave the jobless rate at a record low of 5.0%
  • Canadian Q4 GDP – GDP for the last Quarter of 2018 is expected to slow to a 1.0% pace (q/q, saar) in January from the 2.0% rate of expansion in Q3, reflecting the hit from the oil price plunge during the quarter.
  • Canadian December GDP – It is seen coming in flat (0.0%) after the 0.1% decline in November, reflecting the drag on the economy from the oil producing sector.
  • US December personal income – It is projected rising 0.5% after a 0.2% rise in November, reflecting strength in December aggregate income.
  • US PCE – A -0.3% decline is seen in real PCE in December, following a 0.3% increase in November. Core PCE Price Index is anticipated at 0.2%m/m from 0.1%m/m.
  • US ISM Manufacturing PMI – The February ISM is expected to slip to 55.0 in February, but from a robust 56.6 reading in January.

Support and Resistance

[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 4th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 4th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • A report in the WSJ over the weekend that the US and China closing in on a deal, and that Trump and Xi are to meet on March 27, pushed equities up although nothing is confirmed by Beijing or Washington.
  • USA500 closed over 2800 Friday and holds gains this morning at 2813, while Nikkei closed up 1%. USD holds gains.
  • Oil big down day on Friday with a move to 55.65 from 57.50. Gold closed the week under 1300.00, with trades down at 1294.
  • Big policy week ahead, with ECB, RBA, and BoC interest rate decisions, as well as NFPs on Friday.
  • The Brexit process will remain a key focus for markets this week. Political developments in the UK last week reduced the odds for a no-deal Brexit scenario, although it has always be our conviction that this is a low-risk possibility as the UK parliament will have final say and, given the numbers and strength of view of most MPs, it is hard to conceive that a no deal would be allow to happen.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Main Macro Events Today

  • UK Markit Manufacturing PMI – The UK PMI is expected to have stood at 50.2 in February compared to 50.6 in January, in response to the slowdown in the world economy.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 5th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 5th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Stock markets struggled after Wall Street closed lower on Monday.
  • US equities slumped as trade optimism gave way to fresh economic concerns after the drop in construction spending.
  • The US may lift tariffs on Chinese imports, will sign off on final deal later in the month (March 27).
  • Bloomberg also reported that some $90 bln (3%) in VAT reductions is planned by China as well.
  • China lowered its official goal for economic growth this year to 6.0% from 6.5%.
  • RBA left official cash rates unchanged at 1.50%, as expected.
  • WTI future is trading at USD 56.36 per barrel.
  • Gold dipped under $1,284 on risk-on trade, before finding prop from stock slump.
  • USDJPY off Friday’s 10-week high at 112.07.
  • EURUSD hit 1-week lows into ECB.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]
 

  • EURUSD crossed the 20-day SMA. In the 1-hour chart, the bearish cross of 50- and 200-period EMA along with the negative configured indicators imply further declines.
  • USDJPY moves for a 3rd day above an ascending triangle, the 200-DMA and on Friday broke the 11-day Resistance. This suggests the strengthening of the positive bias.
  • GBPUSD held in an upwards channel in the daily chart despite 3 negative sessions. Intraday is below 3 MAs, while Support is at 1.3140 and 1.3110.
  • XAUUSD is extended below BB. It found Support at 1,282.80 Next Support at 1,275 and Resistance at yesterday’s peak.
  • Biggest Loser: NZDUSD forms 5 consecutive bearish daily candles, trading below the 20-day SMA, while the long low wings suggest an increasing bearish bias overall.

Main Macro Events Today

  • EU Markit PMI Composite – The final Services PMI is expected to be confirmed at 52.3 which should leave the composite reading at 51.4, but with a slight risk to the upside after the marginal revision to the manufacturing PMI.
  • UK Service PMI – The Services PMI reading is expected to come in at 50.0, the dividing line between contraction and expansion.
  • US Home Sales – New home sales are estimated falling 8.7% in December to 600k after a 16.9% surge in November.
  • US ISM Non-Manufacturing PMI – February ISM-NMI index is forecast to rebound to 57.3 after falling 1.3 points to 56.7 in January.
  • BoE Governor Carney – BoE Carney is due to testify on Brexit, inflation, and the economy before the House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee, in London.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 6th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 6th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Bond yields declined after Fed’s Rosengren suggested the pause in the rate hike cycle may last several meetings, while Morgan Stanley is now predicting that Treasury yields will continue to drop by the end of the year, and traders are likely to remain cautious ahead of US jobs data on Friday.
  • Australian bonds rallied and the AUD was under pressure as weaker than expected GDP numbers data added to speculation of rate cuts from the RBA, which in turn helped the ASX to gain 0.75%.
  • Overall stock markets traded mixed across Asia with markets reluctant to push out valuations further without more concrete details on the possible US-Sino trade deal.
  • Dovish-leaning BoJ comments failed to give Japanese markets a lift and Topix and Nikkei closed with losses of -0.25% and -0.60% respectively.
  • China’s announcement of measures to boost domestic consumption further this year, helped Shanghai and Shenzhen Comp to gain 0.55% and 0.46% respectively.
  • US stock futures are broadly lower, as are European futures, while the front end WTI future is trading at USD 56.10 per barrel.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD traded around 1.13, unable to break decisively in either direction, as the post-PMI rally eased. MACD and Stochastics point to an uptrend although MAs are still down.
  • USDJPY managed to maintain its gains, as the short-term MA appear about to break through the longer-term MA and the mid-Bollinger level, supported by the indicators.
  • GBPUSD moved slightly down on account of the Dollar strength, albeit not breaking through the 1.31 mark. Indicators are showing mixed signals.
  • XAUUSD broke through the mid-Bollinger level and has been moving towards its 200HMA. Support level is at 1290, with Resistance at 1320.
  • Biggest Winner: EURAUD gained significantly as RBA Governor Lowe tried to downplay the importance of the housing market slump, arguing that the probabilities are evenly balanced between rate hikes and rate decreases.

Main Macro Events Today

  • ADP Employment Change (GMT 13:15) – February’s labour market data are projected to have been improving at a lower rate, at 189K, compared to 213K in January.
  • BoC Rate Statement (GMT 15:00) – BoC is not expected to raise interest rates, a result of weaker than expected Canadian data releases, as well as the overall “wait and see” stance of many Central Banks around the world.
  • US Crude Oil Inventories (GMT 15:30) – The change in the number of barrels of crude oil held in inventory by commercial firms during the past week affects both the price of Oil as well as Oil-dependent currencies such as the Loonie and the Aussie. Forecasts are that inventories will rise by 1.2M, compared to a reduction of 8.6M last week.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 11th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 11th March 2019.

[IMG]


FX News Today

  • Stock market sentiment started to stabilise during the Asian session and many indices, first and foremost in China, managed to claw back some of Friday’s losses.
  • Chinese indices led the way after moving past the disastrous trade number from last Friday.
  • While dovish-leaning central banks in general and the additional action from the ECB in particular sparked fears that the global growth outlook is actually worse than anticipated, the fact that there is more support should also be constructive for stock markets in the medium term.
  • BoJ is set to meet this week while it is believed that China and the US are in general agreement on many crucial issues and have held meaningful discussions on foreign exchange, according to People’s Bank of China Governor Yi Gang.
  • Topix and Nikkei are up 0.57% and 0.47% respectively, the Hang Seng gained 0.68%, CSI 300 and Shanghai Comp are up 1.47% and 1.35% respectively and the Shenzhen Comp outperformed with a 3% gain. The ASX meanwhile was among the few underperformers with a loss of -0.38%.
  • US futures are narrowly mixed, with the Dow Jones futures underperforming and the front end WTI future trading at USD 56.32 per barrel.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD has consolidated having risen after the NFP release, with 1.1256 standing as the next Resistance level, while Support is found at 1.1224.
  • GBPUSD appears to be currently moving in anticipation of tomorrow’s Brexit developments, with immediate Resistance at 1.3050 and Support at 1.2961.
  • XAUUSD moved past 1300 for a while before retracting, but remained above 1280 for a 6th day. Immediate support is at 1292 while Resistance remains at 1300.
  • USDJPY is still trading at two week lows, with the immediate Support and Resistance levels standing at 111.05 and 111.25.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Retail Sales ex Auto (USD, GMT 12:30) – Retail Sales are expected to have grown by 0.3% m/m, most likely a base effect from the previous 1.8% reduction in December.
  • Eurogroup Meeting (EUR, Full Day) – The Finance Ministers of each Member State will meet in Brussels to discuss various financial issues, including fiscal policy.

Support and Resistance
[IMG]
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 12th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 12th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • The global stock market recovery continued during the Asian session.
  • News came out at the last minute that a “legally binding” agreement has been reached between the EU and the UK, giving May an assurance that the dreaded Irish border backstop doesn’t become permanent underpinned.
  • The pound strengthened, as well as stock markets across Asia after a positive close on Wall Street, where robust retail sales had helped to bolster confidence.
  • The latter also helped tech stocks to break the losing streak amid news that Nvidia Corp. agreed to buy chipmaker Mellanox Technologies Ltd.
  • Topix and Nikkei rose 1.52% and 1.79% respectively overnight. The Hang Seng is up 1.2% and CSI 300 and Shanghai Comp rose 0.48% and 0.76% so far, with the Shenzen Comp up 0.88%.
  • The ASX underperformed and closed with a loss of -0.09%, as Aussie loans data again came out negative.
  • US futures are broadly higher, while the front end WTI future saw a high of USD 57.14 before falling back to now USD 56.91 per barrel.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD has continued its rise after the positive Brexit news, trading around the 1.1256 Resistance level, far from both the next 1.1224 Support and 1.13 Resistance.
  • GBPUSD gained on the positive Brexit developments, breaking through the 1.32 Resistance but the MACD suggests that this may be running out of steam.
  • XAUUSD continues to fluctuate around the 1295 mark, with the MACD and Stochastics indicators pointing to the downside as price it hits its 200HMA.
  • USDJPY continues to move upwards, with immediate Resistance at the 200HMA level at 111.54, while Stochastics and the MACD point downwards.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Production (GBP, GMT 09:30) – Industrial and Manufacturing Production are expected to have remained flat registering 0.0% m/m growth in January, compared to a 0.5% and 0.7% declines in December.
  • Consumer Price Inflation (USD, 12:30) – US CPI is expected to stand at the same level as in January, both for the overall and the core index, at 2.2% and 1.6% respectively.
  • Brexit Vote (EUR, USD, N/A) – The UK Parliament will vote on whether it will accept May’s amended deal, in light of today’s agreement on the backstop.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 14th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 14th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • The dollar pulled ahead from a nine-day low on Thursday, largely helped by the pound snapping back after a sharp rally made on Brexit relief.
  • MPs surprised the government and voted by 312 to 308 to reject a no-deal Brexit under any circumstances. The vote is not binding – under current law the UK could still leave without a deal on 29 March.
  • Another vote tonight, with British lawmakers widely expected to vote in favour of a Brexit delay.
  • US grounded Boeing’s 737 Max 8 and 9 fleet as announced by the FAA, with Boeing itself recommending that the 737 Max should be taken out of service. More than 370 such planes are operated. Boeing saw its value decline by $26.6 billion this week.
  • Data from China point to the negative as unemployment has risen, industrial production growth has slowed, even though retail sales continue to grow.
  • Gold declined as the Dollar strengthened, still trading about 1300. Oil reaffirmed its gains and traded around $58.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD continued its rise after the rejection of the no-deal Brexit. The pair broke through its 200HMA, and the Resistance point at 1.13, but has not managed to stay above the 1.1330 Resistance. Indicators are showing mixed signals.
  • GBPUSD gained after the rejection of the no-deal Brexit, breaking through the 200HMA yesterday, but bouncing off both the 1.3336 Resistance level and the 1.3245 Support.
  • XAUUSD lost as the Dollar gained yesterday, coming down from the 1310 highs and currently trading at 1302. The MACD and Stochastics are issuing negative signals.
  • USDJPY continues its slow upwards movement, breaking through the sideways channel as it is currently trading above its 200HMA level at 111.50, with immediate Resistance at 111.68. MACD and Stochastics are showing signs of saturation.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Jobless Claims (USD, GMT 12:30) – Continuing and Initial Jobless Claims are expected to have risen last week, by 2K and 20K respectively, reaching 225K and 1.775K.
  • New Home Sales (USD, GMT 14:00) –New Home Sales are expected to have marginally declined in January, to 0.62M from 0.621M in December.
  • Brexit Vote (EUR, GBP, N/A) – The UK Parliament will vote on whether a Brexit delay should be pursued.

Support and Resistance
[IMG]

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 15th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 15th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Asian indices broadly higher amid fresh hopes on the US-Sino trade front.
  • BoJ kept policy unchanged as expected, exports seen weighing on outlook.
  • Trump-Xi summit pushed back to end of April, USTR cited “major issues”.
  • Xinhua news agency reported that Chinese Vice Premier Liu He had a telephone conversation with US Secretary Mnuchin and US Trade Representative Lighthizer and that further substantive progress on trade talks has been made.
  • UK lawmakers backed a delay to the Brexit process.
  • PM May set to ask for a short term extension if her Brexit deal gets through by March 20, i.e. before the next EU summit, or a long term delay if not.
  • European stock futures are moving higher in tandem with US futures.
  • WTI future is trading at USD 58.76 per barrel.
  • EURUSD softer after posting 9-day high at 1.1341 following soft US PPI
  • USDJPY lifted to 1-week highs above 111.70; Yen wary of BoJ dovish tone.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD found a floor at 1.1310 after rebounding from 1.1290 and overall remains in an uptrend. The same positive bias held intraday as well, with MAs pointing upwards and RSI sloping above 50.
  • GBPUSD is trading in a descending triangle. Support is held at 50-period SMA at 1.3225 and Resistance at 1.3265. A break of these barriers could suggest the near term direction for Pound.
  • XAUUSD rebounded from 1297 and broke the 1300 barrier earlier. Upper Bollinger bands are extending higher while the asset has regained more than 60% of the losses seen yesterday, turning the negative near term outlook to a positive one.

Main Macro Events Today

  • BoJ Kuroda Speech – Due to speak at the B20 Tokyo Summit.
  • EU Final CPI – The overall Eurozone HICP is anticipated at 1.5% y/y.
  • Canadian Manufacturing Sales – the Manufacturing shipment values are expected to edge 0.5% higher in January after the 1.3% drop in December.
  • Michigan Sentiment and Industrial Data– Industrial production is projected to rise 0.4% in February, after a 0.6% drop in January, while capacity utilization should rise to 78.4% from 78.2% in January. An early March Michigan Sentiment reading is expected of 96.0 , up from 93.8 in February, but well below the 14-year high of 101.4 last March.

Support and Resistance
[IMG]

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 18th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 18th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Stock markets rallied in Asia with Chinese indices leading the advance as markets prepare for a cautious Fed meeting this week.
  • China’s promise to support the economy via a cut in the VAT rate is adding support and helping markets to leave December lows far behind.
  • US futures are also on the rise as are European futures.
  • Japanese exports decline for a third consecutive month. Singapore non-oil exports swUng to surprise 4.9% rise in February after 3 months of decline
  • North Korea may suspend nuclear talks with the US, according to Russia’s TASS.
  • Brexit: May is still trying to get her Brexit deal over the line ahead of the March 21/22 EU summit, with an extension now needed even if the deal goes through.
  • BCC published a report showing that UK business investment is on course to decline by 1.0% in 2019, which would be the worst in a decade.
  • EURUSD above 1.1300, after marking 10-day peak near 1.1345 on tame Fed view.
  • USDJPY tipped lower on N. Korea back-track after printing 9-day peak at 111.90.
  • IEA warned of sharp Venezuela supply drop, but OPEC has spare capacity to offset.
  • The WTI future meanwhile is trading at $58.40.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]



Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD found some ground on Friday’s closing. It is currently trading above its 10-day peak, in the upper BB pattern. Next Resistance 1.1360(50DMA) and Support at 1.1320 (20DMA).
  • GBPUSD is consolidating in the upper 1.32 area. Overall it remains in an up channel.
  • NZDUSD: Broke 3-day High and currently retesting the upper line of a descending triangle. Bullish inverse Head and Shoulders has also been identified in the hourly chart. Resistance holds at 0.6875-0.6900.
  • XAUUSD rebounded from 1,298 the past hour up to 1,304 area. Any consecutive bullish candles could suggest a positive intraday outlook.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Eurozone Trade data – Eurozone trade data as well as current account data are likely to reflect the global pressure on exports. January’s trade balance is expected to fall to EUR 13.2 bln, vs EUR 15.6 bln in February.
  • US NAHB Housing Market Index – The NAHB Housing Market Index for March kicks off the week, and it is expected to rise to 63 from 62 last time.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 19th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 19th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • The main focus is the eagerly awaited Fed announcement tomorrow, with the US central bank expected to turn down the to just one rate hike this year, and the USD remains in “wait n see mode” ahead of FED tomorrow.
  • Central banks in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand hold policy meetings this week and are expected to stay on hold as well.
  • In the RBA minutes, the outlook for the Aussie economy was mentioned as having “significant uncertainties’, as house prices cooled significantly more than expected too.
  • However, while the prospect of ongoing support from central banks and governments helped stock markets to move higher across Asia yesterday, today’s trading saw a broad correction, with Chinese indices, which outperformed Monday, underperforming today.
  • The Shanghai Comp lost -0.63%, the CSI 300 was down -0.82%, while the Hang Seng had declined -0.23%. Topix and Nikkei closed with losses of -0.21% and -0.08% respectively and the ASX was down -0.09% in the end.
  • US futures are posting fractional gains, while European futures are down. The front end WTI future meanwhile is trading at USD 58.98 per barrel, after touching a high of USD 59.14 overnight.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD traded up and down yesterday, ranging around the 1.1345 Resistance level, breaking through it early today. Still below yesterday’s peak, MAs suggest the Euro will strengthen, supported by the MACD, while Stochastics suggest that it is overvalued.
  • GBPUSD is consolidating in the upper 1.32 area, moving on a sideways channel, still below end-February highs. MACD and Stochastics are showing down signals.
  • USDJPY has continued its downwards trend breaking through the 200HMA yesterday, reaching as low as 111.18, with Resistance standing at 111.40 and Support at 111.08.
  • XAUUSD continues to trade above the $1300 mark, in a slight upwards trend, even though Stochastics and MACD show signs of regression. Data releases and any Brexit developments today could affect it.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Average Earnings ex Bonus and Unemployment Rate (GBP, GMT 09:30) – Average Earnings in the UK are expected to have stood at 3.4% in the three months to January, the same growth rate as the previous time. The ILO unemployment rate is expected to remain at 4%.
  • Economic Sentiment (EUR, GMT 10:00) – March’s economic sentiment index is expected to stand at -18.7, a decline from the -16.6 observed in February.
  • Factory Orders (USD, GMT 14:00) – Factory orders are expected to have grown by 0.3% in January, compared to 0.1% in December.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 20th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 20th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Fed day today – will they be as dovish as the markets seem to think? No change on the rates is expected but their musings on the future path of monetary policy, both conventional as well as with regards to its balance sheet position will be key for the USD and bond yields.
  • Ahead of today’s awaited Fed announcement the Asian session also experienced some profit taking as markets expected a dovish turn.
  • In the Asian session stocks traded narrowly mixed, with Chinese markets underperforming amid reports that China is pushing back against some of the US demands in trade talks.
  • Overall though traders see signs of eagerness to come to a deal among Chinese officials ahead of further trade talks as US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin are set to travel to China next week.
  • Topix and Nikkei managed to close with gains of 0.26% and 0.20% respectively. The ASX, however, was down -0.31% at the close and Hang Seng and mainland China bourses are also in the red.
  • US futures are little changed and the front end WTI future is trading at USD 58.97 per barrel.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD traded mostly above the 1.1345 Resistance level, even though very close to it, in anticipation of the Fed meeting. Indicators are showing signs of consolidation.
  • GBPUSD is moving in a similar way as the EURUSD consolidating in the upper 1.32 area, for the 5th consecutive day, moving on a sideways channel, still below end-February highs. MACD and Stochastics support consolidation.
  • USDJPY moved slightly up on the leading indicator announcement, which showed worse than expected performance compared to the previous month. After etching to 111.60, the pair declined slightly, a move supported by both MACD and Stochastics.
  • XAUUSD is still above the $1300 mark, while some downwards momentum exists despite indicators pointing upwards. The Fed decision is expected to have a strong effect on Gold.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Retail, Producer, and Consumer Price Indices (GBP, GMT 09:30) – Both the CPI and the RPI are expected to have registered the same growth as January, showing 2.5% y/y and 1.9% y/y respectively. The PPI is expected to have grown by 4.3% y/y compared to 2.9% y/y last month.
  • Fed Interest Rate Decision (USD, GMT 18:00) – The eagerly awaited Fed decision is expected to shed light as to whether the 2 rate hike policy is to be continued or whether one rate hike is to be expected. Furthermore, comments on its potential balance sheet actions could also affect the markets.
  • Gross Domestic Product (NZD, GMT 21:45) – New Zealand GDP is expected to have grown by 2.5% y/y in 2018Q4, compared to 2.6% in 2018Q3.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 21st March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 21st March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • The EU summit starts today and while Brexit is not the only topic on the agenda, it will likely dominate discussions, after PM May yesterday officially asked for an extension until June 30 and ruled out that she as Prime Minister would ask for a long extension.
  • EU council president Tusk in his official response made it clear that a short extension will only be possible if the Withdrawal Agreement has been backed by MPs in London.
  • Tusk did not rule out a long extension but as May has made it clear that she as PM won’t ask for one, that is currently not on the table.
  • After an interesting meeting yesterday, the Fed was even more dovish than expected, suggesting that no rate hikes would take place in 2019, although leaving the window open for some hikes in 2020.
  • Overall, the Fed commented that a patient, semi-neutral approach was the best at this point, after the cooling in growth and inflation. Justification was sought in slower growth, static payrolls, weaker household spending and a decline in overall inflation.
  • In addition, the Fed also confirmed plans to taper in May, and then end in September, the balance sheet runoff.
  • Trump, following the Fed, tweeted that tariffs on Chinese goods could be in place for a “substantial period”. Equities dropped, after increasing as a result of the Fed dovishness.
  • Dow closed down 0.55% and under its 20 SMA. Asian shares are less impacted, but Japan is closed today.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD pushed higher than the 1.14 level on the Fed dovishness, with expected Resistance at 1.1433, and then at 1.15. Indicators are supportive of a consolidation/downtrend mode this morning.
  • GBPUSD is slightly regaining its losses, still moving around the 1.32 area, on a sideways channel, still below end-February highs. MACD and Stochastics can perhaps be interpreted as sending positive signals.
  • USDJPY dropped heavily on the Fed announcement, crossing the 110.72 Support and its 200HMA. The next Support level is at 110.34, even though the MACD and Stochastics do not appear to agree with the downwards trend.
  • XAUUSD gained significantly and is trading at $1319, while some downwards momentum continues to exist according to the indicators. The Fed decision did have a strong effect, as suggested yesterday, and the question is whether Gold can now break through the $1321 Resistance level, or will retrace to the $1313 Support.

Main Macro Events Today

  • European Council Meeting (EUR, GBP, Full Day) – One of the most important European Council Meetings for the year, given that Theresa May will likely aim to provide justification for a Brexit delay.
  • Employment Data (AUD, GMT 00:30) – While the Unemployment Rate is expected to have remained at 5% in February, employment change is expected to have eased, increasing by 15K compared to 39K last month.
  • SNB Interest Rate Decision (CHF, GMT 08:30) – The SNB is not expected to surprise markets as the Swiss rate is forecast to remain at -0.75%.
  • Retail Sales ex Fuel (GBP, GMT 09:30) – UK Retail Sales are expected to have eased, growing by 0.2% on a m/m basis, compared to 1.2% in January.
  • BoE Interest Rate Decision (GBP, GMT 12:00) – Shadowed by the ongoing political developments in Brexit, the BoE is not expected to proceed with any interest rate actions.
  • CPI inflation (JPY, GMT 23:30) – National Core CPI for Japan is expected to have declined to 0.3% m/m in February, compared to 0.4% in January.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 22nd March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 22nd March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Bund yields slightly higher in opening trade after cautious session on Asian stock markets.
  • EU hands UK another 2 weeks to avoid no-deal Brexit, eyes May 22 exit if deal passes, otherwise PM May must come up with a Plan B. If the deal gets through, an extension until May 22 has already been backed by the EU-27.
  • Japan’s nationwide core CPI undershot expectations at 0.7% y/y in February.
  • The European calendar focuses on Eurozone prel. March Manufacturing PMI readings.
  • Gold whipsawed back toward $1,300 by resurgent USD index near 96.5
  • EURUSD corrected back under 1.1400.
  • USDJPY up from 5-week low of 110.28.
  • WTI crude has settled slightly below $60.0 after posting a fresh 4-month high at $60.39

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD is slightly below Pivot Point of the day and the 38.2% Fib from the week’s peak, at 1.1385. A decisive break could lead towards 1.1410 Resistance. However indicators are not supportive, as they remain negatively configured.
  • GBPUSD topped at 1.3160, however the last 4 small body candles along with the latest doji candle suggest that upside movement might reach an end. Support at 1.3113 and 1.3000.
  • USDJPY dropped further into London open, down to 110.70. Indicators retreated from neutral zone, with RSI looking lower. The next Support level is at 110.64, and 110.36.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Eurozone Manufacturing PMI – Eurozone Manufacturing PMI is expected to improve marginally to 49.5 from 49.3 and the services reading to ease slightly to a still strong 52.7 from 52.8, which should leave the composite slightly higher at 52.0, versus 51.9 in the previous month.
  • Canadian CPI – The CPI is expected to climb 0.5% in February (m/m, nsa) after the 0.1% rise in January, boosted by stronger gasoline prices and seasonal strength in February’s CPI.
  • Canadian Retail Sales – The Retail sales are anticipated at 0.3% in January after the 0.1% dip in December.
  • US Home Sales – Sales are estimated to grow 0.6% following a 1.0% December decline. The I/S(Inventory to Sales) ratio should edge down to 1.32, from 1.33.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 25th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 25th March 2019.


[IMG]

Events to Look Out For Next Week

The Brexit saga continues next week with the Vote standing out as the event of the week, even though important data releases are scheduled across many currencies in the coming days.

Monday – 25 March 2019
_________________________________________________________________________

* All Industy Activity Index (JPY, GMT 04:30) – The Industry Index, known for its leading indicator abilities, is expected to have stood at 0.2% m/m in January, compared to -0.4% in December.

* German Business Climate (EUR, 09:00) – Business climate in the largest EU country is expected to have grown marginally to 98.7 compared with 98.5 last month.

* Trade Balance (NZD, GMT 21:45) – The overall trade deficit of New Zealand is expected to have declined to $6.1 billion in February, compared to $6.4 billion in January.

Monday – 26 March 2019
_________________________________________________________________________

* Housing Data (USD, GMT 00:30) – Housing starts and Building Permits are expected to have increased marginally in February, while the S&P House Price Index is expected to have continued its deceleration, growing by 3.9% in January, compared to 4.2% in December. As in previous occasions, housing market data usually have more impact on the stock market than on the currency.

* CB Consumer Confidence (USD, GMT 14:00) – The Conference Board Index is expected to have increased to 132.1, compared to 131.4 in the previous month.

Monday – 27 March 2019
_________________________________________________________________________

* Interest Rate Decision (NZD, GMT 01:00) – No change is expected in the RBNZ meeting, with the Central Bank likely to also push forward a “wait-and-see” stance.

* Trade Balance (CAD, GMT 12:30) – Business climate in the largest EU country is expected to have grown marginally to 98.7 compared with 98.5 last month.

Monday – 28 March 2019
_________________________________________________________________________

* German CPI (EUR, N/A) – The German inflation rate is expected to have increased to 0.6%, compared to 0.4% in the previous month.

* US Final GDP (USD, GMT 12:30) – The final release of the 2018Q4 GDP growth rate is expected to see the world largest economy’s economic activity to have grown by 2.4% compared with the preliminary reading of 2.6%.

* Tokyo CPI and Production Data (JPY, GMT 23:30) – Tokyo CPI and Production Data (JPY, GMT 23:30) – The country’s main leading indicator of inflation is expected to have remained at 1.1% y/y in March, at the same level as in February. Industrial Production is expected to have improved, growing by 1.4% m/m in February, compared to -3.4% m/m in January, while Retail Sales are expected to have increased by 0.9% y/y in February, compared to 0.6% in January.

Monday – 29 March 2019
_________________________________________________________________________

* UK Final GDP (GBP, GMT 09:00) – UK economic activity is expected to have remained at its preliminary level of 1.3% y/y in 2018Q4.

* US Personal Spending (USD, GMT 12:30) – Personal Spending is expected to have grown by 0.3% m/m in January, compared to a 0.5% m/m reduction in the previous month.

* Chicago PMI (USD, GMT 13:45) – The Chicago PMI is expected to have declined to 61.8 compared to 64.7 last month, however still showcasing growth.

* UK Parliament Vote (GBP, Tentative) – The UK Parliament is expected to convene in order to vote for a revised Theresa May plan or in favour of a no-deal Brexit.

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 26th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 26th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today
 

  • 10-year Treasury yields are up 2.8 bp at 2.427%, JGB yields climbed 1.8 bp to -0.076% amid a mixed session on Asian stock markets.
  • Japanese markets in particular rebounded from yesterday’s sell off after sentiment started to stabilize during the US session yesterday and Wall Street closed little changed.
  • The sharp drop in US bond yields last week and the shape of the yield curve revived fears of a global recession last week, but while yields remain at low levels for now at least the mood seems to be slowly lifting.
  • Markets will continue to keep a very close eye on the spread between the 10-year Treasury yield and three months bills, which is judged to be a key recession indicator and inverted last Friday. This week’s US bond auctions will be closely watched.
  • The UK Parliament takes control of the Brexit process after May’s defeat, with a new vote scheduled for tomorrow.
  • Topix and Nikkei closed with gains of 2.57% and 2.15% respectively. The ASX gained 0.07%, while Hang Seng and Shanghai comp are down -0.15% and -1.35%.
  • US futures are higher as are the European ones. The front end WTI future meanwhile is trading at USD 59.21 per barrel.

Charts of the Day

[IMG]

Technician’s Corner
 

  • EURUSD has been trading around the 1.13 level, breaking below but not maintaining it yesterday. Immediate Resistance at 1.1338, at the 200HMA. Indicators are also not registering any up or down signals.
  • GBPUSD continues to trade around the 1.32 level, in a tight channel between this and the 1.3223 200HMA level. The MACD does not show much action, while Stochastics issue bullish signs.
  • USDJPY dropped below the 110.34 level, trading around the 110 level, which appears to hold despite some breakouts below it. Resistance remains at 110.34 and Support, after the 110 immediate level, lies at 109.80.
  • XAUUSD broke below the 1320 level early today, with the MACD registering bullish signs as the Stochastics indicator is moving in the oversold region. Support and Resistance levels remain at 1313.8 and 1320 respectively.

Main Macro Events Today
 

  • Housing Data (USD, GMT 12:30) – Housing starts and Building Permits are expected to have increased marginally in February, while the S&P House Price Index is expected to have continued its deceleration, growing by 3.9% in January, compared to 4.2% in December. As in previous occasions, housing market data usually have more impact on the stock market than on the currency.
  • CB Consumer Confidence (USD, GMT 14:00) – The Conference Board Index is expected to have increased to 132.1, compared to 131.4 in the previous month.

Support and Resistance

[IMG] 
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex


Disclaimer: This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 27th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 27th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Bund yields are coming down again and the 10-year Treasury rate is at 2.412%, down -1.1 bp on the day, underperforming versus bonds in Australia, New Zealand and China.
  • The US 10-year rate remains below the 3-month rate, which continues to feed concerns about the growth outlook and the risk of recession, especially against the background of dovish shifts at major central banks, and is underpinning choppy trade in stocks.
  • Japanese equities, which outperformed Tuesday, underperformed today and Topix and Nikkei lost -0.52% and -0.23% respectively.
  • Chinese markets, meanwhile, outperformed after heading south yesterday, although mainland China indices are down from earlier highs. The Shanghai benchmark is still up 0.60%, the blue-chip CSI 300 1.00% higher on the day and the Hang Seng up 0.59%.
  • US stock futures are also moving higher in tandem with European futures and the front end WTI future is at USD 60 per barrel.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD broke through the 1.13 level yesterday, and is currently trading around its 1.1256 Support level. Immediate Resistance is at 1.13. Indicators are issuing positive signals.
  • GBPUSD pushed down from the 1.32 level, trading around the 1.318 Support level, while the indicators suggest a slightly upwards tendency.
  • USDJPY gained yesterday, breaking through the 110.34 Resistance level and is now trading between it and the 110.73 Resistance. Indicators are showing bearish signs.
  • XAUUSD same as yesterday, Support and Resistance levels remain at 1313.8 and 1320 respectively, with Gold trading between those two bands.
  • Biggest loser – NZDUSD: After the RBNZ’s comments that the next interest rate move is likely to be a reduction, the Kiwi lost 104 pips, pulling the AUD down along the way, albeit in a shorter movement. Resistance stands at 0.6807, while Support is at 0.6790.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Draghi Speech (EUR, GMT 08:00) – The ECB President is due to speak at the “ECB and its Watchers” conference in Frankfurt, where many other ECB representatives are also expected to speak.
  • US and Canada Trade Balance (USD / CAD, GMT 12:30) – Both trade deficits are expected to improve, with the US trade deficit expected to decrease to $57 billion from $59.8 billion last month. The Canadian trade deficit is expected to have declined to $3.5 billion from $4.6 billion in December.
  • UK Brexit Vote (GBP, GMT 19:30) – Many options on the table for today’s vote, including a second referendum, customs union, revoking Article 50, and, of course, no-deal Brexit.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 28th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 28th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Slide in global bond yields continues.
  • The flattening or outright inversion of yield curves meanwhile is fuelling recession fears and also turning into a self-sustained cycle.
  • Bund yields drop below those of JGBs yesterday after ECB tiered depo story potentially pushing the timing of the first rate hike.
  • US Equities dragged lower by deeper curve inversion, taken as global risk signal.
  • WTI crude down 1% under $59.30 after mixed EIA – crude build, product draws.
  • Brexit: May’s pledge to step down may not be enough to secure her deal.
  • GBP steady as Brexit process reaches defining phase; no-deal exit now very unlikely.
  • DUP still doesn’t back Withdrawal Agreement.
  • MPs yesterday rejected a range of alternative options, but with the customs union proposal coming pretty close and losing by just 8 votes, so that seems to be the front runner in alternative scenarios to May’s deal.

Charts of the Day


[IMG]
Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD has formed a falling wedge since March 27. Indicators are issuing neutral to positive signals. This pattern is still in the process of forming. Possible bullish price movement towards the resistance 1.1283 within the next 6 hours.
  • GBPUSD rebounded from 1.3140 and is trading a breath below PP level at 1.3193. Support is set at 1.3118 as the indicators suggest a slightly downwards tendency.
  • USDJPY bottomed at 110.05, with next Support at 109.70 level. Indicators are negatively configured suggesting further negative bias intraday.

Main Macro Events Today

  • German CPI (EUR, N/A) – The German inflation rate is expected to have increased to 0.6%, compared to 0.4% in the previous month.
  • US Final GDP (USD, GMT 12:30) – The final release of the 2018Q4 GDP growth rate is expected to see the world largest economy’s economic activity to have grown by 2.4% compared with the preliminary reading of 2.6%.
  • Tokyo CPI and Production Data (JPY, GMT 23:30) – The country’s main leading indicator of inflation is expected to have remained at 1.1% y/y in March, at the same level as in February. Industrial Production is expected to have improved, growing by 1.4% m/m in February, compared to -3.4% m/m in January, while Retail Sales are expected to have increased by 0.9% y/y in February, compared to 0.6% in January.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 29th March 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 29th March 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • 10-year Treasury yields are up 0.5 bp at 2.400% and JGB rates lifted 0.6 bp to -0.100% amid a broad move higher in long yields across Asia.
  • Hopes of progress in US-Sino trade talks helped to underpin confidence and stock market sentiment improved after Mnuchin said he had a “productive working dinner” in Beijing yesterday with the US Treasury Secretary and US Trade Representative in China to resume trade talks.
  • Chinese markets in particular benefited and CSI 300 and Shanghai Comp are up 3.49% and 2.85% respectively. The Hang Seng has risen 0.97% so far, while Topix and Nikkei closed with gains of 0.56% and 0.82% respectively and the ASX lifted 0.08%. US futures are also broadly higher and the front end WTI future is trading at USD 59.54 per barrel.
  • The Brexit Vote today, which only includes the Withdrawal Agreement and not the Political declaration, will likely fail, again. The day is largely symbolic as today was supposed to be Brexit Day.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]
Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD continued its downwards trend, breaking through the 1.1256 Support level. However, it appears to have reached the end of the hill as both the MACD and Stochastics point to the upside.
  • GBPUSD keeps declining as fears of no-deal Brexit continue, currently fluctuating around the 1.30 Support. Indicators are registering mixed signals as the MACD is positive and the Stochastics are negative, while the short MA crossed the long MA a couple of hours ago.
  • USDJPY gained some despite mixed Japanese data, as the country appears to have been able to maintain its inflation at stable levels. The pair broke through the 110.73 level and is currently trading just below the 200HMA at 110.62. Both MACD and Stochastics are pointing downwards.
  • XAUUSD remained flat below the $1300 mark after the drop from the 1311 level yesterday. No particular movements observed from the indicators.

Main Macro Events Today

  • UK GDP (GBP, GMT 09:30) – 2018Q4 GDP is expected not to have seen any material changes from its preliminary estimate and remain at 1.3% y/y.
  • PCE and PCE Inflation (USD, GMT 12:30) – Personal spending is expected to have increased by 0.3% in January, compared to a reduction of 0.5% last month. PCE inflation is expected to have remained at 1.9%, the same as in December.
  • Canada GDP (CAD, GMT 12:30) – Canadian GDP is expected to have registered no m/m growth in January, compared to a 0.1% contraction in December.
  • UK Parliament Brexit Vote (GBP/EUR, GMT 13:30) – The final call for Brexit, with MPs having to vote on a deal that is essentially the same as before albeit not defining the UK’s future relationship with the EU.
  • Chicago PMI (USD, GMT 13:45) – The Chicago PMI is expected to register signs of weakness in March, reducing to 61.0 from 64.7.

Support and Resistance
[IMG]

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer: 
This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 01st April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 01st April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Bond yields continue to recover from recent lows.
  • Stock markets started the second quarter with renewed optimism.
  • USA500 still posted the best quarter in a decade.
  • Signs of progress in U.S.-Sino trade talks helped to underpin sentiment and saw mainland China bourses outperforming amid a general move higher in Asian stock markets. Both sides said there was progress in talks.
  • An unexpected jump in China’s Caixin manufacturing PMI to 50.8 revived hopes that government measures to boost the economy.
  • The front end WTI future is trading at USD 60.58 per barrel, amid sanctions, production cuts.
  • USDJPY edged 8-day high at 111.17.
  • EURUSD rebounded to 1.1240 overnight after printing 3-week low of 1.1207.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]
Technician’s Corner

  • EURUSD rebounded, breaking through the 1.1240 R1 level. However, it appears to have reached the end of the hill for today as it is currently looking southwards with RSI sloping lower as well.
  • GBPUSD keeps inclining so far today, but remains close to Pivot at 1.3048 as fears of no-deal Brexit continue.
  • USDJPY printed an 11-day high at 111.18, as the safe haven premium of the Japanese currency unwind. USDJPY has support at 110.50-53, levels which encompasses the prevailing situation of the 100-day moving average.
  • NZDUSD – top gainer so far along with Aussie – jumped at 0.6836, from Thursday’sFriday’s tweezer bottom. A confirmation of this formation and a move above the 20-day SMM at 0.6840, could turn the attention to last week’s highs around at 0.6900.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Caixin Manufacturing PMI (CNY, GMT 01:45) – The Caixin manufacturing PMI is expected to remain unchanged at 49.5 in March.
  • Consumer Price Index (EUR, GMT 09:00) – Prices are expected to be confirmed at 1.5%y/y in March, with core inflation holding at 1%.
  • Retail Sales (USD, GMT 12:30) – February’s Retail Sales are expected to have grown by 0.3% m/m, from the 0.2% rise in January.
  • ISM Manufacturing PMI (USD, GMT 14:00) – The US ISM Manufacturing PMI is expected to come out at 54.5 in March, compared to the 2-year low of 54.2 in February.
  • BREXIT Vote on alternative plans

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 


Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 2nd April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 2nd April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Wall Street was higher overnight, followed by the better than expected US manufacturing ISM and construction spending reports (they offset disappointing retail sales).
  • JGB yields still moved higher, in tandem with most Asian stock markets, but the buoyant mood in equities that dominated yesterday’s session turned a bit more muted, as the focus turned from revived hopes on a US-Sino trade deal and a recovery in the manufacturing sector to Brexit risks.
  • RBA left monetary policy on hold amid increased downside risks, but seems to be awaiting the fiscal injection that is expected to be unveiled today.
  • UK Parliament rejected all options on Brexit compromise, customs union close miss.
  • GBP was under pressure due to revived concerns of a no-deal scenario.
  • WTI crude rallied 2% to a fresh 5-mth high near $61.82, on supply side tightness.
  • USDJPY lifted to 11-day highs amid risk-on; EURUSD hit 3-week low near 1.12.
  • GOLD holds the key 1285 level – at 1287.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • GBPUSD is under pressure once again, trading southwards below its Pivot for the 10th consecutive hourly session. A breach and break of S1 at 1.3025 could suggest the retest of 26-day Support at 1.2970.
  • USDJPY printed an 11-day high at 111.45, as the safe haven premium of the Japanese currency unwinds. USDJPY has support at 111.20.
  • NZDUSD holds at 3-week lows. Support holds at 0.6770. The next support on the break of the latter is at 0.6750. If the asset rebounds however, Resistance has been set at 0.6800. Overall outlook remains negative due to the descending triangle formation and the decreasing momentum indicators in the daily chart.
  • BTCUSD  biggest mover – Spiked to 5013 from 4216. However, intraday the asset looks overbought, with RSI at 81, and a doji closing the past hour.

Main Macro Events Today

  • UK Markit Construction PMI (GBP, GMT 08:30) – The Construction PMI is expected to improve to a 50.0 reading after dropping sharply in February to 49.5, which was the lowest reading since July 2016 (the month after the vote to leave the EU).
  • Durable Goods (USD, GMT 12:30) – February Durable Goods orders are expected to decline to 1.2%, following a 0.3% January gain.
  • Nondefense Capital Goods Orders ex Aircraft (USD, GMT 12:30)
  •  

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 


Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 3rd April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 3rd April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • Stock markets continued to recover during the Asian session, with concerns that the world economy is sliding into recession calmed by better data out of China and trade talk hopes.
  • Sentiment was underpinned by a stronger than expected services PMI out of China. Further sign that economic growth is coming back.
  • US as well as European equity futures are also moving higher.
  • Brexit: UK PM May would sit down with Opposition leader Corbyn to try and break the deadlock. Meanwhile, new referendum in the UK on EU membership and a customs union now are both looking increasingly likely.
  • A compromise needs to be found before the EU emergency summit on April 10 to secure another extension until May 22.
  • GBP cleared $1.3100 after PM May talked up another deal, despite Commons failure.
  • WTI crude surged over clear $62.87; Gold capped near $1,291 by USD index 1-month high.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]
Technician’s Corner

  • GBPUSD jumped in London open, above latest peak at 1.3150. Next Resistance levels are set at 1.3178 and 1.3230. Support holds at 200-period SMA at 1.3120, for 12 consecutive hourly sessions.
  • EURUSD holds Support at 1.1216, which was the initial resistance. With momentum indicators though looking to turn southwards a break of this level could shift the asset back to PP level at 1.1200.
  • USDJPY probed 111.45 highs amid risk-on, by breaking 2-day peak and R1 for the day. Currently it is retesting the 111.56, which is a breath above the upper BB level and coincides with FE161.80 extension (from March rebound) and the latest up fractal. This could be a retracement level for the asset.
  • AUDUSD hit 50-day SMA at 0.7117. this area could provide some resistance to the asset, as the asset lacks of positive momentum based on the daily indicators. Abreak however of the latter but more precisely of yesterday’s high at 0.7128, might push Aussie to the next barrier at 0.7160.

Main Macro Events Today

  • Retail Sales and Services (EUR, GMT 08:00-09:00) – Eurozone March Services reading expected to be confirmed at 51.3, while Retails sales could spike to 2.3% y/y in February.
  • ADP Non-Farm Employment Change (USD, GMT 12:15) – The ADP Employment survey is seen at 165k for March compared to the 183K in February.
  • ISM Non-Manufacturing PMI (USD, GMT 14:00) – The ISM non-Manufacturing PMI in the US is expected to slip to 58.7 in March, compared to 59.7 in February, supporting the strong economic climate despite the small decrease in its value.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Andria Pichidi
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 4th April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 4th April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • 10-year Treasury yields are down -1.1 bp at 2.513% and JGB yields fell back -0.5 bp to -0.060%, as the stock rally stalled during the Asian session and the USD consolidated overnight.
  • Big misses for ADP Jobs (50k) and ISM Non-Manufacturing PMI (19-month low) pressed a pause on Equity rally.
  • Parliament passed (by 1 vote) a bill to ask to extend Brexit Day beyond April 12, but it remains unclear whether there is time to get it through by May 22. A longer extension looks most likely while the odds of a full 2nd Referendum odds are also increased.
  • Asian markets are mostly trading narrowly mixed, with traders waiting for another catalyst such as tangible progress on the US-Sino trade talks before pushing equity markets out further following the recent rally.
  • Topix and Nikkei are down -0.11% and unchanged on the day respectively. The Hang Seng dropped -0.42%, while CSI 400 and Shanghai Comp are up 0.80%, with hopes of government stimulus after the government said it plans to cut some airline fees adding support. The ASX meanwhile lost -0.83%.
  • Oil futures are trading at USD 62.37 per barrel.
  • German Factory Orders just in and is a big miss it is (-4.2% vs expectations of +0.3%), putting the German Industry in recession territory.

Charts of the Day
[IMG]
Technician’s Corner

  • GBPUSD reacted positively after the UK Parliament asked the government to ask for another extension of the Brexit deadline. Resistance level remains at 1.3184, with a strong one at 1.32, while Support is bounded by the 200HMA at 1.3137.
  • EURUSD is trading close to but below its 200HMA at 1.1248, affected by the weaker than expected US data, with indicators not showing a clear direction.
  • USDJPY paused its rise after the worsening in US data releases, stabilizing around the 111.40 level. Both the MACD and the Stochastics indicators are suggesting a downturn. Support and Resistance remain at 110.73 and 111.68, although the former could change as the 200HMA could be binding.
  • XAUUSD continues trading below 1300, fluctuating around the 1290 mark. Next Resistance point is at 1294.50 with indicators suggesting a mild upwards movement.

Main Macro Events Today

  • ECB Monetary Policy Meeting Accounts (EUR, GMT 11:30) – The ECB Accounts, similar to the FOMC Minutes, provide an insight with regards to the policymakers’ thinking about the European economy’s potential.
  • Jobless Claims (USD, GMT 12:30) – Continuing Jobless Claims are expected to have decreased over the last week of March, while Initial Jobless Claims are forecast to have increased.
  • Canada PMI (CAD, GMT 14:00) – The Canadian PMI is expected to have risen to 51.1 in March, compared to 50.6 in February.

Support and Resistance
[IMG] 
Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 5th April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 5th April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today

  • 10-year Treasury yields are up 1.3 bp at 2.528%, JGB yields down -0.7 bp at -0.0585 amid subdued trade on Asian stock markets.
  • China was closed for a holiday and elsewhere markets traded mixed, with Topix and Nikkei managing gains of 0.23% and 0.28% respectively, while the ASX closed with a loss of 0.83%, although the latter was an exception, with most markets managing slight gains.
  • There were some optimistic comments on the progress of the US-Sino trade deal from China, with Trump tweeting that he expects a deal “within 4 weeks” but after the recent run higher in equities traders will want to see more than words before pushing valuations higher.
  • Markets will also be holding back ahead of key US payroll data today amid lingering concerns about the outlook for world growth. US futures are posting slight gains ahead of the key release, with the Dow Jones mini up 0.133%.
  • GBP picked up (back over 1.3100) on a Brexit “Flexi-Extension” offer from the EU which suggests an extension of up to 12 months, but Britain could leave at any time if they signed an agreement.
  • The front end WTI future meanwhile is trading at USD 62.16 per barrel.

Charts of the Day

[IMG]

Technician’s Corner

  • GBPUSD reacted positively to “Flexi-Brexit”, showing upwards potential with Resistance at the 200HMA at 1.3126, and a stronger one at 1.3184, while Support stands at 1.3067.
  • EURUSD moved up and down yesterday, with MAs showing an upwards movement with Resistance at its 200HMA at 1.1238, with both the MACD and Stochastics showing upwards signs.
  • USDJPY continued its rise, breaking through the 110.68 level and trading around that level as of this morning. Both the MACD and the Stochastics indicators are suggesting a downturn. Support and Resistance remain at 110.95 and 111.80.
  • XAUUSD has been trading in the 1285-1294 band, with indicators giving out mixed signals. Support and Resistance are marked as the channel bounds.

Main Macro Events Today

  • NonFarm Payrolls, Earnings, Unemployment (USD, GMT 12:30) – The most important piece of news this week, NFPs are expected to have grown by 180K, compared to 20K in the previous month, while earnings and unemployment are expected to have remained at the same levels.
  • Canada Labour Market Data (CAD, GMT 12:30) – Canadian Participation Rate is expected to have declined to 65.7% compared to 65.8% last month, while the net change in employment is expected to have been just 1K compared to 55.9K last month. Unemployment is not expected to have changed.

Support and Resistance
[IMG]

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.

Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.


Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.

Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!

Click HERE to READ more Market news.

Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex

Disclaimer:
 This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.

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Date : 8th April 2019.

MACRO EVENTS & NEWS OF 8th April 2019.


[IMG]

FX News Today
  • 10-year Treasury yields are down -1.1 bp at 2.485% and 10-year JGB yields fell back -2.9 bp to -0.069%.
  • Stock markets failed to get lasting support from China stimulus hopes and the rebound in US payrolls on Friday. Indices climbed initially after a document published on the central government website yesterday suggested Beijing would step up the policy of targeted cuts to banks’ reserve ratios in a bid to encourage lending to small and medium sized companies.
  • However, while the ASX still managed to close 0.54% higher, Chinese bourses erased earlier gains and Hang Seng and Shanghai Comp are down -0.03% and -0.87% respectively, while the CSI 300 blue chip index is down -0.75%. Topix and Nikkei also struggled and lost -0.42% and -0.25%.
  • Earnings reports are coming into focus and investors are positioning for lacklustre results.
  • US futures are also heading south, which suggests a correction from the six month high seen last week after the employment report. President Trump pressured the Fed to do more to sustain growth, while official comments from both sides suggest progress in trade talks.
  • Oil prices are higher and the front end WTI future trading at USD 63.33 per barrel, amid concerns that fighting in Libya could lead to supply outages.
Charts of the Day
[IMG]
Technician’s Corner
  • EURUSD moved in a downwards channel on Friday and early today, and has bounced off its 200HMA at 1.1230, although trading around it in the past couple of hours. Support still remains at 1.1213, while Resistance, after the 200HMA stands at 1.1233. Indicators are showing mixed signals.
  • GBPUSD gained some on the last trading hours, bouncing off the 1.3067 Resistance, although the overall trend is still down. Support remains at 1.3027. The MACD is registering positive signs as the Stochastics are showing negative.
  • USDJPY made a significant downwards move as the Japanese trade balance showed a surplus, compared to expectations of a deficit. After breaking through the 111.68 Support, the pair bounced off 111.34, as indicators are showing positive signs.
  • XAUUSD broke clear of the 1294.5 Resistance level, and is currently trading just above its 200HMA, at 1296. Next Resistance level is 1300.
Main Macro Events Today
  • Factory Orders (USD, GMT 14:00) – February orders are expected to have declined by 0.6% m/m, compared to a 0.1% increase in January.
Support and Resistance
[IMG] 

Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.
Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.

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Dr Nektarios Michail
Market Analyst
HotForex



Disclaimer: This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.
 
 

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    • You have a low IQ rating. Unfortunately there is no cure Hope this helps
    • WARNING- If you have been the victim of a scam you do not possess the basic skills required to trade successfully in the first place Period. End of Discussion. This applies to well in excess of 80% of you here period end of discussion the statistics remain constant Period end of discussion. Most dumb ordinary people (but particularly fat stupid americans ) are too thick to do much beyond work at burger joint PERIOD END OF DISCUSSION MOST TRADERS LOSE PERIOD End of discussion Dont forget to like and subscribe Order of stupidity on traderslobotomy 1-fat stupid americans 2 Asians 3 East europeans Period end of discussion Order of website by useful information rating 1-This video is no longer available 2- Please check your internet connection 3 345 Billion other 4 TRADERS LOBOTOMY Period end of discussion    
    • Online Trading Scams   4-6 minutes Home Features   Online trading scams are a most specious type of fraud, combining the safety of online anonymity with the high personal importance of your investments. Imagine your 401(k) disappearing in a second because a shifty online presence claimed it could offer you enticing returns on investment. Here are a few examples of online stock trading scams so you can keep yourself out of hawk from financial fraud. Image 1 of 1 Fraudulent Pre-IPO Investing In this type of online trading scam, an investor buys a stake in a company before its initial public offering (IPO) of securities. There is a high level of risk in any pre-IPO investment, but an investor can face several pitfalls in this situation. First, the offering may be illegitimate. Any company that wants to sell securities to the public must file the transaction with the SEC or qualify for an exemption. If this has not happened, you could lose your total investment. Second, the company may never actually go public. Fraudsters may use the IPO's hype to lure investors and gain money without going public. The best way to avoid this type of online trading scam is similar to other scams: investigate. Knowing more about the company will give you better insight as to whether the offer is legitimate or fraudulent. Research the company. What services or products does it provide? Can you access the company's financials? Review the management team. A history of SEC investigations and unhappy investors is a bad sign. Take the time to do the homework and you'll find yourself in a safer position. Ponzi Schemes A good, old-fashioned Ponzi scheme is easier to pull off online these days, making it a common and lucrative online trading scam. A classic Ponzi scheme goes like this: An advertisement is placed that proclaims a "high-yield investment program" where investors buy stakes in a scheme that takes advantage of their lack of investing experience and knowledge. When the initial investment plus returns is dispersed, the investors are likely to reinvest. The returns, however, are actually the initial investments paid by new entrants, not profits made from real investments. Online, anonymity protects Ponzi-scheme promoters, making it easy for them to disappear when the scheme ends. This type of online trading scam preys on investor ignorance. Investors are lured by promises of high returns that appear real, and tricky transfers to new schemes give the illusion that the account is solvent. Keep out of this kind of scam by investigating the promoter. Find out if the investment is registered with the SEC. Arm yourself with knowledge about this type of scams. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Pump and Dump Schemes This type of online trading scam leads to overvalued stocks from misleading statements and promises of insider tips. In a pump and dump scheme, a promoter issues a call for investors to buy a stock because the promoter knows something special about the company (the pump). Then, as investors buy into a stock and inflate the price, the fraudsters cash out on their original shares (the dump). This type of scam is commonly seen on the internet, where message boards can catch fire with promises of fast returns and insider info. When the fraudsters dump their stocks, the average investors lose their money as the stock devalues quickly. As with any other online trading scam, remain skeptical. Don't buy into an investment too rashly, and take standard analysis like company profiles and financial statements into account. Investigate the promoter. What does he have to gain from your investment? Verify claims independently; don't rely on one source. If you believe you've stumbled upon an online trading scam, don't invest. Take a moment to view the fund or investment from all angles and determine whether you've found a legitimate venture. Check credentials and research sources. The best way to avoid an online trading scam is to be knowledgeable. At TopTenREVIEWS We Do the Research So You Don't Have To.  Disclaimer: We provide this information as an analysis of the most up-to-date sources, but we do not attempt to interpret SEC regulations. If you need any clarifications on any of the laws or rules presented in this article, it's best to notify an attorney who specializes in securities law.
    • Due to overwhelming demand.. Adhesion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Adhesion (disambiguation).   Dew drops adhering to a spider web Play media   Adhesion of a frog on a wet vertical glass surface. IUPAC definition Process of attachment of a substance to the surface of another substance. Note 1: Adhesion requires energy that can come from chemical and/or physical linkages, the latter being reversible when enough energy is applied. Note 2: In biology, adhesion reflects the behavior of cells shortly after contact to the surface. Note 3: In surgery, adhesion is used when two tissues fuse unexpectedly.[1] Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another). The forces that cause adhesion and cohesion can be divided into several types. The intermolecular forces responsible for the function of various kinds of stickers and sticky tape fall into the categories of chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, and diffusive adhesion. In addition to the cumulative magnitudes of these intermolecular forces, there are also certain emergent mechanical effects. Contents 1 Surface energy 2 Mechanisms 2.1 Mechanical 2.2 Chemical 2.3 Dispersive 2.4 Electrostatic 2.5 Diffusive 3 Strength 4 Other effects 4.1 Stringing 4.2 Microstructures 4.3 Hysteresis 4.4 Wettability and adsorption 4.5 Lateral adhesion 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading Surface energy   Diagram of various cases of cleavage, with each unique species labeled. A: γ = (1/2)W11 B: W12 = γ1 + γ2 – γ12 C: γ12 = (1/2)W121 = (1/2)W212 D: W12 + W33 – W13 – W23 = W132. Surface energy is conventionally defined as the work that is required to build an area of a particular surface. Another way to view the surface energy is to relate it to the work required to cleave a bulk sample, creating two surfaces. If the new surfaces are identical, the surface energy γ of each surface is equal to half the work of cleavage, W: γ = (1/2)W11. If the surfaces are unequal, the Young-Dupré equation applies: W12 = γ1 + γ2 – γ12, where γ1 and γ2 are the surface energies of the two new surfaces, and γ12 is the interfacial energy. This methodology can also be used to discuss cleavage that happens in another medium: γ12 = (1/2)W121 = (1/2)W212. These two energy quantities refer to the energy that is needed to cleave one species into two pieces while it is contained in a medium of the other species. Likewise for a three species system: γ13 + γ23 – γ12 = W12 + W33 – W13 – W23 = W132, where W132 is the energy of cleaving species 1 from species 2 in a medium of species 3.[2] A basic understanding of the terminology of cleavage energy, surface energy, and surface tension is very helpful for understanding the physical state and the events that happen at a given surface, but as discussed below, the theory of these variables also yields some interesting effects that concern the practicality of adhesive surfaces in relation to their surroundings.[2] Mechanisms There is no single theory covering adhesion, and particular mechanisms are specific to particular material scenarios. Five mechanisms of adhesion have been proposed to explain why one material sticks to another: Mechanical Adhesive materials fill the voids or pores of the surfaces and hold surfaces together by interlocking. Other interlocking phenomena are observed on different length scales. Sewing is an example of two materials forming a large scale mechanical bond, velcro forms one on a medium scale, and some textile adhesives (glue) form one at a small scale. Chemical Two materials may form a compound at the joint. The strongest joints are where atoms of the two materials share or swap electrons (known respectively as covalent bonding or ionic bonding). A weaker bond is formed if a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to an atom of nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine in another molecule, a phenomenon called hydrogen bonding. Chemical adhesion occurs when the surface atoms of two separate surfaces form ionic, covalent, or hydrogen bonds. The engineering principle behind chemical adhesion in this sense is fairly straightforward: if surface molecules can bond, then the surfaces will be bonded together by a network of these bonds. It bears mentioning that these attractive ionic and covalent forces are effective over only very small distances – less than a nanometer. This means in general not only that surfaces with the potential for chemical bonding need to be brought very close together, but also that these bonds are fairly brittle, since the surfaces then need to be kept close together.[3] Dispersive Main article: Dispersive adhesion In dispersive adhesion, also known as physisorption, two materials are held together by van der Waals forces: the attraction between two molecules, each of which has a region of slight positive and negative charge. In the simple case, such molecules are therefore polar with respect to average charge density, although in larger or more complex molecules, there may be multiple "poles" or regions of greater positive or negative charge. These positive and negative poles may be a permanent property of a molecule (Keesom forces) or a transient effect which can occur in any molecule, as the random movement of electrons within the molecules may result in a temporary concentration of electrons in one region (London forces).   Cohesion causes water to form drops, surface tension causes them to be nearly spherical, and adhesion keeps the drops in place.   Water droplets are flatter on a Hibiscus flower which shows better adhesion. In surface science, the term adhesion almost always refers to dispersive adhesion. In a typical solid-liquid-gas system (such as a drop of liquid on a solid surrounded by air) the contact angle is used to evaluate adhesiveness indirectly, while a Centrifugal Adhesion Balance allows for direct quantitative adhesion measurements. Generally, cases where the contact angle is low are considered of higher adhesion per unit area. This approach assumes that the lower contact angle corresponds to a higher surface energy.[4] Theoretically, the more exact relation between contact angle and work of adhesion is more involved and is given by the Young-Dupre equation. The contact angle of the three-phase system is a function not only of dispersive adhesion (interaction between the molecules in the liquid and the molecules in the solid) but also cohesion (interaction between the liquid molecules themselves). Strong adhesion and weak cohesion results in a high degree of wetting, a lyophilic condition with low measured contact angles. Conversely, weak adhesion and strong cohesion results in lyophobic conditions with high measured contact angles and poor wetting. London dispersion forces are particularly useful for the function of adhesive devices, because they don't require either surface to have any permanent polarity. They were described in the 1930s by Fritz London, and have been observed by many researchers. Dispersive forces are a consequence of statistical quantum mechanics. London theorized that attractive forces between molecules that cannot be explained by ionic or covalent interaction can be caused by polar moments within molecules. Multipoles could account for attraction between molecules having permanent multipole moments that participate in electrostatic interaction. However, experimental data showed that many of the compounds observed to experience van der Waals forces had no multipoles at all. London suggested that momentary dipoles are induced purely by virtue of molecules being in proximity to one another. By solving the quantum mechanical system of two electrons as harmonic oscillators at some finite distance from one another, being displaced about their respective rest positions and interacting with each other's fields, London showed that the energy of this system is given by: E=3hν−34hνα2R6{\displaystyle E=3h\nu -{\frac {3}{4}}{\frac {h\nu \alpha ^{2}}{R^{6}}}} While the first term is simply the zero-point energy, the negative second term describes an attractive force between neighboring oscillators. The same argument can also be extended to a large number of coupled oscillators, and thus skirts issues that would negate the large scale attractive effects of permanent dipoles cancelling through symmetry, in particular. The additive nature of the dispersion effect has another useful consequence. Consider a single such dispersive dipole, referred to as the origin dipole. Since any origin dipole is inherently oriented so as to be attracted to the adjacent dipoles it induces, while the other, more distant dipoles are not correlated with the original dipole by any phase relation (thus on average contributing nothing), there is a net attractive force in a bulk of such particles. When considering identical particles, this is called cohesive force.[5] When discussing adhesion, this theory needs to be converted into terms relating to surfaces. If there is a net attractive energy of cohesion in a bulk of similar molecules, then cleaving this bulk to produce two surfaces will yield surfaces with a dispersive surface energy, since the form of the energy remain the same. This theory provides a basis for the existence of van der Waals forces at the surface, which exist between any molecules having electrons. These forces are easily observed through the spontaneous jumping of smooth surfaces into contact. Smooth surfaces of mica, gold, various polymers and solid gelatin solutions do not stay apart when their separating becomes small enough – on the order of 1–10 nm. The equation describing these attractions was predicted in the 1930s by De Boer and Hamaker:[3] Parea=−A24πz3{\displaystyle {\frac {P}{area}}=-{\frac {A}{24\pi z^{3}}}} where P is the force (negative for attraction), z is the separation distance, and A is a material-specific constant called the Hamaker constant.   The two stages of PDMS microstructure collapse due to van der Waals attractions. The PDMS stamp is indicated by the hatched region, and the substrate is indicated by the shaded region. A) The PDMS stamp is placed on a substrate with the "roof" elevated. B) Van der Waals attractions make roof collapse energetically favorable for PDMS stamp. The effect is also apparent in experiments where a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp is made with small periodic post structures. The surface with the posts is placed face down on a smooth surface, such that the surface area in between each post is elevated above the smooth surface, like a roof supported by columns. Because of these attractive dispersive forces between the PDMS and the smooth substrate, the elevated surface – or “roof” – collapses down onto the substrate without any external force aside from the van der Waals attraction.[6] Simple smooth polymer surfaces – without any microstructures – are commonly used for these dispersive adhesive properties. Decals and stickers that adhere to glass without using any chemical adhesives are fairly common as toys and decorations and useful as removable labels because they do not rapidly lose their adhesive properties, as do sticky tapes that use adhesive chemical compounds. It is important to note that these forces also act over very small distances – 99% of the work necessary to break van der Waals bonds is done once surfaces are pulled more than a nanometer apart.[3] As a result of this limited motion in both the van der Waals and ionic/covalent bonding situations, practical effectiveness of adhesion due to either or both of these interactions leaves much to be desired. Once a crack is initiated, it propagates easily along the interface because of the brittle nature of the interfacial bonds.[7] As an additional consequence, increasing surface area often does little to enhance the strength of the adhesion in this situation. This follows from the aforementioned crack failure – the stress at the interface is not uniformly distributed, but rather concentrated at the area of failure.[3] Electrostatic Some conducting materials may pass electrons to form a difference in electrical charge at the joint. This results in a structure similar to a capacitor and creates an attractive electrostatic force between the materials. Diffusive Some materials may merge at the joint by diffusion. This may occur when the molecules of both materials are mobile and soluble in each other. This would be particularly effective with polymer chains where one end of the molecule diffuses into the other material. It is also the mechanism involved in sintering. When metal or ceramic powders are pressed together and heated, atoms diffuse from one particle to the next. This joins the particles into one.   The interface is indicated by the dotted line. A) Non-crosslinked polymers are somewhat free to diffuse across the interface. One loop and two distal tails are seen diffusing. B) Crosslinked polymers not free enough to diffuse. C) "Scissed" polymers very free, with many tails extending across the interface. Diffusive forces are somewhat like mechanical tethering at the molecular level. Diffusive bonding occurs when species from one surface penetrate into an adjacent surface while still being bound to the phase of their surface of origin. One instructive example is that of polymer-on-polymer surfaces. Diffusive bonding in polymer-on-polymer surfaces is the result of sections of polymer chains from one surface interdigitating with those of an adjacent surface. The freedom of movement of the polymers has a strong effect on their ability to interdigitate, and hence, on diffusive bonding. For example, cross-linked polymers are less capable of diffusion and interdigitation because they are bonded together at many points of contact, and are not free to twist into the adjacent surface. Uncrosslinked polymers (thermoplastics), on the other hand are freer to wander into the adjacent phase by extending tails and loops across the interface. Another circumstance under which diffusive bonding occurs is “scission”. Chain scission is the cutting up of polymer chains, resulting in a higher concentration of distal tails. The heightened concentration of these chain ends gives rise to a heightened concentration of polymer tails extending across the interface. Scission is easily achieved by ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of oxygen gas, which suggests that adhesive devices employing diffusive bonding actually benefit from prolonged exposure to heat/light and air. The longer such a device is exposed to these conditions, the more tails are scissed and branch out across the interface. Once across the interface, the tails and loops form whatever bonds are favorable. In the case of polymer-on-polymer surfaces, this means more van der Waals forces. While these may be brittle, they are quite strong when a large network of these bonds is formed. The outermost layer of each surface plays a crucial role in the adhesive properties of such interfaces, as even a tiny amount of interdigitation – as little as one or two tails of 1.25 angstrom length – can increase the van der Waals bonds by an order of magnitude.[8] Strength The strength of the adhesion between two materials depends on which of the above mechanisms occur between the two materials, and the surface area over which the two materials contact. Materials that wet against each other tend to have a larger contact area than those that do not. Wetting depends on the surface energy of the materials. Low surface energy materials such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyoxymethylene are difficult to bond without special surface preparation. Another factor determining the strength of an adhesive contact is its shape. Adhesive contacts of complex shape begin to detach at the "edges" of the contact area[9]. The process of destruction of adhesive contacts can be seen in the film[10]. Other effects In concert with the primary surface forces described above, there are several circumstantial effects in play. While the forces themselves each contribute to the magnitude of the adhesion between the surfaces, the following play a crucial role in the overall strength and reliability of an adhesive device. Stringing   Fingering process. The hatched area is the receiving substrate, the dotted strip is the tape, and the shaded area in between is the adhesive chemical layer. The arrow indicates the direction of propagation for the fracture. Stringing is perhaps the most crucial of these effects, and is often seen on adhesive tapes. Stringing occurs when a separation of two surfaces is beginning and molecules at the interface bridge out across the gap, rather than cracking like the interface itself. The most significant consequence of this effect is the restraint of the crack. By providing the otherwise brittle interfacial bonds with some flexibility, the molecules that are stringing across the gap can stop the crack from propagating.[3] Another way to understand this phenomenon is by comparing it to the stress concentration at the point of failure mentioned earlier. Since the stress is now spread out over some area, the stress at any given point has less of a chance of overwhelming the total adhesive force between the surfaces. If failure does occur at an interface containing a viscoelastic adhesive agent, and a crack does propagate, it happens by a gradual process called “fingering”, rather than a rapid, brittle fracture.[7] Stringing can apply to both the diffusive bonding regime and the chemical bonding regime. The strings of molecules bridging across the gap would either be the molecules that had earlier diffused across the interface or the viscoelastic adhesive, provided that there was a significant volume of it at the interface. Microstructures The interplay of molecular scale mechanisms and hierarchical surface structures is known to result in high levels of static friction and bonding between pairs of surfaces [11]. Technologically advanced adhesive devices sometimes make use of microstructures on surfaces, such as tightly packed periodic posts. These are biomimetic technologies inspired by the adhesive abilities of the feet of various arthropods and vertebrates (most notably, geckos). By intermixing periodic breaks into smooth, adhesive surfaces, the interface acquires valuable crack-arresting properties. Because crack initiation requires much greater stress than does crack propagation, surfaces like these are much harder to separate, as a new crack has to be restarted every time the next individual microstructure is reached.[12] Hysteresis Hysteresis, in this case, refers to the restructuring of the adhesive interface over some period of time, with the result being that the work needed to separate two surfaces is greater than the work that was gained by bringing them together (W > γ1 + γ2). For the most part, this is a phenomenon associated with diffusive bonding. The more time is given for a pair of surfaces exhibiting diffusive bonding to restructure, the more diffusion will occur, the stronger the adhesion will become. The aforementioned reaction of certain polymer-on-polymer surfaces to ultraviolet radiation and oxygen gas is an instance of hysteresis, but it will also happen over time without those factors. In addition to being able to observe hysteresis by determining if W > γ1 + γ2 is true, one can also find evidence of it by performing “stop-start” measurements. In these experiments, two surfaces slide against one another continuously and occasionally stopped for some measured amount of time. Results from experiments on polymer-on-polymer surfaces show that if the stopping time is short enough, resumption of smooth sliding is easy. If, however, the stopping time exceeds some limit, there is an initial increase of resistance to motion, indicating that the stopping time was sufficient for the surfaces to restructure.[8] Wettability and adsorption Some atmospheric effects on the functionality of adhesive devices can be characterized by following the theory of surface energy and interfacial tension. It is known that γ12 = (1/2)W121 = (1/2)W212. If γ12 is high, then each species finds it favorable to cohere while in contact with a foreign species, rather than dissociate and mix with the other. If this is true, then it follows that when the interfacial tension is high, the force of adhesion is weak, since each species does not find it favorable to bond to the other. The interfacial tension of a liquid and a solid is directly related to the liquid's wettability (relative to the solid), and thus one can extrapolate that cohesion increases in non-wetting liquids and decreases in wetting liquids. One example that verifies this is polydimethyl siloxane rubber, which has a work of self-adhesion of 43.6 mJ/m2 in air, 74 mJ/m2 in water (a nonwetting liquid) and 6 mJ/m2 in methanol (a wetting liquid). This argument can be extended to the idea that when a surface is in a medium with which binding is favorable, it will be less likely to adhere to another surface, since the medium is taking up the potential sites on the surface that would otherwise be available to adhere to another surface. Naturally this applies very strongly to wetting liquids, but also to gas molecules that could adsorb onto the surface in question, thereby occupying potential adhesion sites. This last point is actually fairly intuitive: Leaving an adhesive exposed to air too long gets it dirty, and its adhesive strength will decrease. This is observed in the experiment: when mica is cleaved in air, its cleavage energy, W121 or Wmica/air/mica, is smaller than the cleavage energy in vacuum, Wmica/vac/mica, by a factor of 13.[3] Lateral adhesion Lateral adhesion is the adhesion associated with sliding one object on a substrate such as sliding a drop on a surface. When the two objects are solids, either with or without a liquid between them, the lateral adhesion is described as friction. However, the behavior of lateral adhesion between a drop and a surface is tribologically very different from friction between solids, and the naturally adhesive contact between a flat surface and a liquid drop makes the lateral adhesion in this case, an individual field. Lateral adhesion can be measured using the centrifugal adhesion balance (CAB),[13][14] which uses a combination of centrifugal and gravitational forces to decouple the normal and lateral forces in the problem. See also Adhesive Adhesive bonding Bacterial adhesin Capillary action Cell adhesion Contact mechanics Fracture mechanics Galling Insect adhesion Meniscus Mucoadhesion Pressure-sensitive adhesive Rail adhesion Synthetic setae Cohesion number References   Vert, Michel; Doi, Yoshiharu; Hellwich, Karl-Heinz; Hess, Michael; Hodge, Philip; Kubisa, Przemyslaw; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Schué, François (2012). "Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 84 (2): 377–410. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-12-04.   J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic Press, New York, 1985). chap. 15.   K. Kendall (1994). "Adhesion: Molecules and Mechanics". Science. 263 (5154): 1720–5. doi:10.1126/science.263.5154.1720. PMID 17795378.   Laurén, Susanna. "What is required for good adhesion?". blog.biolinscientific.com. Retrieved 2019-12-31.   F. London, "The General Theory of Molecular Forces" (1936).   Y. Y. Huang; Zhou, Weixing; Hsia, K. J.; Menard, Etienne; Park, Jang-Ung; Rogers, John A.; Alleyne, Andrew G. (2005). "Stamp Collapse in Soft Lithography" (PDF). Langmuir. 21 (17): 8058–68. doi:10.1021/la0502185. PMID 16089420.   Bi-min Zhang Newby, Manoj K. Chaudhury and Hugh R. Brown (1995). "Macroscopic Evidence of the Effect of Interfacial Slippage on Adhesion" (PDF). Science. 269 (5229): 1407–9. doi:10.1126/science.269.5229.1407. PMID 17731150.   N. Maeda; Chen, N; Tirrell, M; Israelachvili, JN (2002). "Adhesion and Friction Mechanisms of Polymer-on-Polymer Surfaces". Science. 297 (5580): 379–82. doi:10.1126/science.1072378. PMID 12130780.   Popov, Valentin L.; Pohrt, Roman; Li, Qiang (2017-09-01). "Strength of adhesive contacts: Influence of contact geometry and material gradients". Friction. 5 (3): 308–325. doi:10.1007/s40544-017-0177-3. ISSN 2223-7690.   Friction Physics (2017-12-06), Science friction: Adhesion of complex shapes, retrieved 2017-12-30   Static Friction at Fractal Interfaces Tribology International 2016, Volume 93   A. Majmuder; Ghatak, A.; Sharma, A. (2007). "Microfluidic Adhesion Induced by Subsurface Microstructures". Science. 318 (5848): 258–61. doi:10.1126/science.1145839. PMID 17932295.   Tadmor, Rafael (2009). "Measurement of Lateral Adhesion Forces at the Interface between a Liquid Drop and a Substrate". Physical Review Letters. 103 (26): 266101. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.103.266101. PMID 20366322.   Tadmor, Rafael; Das, Ratul; Gulec, Semih; Liu, Jie; E. N’guessan, Hartmann; Shah, Meet; S. Wasnik, Priyanka; Yadav, Sakshi B. (2017-04-18). "Solid–Liquid Work of Adhesion". Langmuir. 33 (15): 3594–3600. doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b04437. ISSN 0743-7463. PMID 28121158. Further reading
    • 117 LESSONS AND 33  other lessons FOREX traders can use to learn Forex posting genius And lead the pied pips piper into your wallet dont forget to like and subscribe Visual impairment From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Blind man)   Jump to navigation Jump to search "Blindness" redirects here. For other uses, see Blindness (disambiguation). Visual impairment Other names Vision impairment, vision loss A white cane, the international symbol of blindness Specialty Ophthalmology Symptoms Decreased ability to see[1][2] Complications Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder[3] Causes Uncorrected refractive errors, cataracts, glaucoma[4] Diagnostic method Eye examination[2] Treatment Vision rehabilitation, changes in the environment, assistive devices (eyeglasses, white cane)[2] Frequency 940 million / 13% (2015)[5] Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.[1][2] Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses.[1] Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60.[6] The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss.[6] Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.[2] The most common causes of visual impairment globally are uncorrected refractive errors (43%), cataracts (33%), and glaucoma (2%).[4] Refractive errors include near-sightedness, far-sightedness, presbyopia, and astigmatism.[4] Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness.[4] Other disorders that may cause visual problems include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, corneal clouding, childhood blindness, and a number of infections.[7] Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or trauma among others.[8] These cases are known as cortical visual impairment.[8] Screening for vision problems in children may improve future vision and educational achievement.[9] Screening adults without symptoms is of uncertain benefit.[10] Diagnosis is by an eye exam.[2] The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of visual impairment is either preventable or curable with treatment.[4] This includes cataracts, the infections river blindness and trachoma, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, uncorrected refractive errors, and some cases of childhood blindness.[11] Many people with significant visual impairment benefit from vision rehabilitation, changes in their environment, and assistive devices.[2] As of 2015 there were 940 million people with some degree of vision loss.[5] 246 million had low vision and 39 million were blind.[4] The majority of people with poor vision are in the developing world and are over the age of 50 years.[4] Rates of visual impairment have decreased since the 1990s.[4] Visual impairments have considerable economic costs both directly due to the cost of treatment and indirectly due to decreased ability to work.[12] Contents 1 Classification 1.1 United Kingdom 1.2 United States 2 Health effects 2.1 Associated problems 3 Cause 3.1 Cataracts 3.2 Glaucoma 3.3 Infections 3.4 Injuries 3.5 Genetic defects 3.6 Poisoning 3.7 Other 4 Diagnosis 5 Prevention 6 Management 6.1 Mobility 6.2 Reading and magnification 6.3 Computers and mobile technology 6.4 Other aids and techniques 6.5 Communication 6.6 Healthcare access 7 Epidemiology 8 Society and culture 8.1 Legal definition 8.2 Literature and art 8.3 Sports 8.4 Metaphorical uses 9 Research 10 Other animals 11 See also 12 References 13 External links Classification   A typical Snellen chart that is frequently used for visual acuity testing. The definition of visual impairment is reduced vision not corrected by glasses or contact lenses. The World Health Organization uses the following classifications of visual impairment. When the vision in the better eye with best possible glasses correction is: 20/30 to 20/60 : is considered mild vision loss, or near-normal vision 20/70 to 20/160 : is considered moderate visual impairment, or moderate low vision 20/200 to 20/400 : is considered severe visual impairment, or severe low vision 20/500 to 20/1,000 : is considered profound visual impairment, or profound low vision More than 20/1,000 : is considered near-total visual impairment, or near total blindness No light perception (NLP) : is considered total visual impairment, or total blindness Blindness is defined by the World Health Organization as vision in a person's best eye with best correction of less than 20/500 or a visual field of less than 10 degrees.[6] This definition was set in 1972, and there is ongoing discussion as to whether it should be altered to officially include uncorrected refractive errors.[1] United Kingdom Severely sight impaired Defined as having central visual acuity of less than 3/60 with normal fields of vision, or gross visual field restriction. Unable to see at 3 metres (10 ft) what the normally sighted person sees at 60 metres (200 ft). Sight impaired Able to see at 3 metres (10 ft), but not at 6 metres (20 ft), what the normally sighted person sees at 60 metres (200 ft) Less severe visual impairment is not captured by registration data, and its prevalence is difficult to quantify Low vision A visual acuity of less than 6/18 but greater than 3/60. Not eligible to drive and may have difficulty recognising faces across a street, watching television, or choosing clean, unstained, co-ordinated clothing.[13] In the UK, the Certificate of Vision Impairment (CVI) is used to certify patients as severely sight impaired or sight impaired.[14] The accompanying guidance for clinical staff states: "The National Assistance Act 1948 states that a person can be certified as severely sight impaired if they are "so blind as to be unable to perform any work for which eye sight is essential". Certification is based on whether a person can do any work for which eyesight is essential, not just one particular job (such as their job before becoming blind).[15] In practice, the definition depends on individuals' visual acuity and the extent to which their field of vision is restricted. The Department of Health identifies three groups of people who may be classified as severely visually impaired.[15] Those below 3/60 (equivalent to 20/400 in US notation) Snellen (most people below 3/60 are severely sight impaired). Those better than 3/60 but below 6/60 Snellen (people who have a very contracted field of vision only). Those 6/60 Snellen or above (people in this group who have a contracted field of vision especially if the contraction is in the lower part of the field). The Department of Health also state that a person is more likely to be classified as severely visually impaired if their eyesight has failed recently or if they are an older individual, both groups being perceived as less able to adapt to their vision loss.[15] United States In the United States, any person with vision that cannot be corrected to better than 20/200 in the best eye, or who has 20 degrees (diameter) or less of visual field remaining, is considered legally blind or eligible for disability classification and possible inclusion in certain government sponsored programs. In the United States, the terms partially sighted, low vision, legally blind and totally blind are used by schools, colleges, and other educational institutions to describe students with visual impairments.[16] They are defined as follows: Partially sighted indicates some type of visual problem, with a need of person to receive special education in some cases. Low vision generally refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to distance vision. Low vision applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses. They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of print, and, sometimes, Braille. Myopic – unable to see distant objects clearly, commonly called near-sighted or short-sighted. Hyperopic – unable to see close objects clearly, commonly called far-sighted or long-sighted. Legally blind indicates that a person has less than 20/200 vision in the better eye after best correction (contact lenses or glasses), or a field of vision of less than 20 degrees in the better eye. Totally blind students learn via Braille or other non-visual media. In 1934, the American Medical Association adopted the following definition of blindness: The United States Congress included this definition as part of the Aid to the Blind program in the Social Security Act passed in 1935.[17][18] In 1972, the Aid to the Blind program and two others combined under Title XVI of the Social Security Act to form the Supplemental Security Income program[19] which states: Health effects Visual impairments may take many forms and be of varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not always a good predictor of the degree of problems a person may have. Someone with relatively good acuity (e.g., 20/40) can have difficulty with daily functioning, while someone with worse acuity (e.g., 20/200) may function reasonably well if their visual demands are not great. The American Medical Association has estimated that the loss of one eye equals 25% impairment of the visual system and 24% impairment of the whole person;[21][22] total loss of vision in both eyes is considered to be 100% visual impairment and 85% impairment of the whole person.[21] Some people who fall into this category can use their considerable residual vision – their remaining sight – to complete daily tasks without relying on alternative methods. The role of a low vision specialist (optometrist or ophthalmologist) is to maximize the functional level of a patient's vision by optical or non-optical means. Primarily, this is by use of magnification in the form of telescopic systems for distance vision and optical or electronic magnification for near tasks. People with significantly reduced acuity may benefit from training conducted by individuals trained in the provision of technical aids. Low vision rehabilitation professionals, some of whom are connected to an agency for the blind, can provide advice on lighting and contrast to maximize remaining vision. These professionals also have access to non-visual aids, and can instruct patients in their uses. The subjects making the most use of rehabilitation instruments, who lived alone, and preserved their own mobility and occupation were the least depressed, with the lowest risk of suicide and the highest level of social integration. Those with worsening sight and the prognosis of eventual blindness are at comparatively high risk of suicide and thus may be in need of supportive services. Many studies have demonstrated how rapid acceptance of the serious visual handicap has led to a better, more productive compliance with rehabilitation programs. Moreover, psychological distress has been reported to be at its highest when sight loss is not complete, but the prognosis is unfavorable. Therefore, early intervention is imperative for enabling successful psychological adjustment.[23] Associated problems Blindness can occur in combination with such conditions as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, hearing impairments, and epilepsy.[24][25] Blindness in combination with hearing loss is known as deafblindness. It has been estimated that over half of completely blind people have non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder, a condition in which a person's circadian rhythm, normally slightly longer than 24 hours, is not entrained (synchronized) to the light–dark cycle.[26][27] Cause The most common causes of visual impairment globally in 2010 were: Refractive error (42%) Cataract (33%) Glaucoma (2%) Age-related macular degeneration (1%) Corneal opacification (1%) Diabetic retinopathy (1%) Childhood blindness Trachoma (1%) Undetermined (18%)[7] The most common causes of blindness worldwide in 2010 were: Cataracts (51%) Glaucoma (8%) Age-related macular degeneration (5%) Corneal opacification (4%) Childhood blindness (4%) Refractive errors (3%) Trachoma (3%) Diabetic retinopathy (1%) Undetermined (21%)[7] About 90% of people who are visually impaired live in the developing world.[4] Age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are the leading causes of blindness in the developed world.[28] Among working-age adults who are newly blind in England and Wales the most common causes in 2010 were:[29] Hereditary retinal disorders (20.2%) Diabetic retinopathy (14.4%) Optic atrophy (14.1%) Glaucoma (5.9%) Congenital abnormalities (5.1%) Disorders of the visual cortex (4.1%) Cerebrovascular disease (3.2%) Degeneration of the macula and posterior pole (3.0%) Myopia (2.8%) Corneal disorders (2.6%) Malignant neoplasms of the brain and nervous system (1.5%) Retinal detachment (1.4%) Cataracts Cataracts is the congenital and pediatric pathology that describes the greying or opacity of the crystalline lens, which is most commonly caused by intrauterine infections, metabolic disorders, and genetically transmitted syndromes.[30] Cataracts are the leading cause of child and adult blindness that doubles in prevalence with every ten years after the age of 40.[31] Consequently, today cataracts are more common among adults than in children.[30] That is, people face higher chances of developing cataracts as they age. Nonetheless, cataracts tend to have a greater financial and emotional toll upon children as they must undergo expensive diagnosis, long term rehabilitation, and visual assistance.[32] Also, according to the Saudi Journal for Health Sciences, sometimes patients experience irreversible amblyopia[30] after pediatric cataract surgery because the cataracts prevented the normal maturation of vision prior to operation.[33] Despite the great progress in treatment, cataracts remain a global problem in both economically developed and developing countries.[34] At present, with the variant outcomes as well as the unequal access to cataract surgery, the best way to reduce the risk of developing cataracts is to avoid smoking and extensive exposure to sun light (i.e. UV-B rays).[31] Glaucoma Glaucoma is a congenital and pediatric eye disease characterized by increased pressure within the eye or intraocular pressure (IOP).[35] Glaucoma causes visual field loss as well as severs the optic nerve.[36] Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma in patients is imperative because glaucoma is triggered by non-specific levels of IOP.[36] Also, another challenge in accurately diagnosing glaucoma is that the disease has four causes: 1) inflammatory ocular hypertension syndrome (IOHS); 2) severe uveitic angle closure; 3) corticosteroid-induced; and 4) a heterogonous mechanism associated with structural change and chronic inflammation.[35] In addition, often pediatric glaucoma differs greatly in cause and management from the glaucoma developed by adults.[37] Currently, the best sign of pediatric glaucoma is an IOP of 21 mm Hg or greater present within a child.[37] One of the most common causes of pediatric glaucoma is cataract removal surgery, which leads to an incidence rate of about 12.2% among infants and 58.7% among 10-year-olds.[37] Infections   The burden of onchocerciasis: children leading blind adults in Africa Childhood blindness can be caused by conditions related to pregnancy, such as congenital rubella syndrome and retinopathy of prematurity. Leprosy and onchocerciasis each blind approximately 1 million individuals in the developing world. The number of individuals blind from trachoma has decreased in the past 10 years from 6 million to 1.3 million, putting it in seventh place on the list of causes of blindness worldwide. Central corneal ulceration is also a significant cause of monocular blindness worldwide, accounting for an estimated 850,000 cases of corneal blindness every year in the Indian subcontinent alone. As a result, corneal scarring from all causes is now the fourth greatest cause of global blindness.[38] Injuries   Re-educating wounded. Blind French soldiers learning to make baskets, World War I. Eye injuries, most often occurring in people under 30, are the leading cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye) throughout the United States. Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that sends signals from the eye to the back of the brain, which can lead to decreased visual acuity. Cortical blindness results from injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or interpreting signals from the optic nerve. Symptoms of cortical blindness vary greatly across individuals and may be more severe in periods of exhaustion or stress. It is common for people with cortical blindness to have poorer vision later in the day. Blinding has been used as an act of vengeance and torture in some instances, to deprive a person of a major sense by which they can navigate or interact within the world, act fully independently, and be aware of events surrounding them. An example from the classical realm is Oedipus, who gouges out his own eyes after realizing that he fulfilled the awful prophecy spoken of him. Having crushed the Bulgarians, the Byzantine Emperor Basil II blinded as many as 15,000 prisoners taken in the battle, before releasing them.[39] Contemporary examples include the addition of methods such as acid throwing as a form of disfigurement. Genetic defects People with albinism often have vision loss to the extent that many are legally blind, though few of them actually cannot see. Leber congenital amaurosis can cause total blindness or severe sight loss from birth or early childhood. Recent advances in mapping of the human genome have identified other genetic causes of low vision or blindness. One such example is Bardet–Biedl syndrome. Poisoning Rarely, blindness is caused by the intake of certain chemicals. A well-known example is methanol, which is only mildly toxic and minimally intoxicating, and breaks down into the substances formaldehyde and formic acid which in turn can cause blindness, an array of other health complications, and death.[40] When competing with ethanol for metabolism, ethanol is metabolized first, and the onset of toxicity is delayed. Methanol is commonly found in methylated spirits, denatured ethyl alcohol, to avoid paying taxes on selling ethanol intended for human consumption. Methylated spirits are sometimes used by alcoholics as a desperate and cheap substitute for regular ethanol alcoholic beverages. Other Amblyopia: is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or coexisting ocular diseases.[41] Amblyopia is the condition when a child's visual systems fail to mature normally because the child either suffers from a premature birth, measles, congenital nubella syndrome, vitamin A deficiency, or meningitis.[42] If left untreated during childhood, amblyopia is currently incurable in adulthood because surgical treatment effectiveness changes as a child matures.[42] Consequently, amblyopia is the world's leading cause of child monocular vision loss, which is the damage or loss of vision in one eye.[41] In the best case scenario, which is very rare, properly treated amblyopia patients can regain 20/40 acuity.[41] Corneal opacification Degenerative myopia Diabetic retinopathy: is one of the manifestation microvascular complications of diabetes, which is characterized by blindness or reduced acuity. That is, diabetic retinopathy describes the retinal and vitreous hemorrhages or retinal capillary blockage caused by the increase of A1C,[43] which a measurement of blood glucose or sugar level.[44] In fact, as A1C increases, people tend to be at greater risk of developing diabetic retinopathy than developing other microvascular complications associated with diabetes (e.g. chronic hyperglycemia, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic nephropathy).[43] Despite the fact that only 8% of adults 40 years and older experience vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (e.g. nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or NPDR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy or PDR), this eye diseased accounted for 17% of cases of blindness in 2002.[43] Retinitis pigmentosa Retinopathy of prematurity: The most common cause of blindness in infants worldwide. In its most severe form, ROP causes retinal detachment, with attendant visual loss. Treatment is aimed mainly at prevention, via laser or Avastin therapy. Stargardt's disease Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases[45] caused by infections, systemic diseases, organ-specific autoimmune processes, cancer or trauma.[46] That is, uveitis refers to a complex category of ocular diseases that can cause blindness if either left untreated or improperly diagnosed.[46] The current challenge of accurately diagnosing uveitis is that often the cause of a specific ocular inflammation is either unknown or multi-layered.[45] Consequently, about 3–10% uveitis victims in developed countries, and about 25% of victims in the developing countries, become blind from incorrect diagnosis and from ineffectual prescription of drugs, antibiotics or steroids.[46] In addition, uveitis is a diverse category of eye diseases that are subdivided as granulomatous (or tumorous) or non-granulomatous anterior, intermediate, posterior or pan uveitis.[46] In other words, uveitis diseases tend to be classified by their anatomic location in the eye (e.g. uveal tract, retina, or lens), as well as can create complication that can cause cataracts, glaucoma, retinal damage, age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.[46] Xerophthalmia, often due to vitamin A deficiency, is estimated to affect 5 million children each year; 500,000 develop active corneal involvement, and half of these go blind. Diagnosis Play media   Scientists track eye movements in glaucoma patients to check vision impairment while driving It is important that people be examined by someone specializing in low vision care prior to other rehabilitation training to rule out potential medical or surgical correction for the problem and to establish a careful baseline refraction and prescription of both normal and low vision glasses and optical aids. Only a doctor is qualified to evaluate visual functioning of a compromised visual system effectively.[47] The American Medical Association provides an approach to evaluating visual loss as it affects an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living.[21] Screening adults who have no symptoms is of uncertain benefit.[10] Prevention The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of visual loss is either preventable or curable with treatment.[4] This includes cataracts, onchocerciasis, trachoma, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, uncorrected refractive errors, and some cases of childhood blindness.[11] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that half of blindness in the United States is preventable.[2] Management   Tommy Edison, a blind film critic, demonstrates for his viewers how a blind person can cook alone. Mobility   Folded long cane   A blind man is assisted by a guide dog in Brasília, Brazil   Blind girl feels shape of vehicle near Mana village, Uttarakhand   Visually impaired girl negotiating a rock while rock climbing Many people with serious visual impairments can travel independently, using a wide range of tools and techniques. Orientation and mobility specialists are professionals who are specifically trained to teach people with visual impairments how to travel safely, confidently, and independently in the home and the community. These professionals can also help blind people to practice travelling on specific routes which they may use often, such as the route from one's house to a convenience store. Becoming familiar with an environment or route can make it much easier for a blind person to navigate successfully. Tools such as the white cane with a red tip – the international symbol of blindness – may also be used to improve mobility. A long cane is used to extend the user's range of touch sensation. It is usually swung in a low sweeping motion, across the intended path of travel, to detect obstacles. However, techniques for cane travel can vary depending on the user and/or the situation. Some visually impaired persons do not carry these kinds of canes, opting instead for the shorter, lighter identification (ID) cane. Still others require a support cane. The choice depends on the individual's vision, motivation, and other factors. A small number of people employ guide dogs to assist in mobility. These dogs are trained to navigate around various obstacles, and to indicate when it becomes necessary to go up or down a step. However, the helpfulness of guide dogs is limited by the inability of dogs to understand complex directions. The human half of the guide dog team does the directing, based upon skills acquired through previous mobility training. In this sense, the handler might be likened to an aircraft's navigator, who must know how to get from one place to another, and the dog to the pilot, who gets them there safely. GPS devices can also be used as a mobility aid. Such software can assist blind people with orientation and navigation, but it is not a replacement for traditional mobility tools such as white canes and guide dogs. Some blind people are skilled at echolocating silent objects simply by producing mouth clicks and listening to the returning echoes. It has been shown that blind echolocation experts use what is normally the "visual" part of their brain to process the echoes.[48][49] Government actions are sometimes taken to make public places more accessible to blind people. Public transportation is freely available to the blind in many cities. Tactile paving and audible traffic signals can make it easier and safer for visually impaired pedestrians to cross streets. In addition to making rules about who can and cannot use a cane, some governments mandate the right-of-way be given to users of white canes or guide dogs. Reading and magnification   Braille watch Most visually impaired people who are not totally blind read print, either of a regular size or enlarged by magnification devices. Many also read large-print, which is easier for them to read without such devices. A variety of magnifying glasses, some handheld, and some on desktops, can make reading easier for them. Others read Braille (or the infrequently used Moon type), or rely on talking books and readers or reading machines, which convert printed text to speech or Braille. They use computers with special hardware such as scanners and refreshable Braille displays as well as software written specifically for the blind, such as optical character recognition applications and screen readers. Some people access these materials through agencies for the blind, such as the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in the United States, the National Library for the Blind or the RNIB in the United Kingdom. Closed-circuit televisions, equipment that enlarges and contrasts textual items, are a more high-tech alternative to traditional magnification devices. There are also over 100 radio reading services throughout the world that provide people with vision impairments with readings from periodicals over the radio. The International Association of Audio Information Services provides links to all of these organizations. Computers and mobile technology Access technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers and refreshable Braille displays enable the blind to use mainstream computer applications and mobile phones. The availability of assistive technology is increasing, accompanied by concerted efforts to ensure the accessibility of information technology to all potential users, including the blind. Later versions of Microsoft Windows include an Accessibility Wizard & Magnifier for those with partial vision, and Microsoft Narrator, a simple screen reader. Linux distributions (as live CDs) for the blind include Vinux and Adriane Knoppix, the latter developed in part by Adriane Knopper who has a visual impairment. macOS and iOS also come with a built-in screen reader called VoiceOver, while Google TalkBack is built in to most Android devices. The movement towards greater web accessibility is opening a far wider number of websites to adaptive technology, making the web a more inviting place for visually impaired surfers. Experimental approaches in sensory substitution are beginning to provide access to arbitrary live views from a camera. Modified visual output that includes large print and/or clear simple graphics can be of benefit to users with some residual vision.[50] Other aids and techniques   A tactile feature on a Canadian banknote Blind people may use talking equipment such as thermometers, watches, clocks, scales, calculators, and compasses. They may also enlarge or mark dials on devices such as ovens and thermostats to make them usable. Other techniques used by blind people to assist them in daily activities include: Adaptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by touch. For example: In some currencies, such as the euro, the pound sterling and the Indian rupee, the size of a note increases with its value. On US coins, pennies and dimes, and nickels and quarters are similar in size. The larger denominations (dimes and quarters) have ridges along the sides (historically used to prevent the "shaving" of precious metals from the coins), which can now be used for identification. Some currencies' banknotes have a tactile feature to indicate denomination. For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not standard Braille.[51] It is also possible to fold notes in different ways to assist recognition. Labeling and tagging clothing and other personal items Placing different types of food at different positions on a dinner plate Marking controls of household appliances Most people, once they have been visually impaired for long enough, devise their own adaptive strategies in all areas of personal and professional management. For the blind, there are books in braille, audio-books, and text-to-speech computer programs, machines and e-book readers. Low vision people can make use of these tools as well as large-print reading materials and e-book readers that provide large font sizes. Computers are important tools of integration for the visually impaired person. They allow, using standard or specific programs, screen magnification and conversion of text into sound or touch (Braille line), and are useful for all levels of visual handicap. OCR scanners can, in conjunction with text-to-speech software, read the contents of books and documents aloud via computer. Vendors also build closed-circuit televisions that electronically magnify paper, and even change its contrast and color, for visually impaired users. For more information, consult Assistive technology. In adults with low vision there is no conclusive evidence supporting one form of reading aid over another.[52] In several studies stand-mounted devices allowed faster reading than hand-held or portable optical aids.[52] While electronic aids may allow faster reading for individuals with low vision, portability, ease of use, and affordability must be considered for people.[52] Children with low vision sometimes have reading delays, but do benefit from phonics-based beginning reading instruction methods. Engaging phonics instruction is multisensory, highly motivating, and hands-on. Typically students are first taught the most frequent sounds of the alphabet letters, especially the so-called short vowel sounds, then taught to blend sounds together with three-letter consonant-vowel-consonant words such as cat, red, sit, hot, sun. Hands-on (or kinesthetically appealing) VERY enlarged print materials such as those found in "The Big Collection of Phonics Flipbooks" by Lynn Gordon (Scholastic, 2010) are helpful for teaching word families and blending skills to beginning readers with low vision. Beginning reading instructional materials should focus primarily on the lower-case letters, not the capital letters (even though they are larger) because reading text requires familiarity (mostly) with lower-case letters. Phonics-based beginning reading should also be supplemented with phonemic awareness lessons, writing opportunities, and lots of read-alouds (literature read to children daily) to stimulate motivation, vocabulary development, concept development, and comprehension skill development. Many children with low vision can be successfully included in regular education environments. Parents may need to be vigilant to ensure that the school provides the teacher and students with appropriate low vision resources, for example technology in the classroom, classroom aide time, modified educational materials, and consultation assistance with low vision experts. Communication Communication with the visually impaired can be more difficult than communicating with someone who doesn't have vision loss. However, many people are uncomfortable with communicating with the blind, and this can cause communication barriers. One of the biggest obstacles in communicating with visually impaired individuals comes from face-to-face interactions.[53] There are many factors that can cause the sighted to become uncomfortable while communicating face to face. There are many non-verbal factors that hinder communication between the visually impaired and the sighted, more often than verbal factors do. These factors, which Rivka Bialistock[53] mentions in her article, include: Lack of facial expressions, mimics, or body gestures/responses Non-verbal gestures that could imply the visually impaired individual not appearing interested Speaking when not anticipated or not speaking when anticipated Fear of offending the visually impaired Standing too close and invading the personal comfort level Having to exercise or ignore feelings of pity Being uncomfortable with touching objects or people A look of detachment or disengagement Dependency Being reminded of the fear of becoming blind The blind person sends these signals or types of non-verbal communication without being aware that they are doing so. These factors can all affect the way an individual would feel about communicating with the visually impaired. This leaves the visually impaired feeling rejected and lonely. Adjusting attitude In the article Towards better communication, from the interest point of view. Or—skills of sight-glish for the blind and visually impaired, the author, Rivka Bialistock [53] comes up with a method to reduce individuals being uncomfortable with communicating with the visually impaired. This method is called blind-glish or sight-glish, which is a language for the blind, similar to English. For example, babies, who are not born and able to talk right away, communicate through sight-glish, simply seeing everything and communicating non-verbally. This comes naturally to sighted babies, and by teaching this same method to babies with a visual impairment can improve their ability to communicate better, from the very beginning. To avoid the rejected feeling of the visually impaired, people need to treat the blind the same way they would treat anyone else, rather than treating them like they have a disability, and need special attention. People may feel that it is improper to, for example, tell their blind child to look at them when they are speaking. However, this contributes to the sight-glish method.[53] It is important to disregard any mental fears or uncomfortable feelings people have while communicating (verbally and non-verbally) face-to-face. Surroundings Individuals with a visual disability not only have to find ways to communicate effectively with the people around them, but their environment as well. The blind or visually impaired rely largely on their other senses such as hearing, touch, and smell in order to understand their surroundings.[54] Sound Sound is one of the most important senses that the blind or visually impaired use in order to locate objects in their surroundings. A form of echolocation is used, similarly to that of a bat.[55] Echolocation from a person's perspective is when the person uses sound waves generated from speech or other forms of noise such as cane tapping, which reflect off of objects and bounce back at the person giving them a rough idea of where the object is. This does not mean they can depict details based on sound but rather where objects are in order to interact, or avoid them. Increases in atmospheric pressure and humidity increase a person's ability to use sound to their advantage as wind or any form of background noise impairs it.[54] Touch Touch is also an important aspect of how blind or visually impaired people perceive the world. Touch gives immense amount of information in the person's immediate surrounding. Feeling anything with detail gives off information on shape, size, texture, temperature, and many other qualities. Touch also helps with communication; braille is a form of communication in which people use their fingers to feel elevated bumps on a surface and can understand what is meant to be interpreted.[56] There are some issues and limitations with touch as not all objects are accessible to feel, which makes it difficult to perceive the actual object. Another limiting factor is that the learning process of identifying objects with touch is much slower than identifying objects with sight. This is due to the fact the object needs to be approached and carefully felt until a rough idea can be constructed in the brain.[54] Smell Certain smells can be associated with specific areas and help a person with vision problems to remember a familiar area. This way there is a better chance of recognizing an area's layout in order to navigate themselves through. The same can be said for people as well. Some people have their own special odor that a person with a more trained sense of smell can pick up. A person with an impairment of their vision can use this to recognize people within their vicinity without them saying a word.[54] Communication development Visual impairment can have profound effects on the development of infant and child communication. The language and social development of a child or infant can be very delayed by the inability to see the world around them. Social development Social development includes interactions with the people surrounding the infant in the beginning of its life. To a child with vision, a smile from a parent is the first symbol of recognition and communication, and is almost an instant factor of communication. For a visually impaired infant, recognition of a parent's voice will be noticed at approximately two months old, but a smile will only be evoked through touch between parent and baby. This primary form of communication is greatly delayed for the child and will prevent other forms of communication from developing. Social interactions are more complicated because subtle visual cues are missing and facial expressions from others are lost. Due to delays in a child's communication development, they may appear to be disinterested in social activity with peers, non-communicative and uneducated on how to communicate with other people. This may cause the child to be avoided by peers and consequently overprotected by family members. Language development With sight, much of what is learned by a child is learned through imitation of others, whereas a visually impaired child needs very planned instruction directed at the development of postponed imitation. A visually impaired infant may jabber and imitate words sooner than a sighted child, but may show delay when combining words to say themselves, the child may tend to initiate few questions and their use of adjectives is infrequent. Normally the child's sensory experiences are not readily coded into language and this may cause them to store phrases and sentences in their memory and repeat them out of context. The language of the blind child does not seem to mirror their developing knowledge of the world, but rather their knowledge of the language of others. A visually impaired child may also be hesitant to explore the world around them due to fear of the unknown and also may be discouraged from exploration by overprotective family members. Without concrete experiences, the child is not able to develop meaningful concepts or the language to describe or think about them.[57] Healthcare access Visual impairment has the ability to create consequences for health and well being. Visual impairment is increasing, especially among older people. It is recognized that those individuals with visual impairment are likely to have limited access to information and healthcare facilities, and may not receive the best care possible because not all health care professionals are aware of specific needs related to vision. Accommodation may require alternative means of communication.[58] Epidemiology The WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 285 million visually impaired people in the world, of which 246 million had low vision and 39 million were blind.[4] Of those who are blind 90% live in the developing world.[58] Worldwide for each blind person, an average of 3.4 people have low vision, with country and regional variation ranging from 2.4 to 5.5.[59] By age: Visual impairment is unequally distributed across age groups. More than 82% of all people who are blind are 50 years of age and older, although they represent only 19% of the world's population. Due to the expected number of years lived in blindness (blind years), childhood blindness remains a significant problem, with an estimated 1.4 million blind children below age 15. By gender: Available studies consistently indicate that in every region of the world, and at all ages, females have a significantly higher risk of being visually impaired than males. By geography: Visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world. More than 90% of the world's visually impaired live in developing countries.[59] Since the estimates of the 1990s, new data based on the 2002 global population show a reduction in the number of people who are blind or visually impaired, and those who are blind from the effects of infectious diseases, but an increase in the number of people who are blind from conditions related to longer life spans.[59] In 1987, it was estimated that 598,000 people in the United States met the legal definition of blindness.[60] Of this number, 58% were over the age of 65.[60] In 1994–1995, 1.3 million Americans reported legal blindness.[61] Society and culture See also: List of blind people and Blind musicians Legal definition To determine which people qualify for special assistance because of their visual disabilities, various governments have specific definitions for legal blindness.[62] In North America and most of Europe, legal blindness is defined as visual acuity (vision) of 20/200 (6/60) or less in the better eye with best correction possible. This means that a legally blind individual would have to stand 20 feet (6.1 m) from an object to see it—with corrective lenses—with the same degree of clarity as a normally sighted person could from 200 feet (61 m). In many areas, people with average acuity who nonetheless have a visual field of less than 20 degrees (the norm being 180 degrees) are also classified as being legally blind. Approximately fifteen percent of those deemed legally blind, by any measure, have no light or form perception. The rest have some vision, from light perception alone to relatively good acuity. Low vision is sometimes used to describe visual acuities from 20/70 to 20/200.[63] Literature and art See also: Blindness in literature Antiquity The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted the blind in their ceramics.[64] In Greek myth, Tiresias was a prophet famous for his clairvoyance. According to one myth, he was blinded by the gods as punishment for revealing their secrets, while another holds that he was blinded as punishment after he saw Athena naked while she was bathing. In the Odyssey, the one-eyed Cyclops Polyphemus captures Odysseus, who blinds Polyphemus to escape. In Norse mythology, Loki tricks the blind god Höðr into killing his brother Baldr, the god of happiness. The New Testament contains numerous instances of Jesus performing miracles to heal the blind. According to the Gospels, Jesus healed the two blind men of Galilee, the blind man of Bethsaida, the blind man of Jericho and the man who was born blind. The parable of the blind men and an elephant has crossed between many religious traditions and is part of Jain, Buddhist, Sufi and Hindu lore. In various versions of the tale, a group of blind men (or men in the dark) touch an elephant to learn what it is like. Each one feels a different part, but only one part, such as the side or the tusk. They then compare notes and learn that they are in complete disagreement. "Three Blind Mice" is a medieval English nursery rhyme about three blind mice whose tails are cut off after chasing the farmer's wife. The work is explicitly incongruous, ending with the comment Did you ever see such a sight in your life, As three blind mice? Modern times   Blind Woman by Diego Velázquez   The Sense of Touch by Jusepe de Ribera depicts a blind man holding a marble head in his hands. Poet John Milton, who went blind in mid-life, composed On His Blindness, a sonnet about coping with blindness. The work posits that [those] who best Bear [God]'s mild yoke, they serve him best. The Dutch painter and engraver Rembrandt often depicted scenes from the apocryphal Book of Tobit, which tells the story of a blind patriarch who is healed by his son, Tobias, with the help of the archangel Raphael.[65] Slaver-turned-abolitionist John Newton composed the hymn Amazing Grace about a wretch who "once was lost, but now am found, Was blind, but now I see." Blindness, in this sense, is used both metaphorically (to refer to someone who was ignorant but later became knowledgeable) and literally, as a reference to those healed in the Bible. In the later years of his life, Newton himself would go blind. H. G. Wells' story "The Country of the Blind" explores what would happen if a sighted man found himself trapped in a country of blind people to emphasise society's attitude to blind people by turning the situation on its head. Bob Dylan's anti-war song "Blowin' in the Wind" twice alludes to metaphorical blindness: How many times can a man turn his head // and pretend that he just doesn't see... How many times must a man look up // Before he can see the sky? Contemporary fiction contains numerous well-known blind characters. Some of these characters can see by means of devices, such as the Marvel Comics superhero Daredevil, who can see via his super-human hearing acuity, or Star Trek's Geordi La Forge, who can see with the aid of a VISOR, a fictional device that transmits optical signals to his brain. Sports Blind and partially sighted people participate in sports, such as swimming, snow skiing and athletics. Some sports have been invented or adapted for the blind, such as goalball, association football, cricket, golf, tennis, bowling, and beep baseball.[66][67] The worldwide authority on sports for the blind is the International Blind Sports Federation.[68][69] People with vision impairments have participated in the Paralympic Games since the 1976 Toronto summer Paralympics.[70] Metaphorical uses The word "blind" (adjective and verb) is often used to signify a lack of knowledge of something. For example, a blind date is a date in which the people involved have not previously met; a blind experiment is one in which information is kept from either the experimenter or the participant to mitigate the placebo effect or observer bias. The expression "blind leading the blind" refers to incapable people leading other incapable people. Being blind to something means not understanding or being aware of it. A "blind spot" is an area where someone cannot see: for example, where a car driver cannot see because parts of his car's bodywork are in the way; metaphorically, a topic on which an individual is unaware of their own biases, and therefore of the resulting distortions of their own judgements (see Bias blind spot). Research Main article: Visual prosthesis A 2008 study tested the effect of using gene therapy to help restore the sight of patients with a rare form of inherited blindness, known as Leber's congenital amaurosis or LCA.[71] Leber's Congenital Amaurosis damages the light receptors in the retina and usually begins affecting sight in early childhood, with worsening vision until complete blindness around the age of 30. The study used a common cold virus to deliver a normal version of the gene called RPE65 directly into the eyes of affected patients. Remarkably, all 3 patients, aged 19, 22 and 25, responded well to the treatment and reported improved vision following the procedure. Due to the age of the patients and the degenerative nature of LCA, the improvement of vision in gene therapy patients is encouraging for researchers. It is hoped that gene therapy may be even more effective in younger LCA patients who have experienced limited vision loss, as well as in other blind or partially blind individuals. Two experimental treatments for retinal problems include a cybernetic replacement and transplant of fetal retinal cells.[72] Other animals Main article: Blindness in animals Statements that certain species of mammals are "born blind" refers to them being born with their eyes closed and their eyelids fused together; the eyes open later. One example is the rabbit. In humans, the eyelids are fused for a while before birth, but open again before the normal birth time; however, very premature babies are sometimes born with their eyes fused shut, and opening later. Other animals, such as the blind mole rat, are truly blind and rely on other senses.[citation needed] The theme of blind animals has been a powerful one in literature. Peter Shaffer's Tony Award-winning play, Equus, tells the story of a boy who blinds six horses. Theodore Taylor's classic young adult novel, The Trouble With Tuck, is about a teenage girl, Helen, who trains her blind dog to follow and trust a seeing-eye dog. See also Acute visual loss Blindness and education Color blindness Diplopia Nyctalopia Recovery from blindness Stereoblindness Tactile alphabet Tactile graphic Tangible symbol systems Visual agnosia Visual impairment due to intracranial pressure World Blind Union References   "Change the Definition of Blindness" (PDF). World Health Organization. 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