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Being prepared to take decisive and timely action is key to being a successful trader. The inputs to making a decision must be quickly recognized in order to formulate your action plan. Defining possible scenarios, and training yourself to recognize market conditions is the first step in making the decision. Without a correct and complete assessment of the current conditions, and the possible outcomes, a rational decision can not be made.

 

I don't like being "caught by surprise". This article will attempt to define basic and generic trading situations and then list the questions that must be asked in order to make a good decision. I am calling this a "Decision Cycle", and it is similar to a decision making flow chart. I'm trying to create a guide that is precise and well defined. I can then memorize the "Decision Cycles" and train my mind to process market conditions in a very structured and unbiased way. The goal is to create a very mechanical and "robotic" decision making system, but hopefully not at the expense of common sense. For the decision system to avoid serious flaws, it must not have an incomplete list of possible trading situations. Included is a list of possible generic trading situations we might all find ourselves in.

 

In the past, I've created decision making documents that focused too much on details specific to my indicators and market conditions. This created an overly complicated and lengthy document that I ended up never using. When I changed the focus to something more generic and basic, I started to realize that there are only a few possible trading scenarios that I can get myself into, like, . . . "Did I make a good entry or not?" It's a simple and straight forward question. Nothing complicated. The analysis specific to my indicators can be slightly more complicated, but if I start with a simple question, then the decision making is more straight forward.

 

But before defining the possible trading situations, I'd like to just list what I'm calling the "Decision Cycle".

 

1. Establish current price direction and trend.

2. Establish the current status of your indicators.

3. Enter trade on signal

4. Determine which trading situation you are in, from the list of possible trading scenarios.

5. Follow the guidelines for that trading situation, and then branch and cycle through the decision making process.

6. Once critical and high priority decisions have been made, immediately re-evaluate the current trend and indicator status. Decide ahead of time what the possible next scenarios might be, and what possible combinations of different signals might mean.

7. Once a new trade signal happens and/or the trade is exited, re-establish what the current price direction, price trend, and indicator status is. Match the current market conditions and trade situation to your defined trading scenarios and follow the plan

COMPONENTS OF DECISION CYCLES

 

  • ENTRY
  • EXIT
  • RE-ENTRY - IMMEDIATE
  • RE-ENTRY ON RETRACEMENT
  • REVERSAL
  • GOOD ENTRY or GOOD RE-ENTRY
  • BAD ENTRY or BAD RE-ENTRY
  • GOOD EXIT
  • VIABLE, BUT LESS THAN OPTIMAL ENTRY
  • PROFITABLE, BUT LESS THAN OPTIMAL EXIT
  • BAD EXIT
  • TWO BAD EXITS IN A ROW
  • THREE BAD EXITS IN A ROW
  • STATE OF MIND CHECK
  • RESET

 

 

I don't think that the above entries and exit's need to be defined. They are self-explanatory. But I do want to note something about the "BAD EXIT"

 

  • BAD EXIT - I'm not defining a "Bad Exit" as a loss. You can't have 100% winning trades. So not every loss is a "Bad Exit", . . . it depends. A loss on a trade could have been an excellent trading decision. A "Bad Exit" is when you let the loss run more than you should have. And letting the loss run more than you should have is about making a poor decision. And making a decision in a bad situation is based upon how negative results affect you emotionally, and then how you deal with the discomfort. So a Bad Exit is defined as much by how well or poorly you dealt with negative results and discomfort, as it has to do with the amount of the loss. In fact, the amount of the loss is almost immaterial if it is within an allowable range of your strategy, and your strategy makes money.

 

Definitions:

  • Confirmation - An indication that the price is moving in the direction of your trade.
  • Reversal - exit one trade and immediately re-enter another trade in the opposite direction.

 

DECISION CYCLES

  • ENTRY
    • Enter on Signal
    • Watch for Confirmation
    • Confirmation happens
      • Manage trade - Switch to "GOOD ENTRY" cycle

      [*]Confirmation does NOT happens

      • Exit or reverse immediately
      • Switch to "BAD ENTRY" cycle

     

     

     

    [*]EXIT

    • Before the exit happens, determine whether the next exit could be a reversal point.

    • Exit or Reverse on signal

    • After exit or reversal determine what the trend status is
      • If the exit was a reversal, then switch to REVERSAL cycle

     

     

     

     

    [*]RE-ENTRY

    • Weakness in trend and/or Retracement possible
      • Determine how big the retracement could possibly be, and wait for entry signal

      [*]Watch for Confirmation

      • Manage trade - Switch to "EXIT" cycle

      [*]Confirmation does NOT happens

      • Switch to "BAD ENTRY" cycle

     

     

     

    [*]REVERSAL

    • Look for confirmation of trend reversal

    • Trend reversal confirmed
      • Switch to GOOD ENTRY cycle

    • No reversal confirmation
      • Immediately exit or reverse back in original direction
      • Switch to BAD ENTRY cycle

     

     

     

    [*]GOOD ENTRY

    • Take the time to re-evaluate all your indicators, and the long and short price trend
    • Evaluate what the next phase of the trend could be, retracement, reversal, conflicted or consolidation.
    • Switch over to the exit cycle

     

     

     

    [*]BAD ENTRY or BAD RE-ENTRY

    • Look for signs of a conflicted market or price consolidation.
    • Price consolidation will mean a choppy, and sideways price range that can be confusing and difficult to trade. Evaluate the longer trend.
    • A conflicted market creates seemingly undefined trends, with no real direction and no discernible reason for price behavior. It may be a period of indecision. Check your state of mind, and ability to deal with the confusion.
    • Evaluate long trend
    • Long trend still the same
      • Switch to VIABLE, BUT LESS THAN OPTIMAL ENTRY cycle

      [*]Long trend has failed or shown a reversal signal

      • Reverse

     

     

     

    [*]GOOD EXIT

    • Evaluate short and long trend status
      • Trend still valid
        • Switch to RE-ENTRY cycle

     

     

     

    [*]PROFITABLE, BUT LESS THAN OPTIMAL EXIT

    • The assumption here is that you either made a mistake and mis-read market conditions, or the price overshot a normally legitimate exit signal.
    • I often see situations where the price continues strongly, but then retraces. If you chase the price, you can get caught entering an order exactly at the wrong point. If you wait to long, you can miss the opportunity. But once you get into the mentality of chasing price and feeling bad that you missed an opportunity, you can start trading the wrong part of the price cycle.
    • If price overshot the exit signal, it could mean that there will be a substantial retracement in the trend.

     

     

     

    [*]VIABLE, BUT LESS THAN OPTIMAL ENTRY

    • Determine how big the retracement (drawdown) could possibly be, and whether exiting and re-entering would in the original trend direction would minimize loss and maximize profit.
    • If you decide to stay in the trade and take the draw down before the potential change in the direction of your trade, make sure that support or resistance (depending upon a long or short trade) for the retracement is not broken. You must have criteria for how much retracement is valid before it becomes a trend reversal.
    • Decide ahead of time what your action plan is for another, second price move against your trade. If you can not come up with an action plan based on signals, and the signals meeting a certain criteria, then exit the trade and switch to STATE OF MIND check decision cycle.
    • Watch for confirmation of the trend moving in your favor, if that happens, switch to the EXIT cycle.
    • Trade move against you to the point where it's obvious that it was a bad entry. Count this as two bad entries. Switch to TWO BAD EXITS.

     

     

     

    [*]BAD EXIT

    • RESET

     

     

     

    [*]TWO or THREE BAD EXITS IN A ROW

    • Are you in the wrong State of Mind to be making good trading decisions?
    • Switch to the RESET decision cycle.

     

     

    [*]RESET

    • Start from the very beginning of the process. Re-evaluate the short and long term status and trends of price and all indicators.
    • Wait for a viable entry setup.

     

     

     

    [*]STATE OF MIND CHECK

    • Can you recover quickly from the bad state of mind? If not, consider exiting existing trades, and take time to recover.
    • Reset

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i developed something similar to this for myself but this goes into more detail, thanks a lot!!!

 

I tried keeping it as generic as possible. There could definitely be more detail. Plus I may have overlooked some things, or not made the decision flow perfect. I was trying to create a foundational document to build upon.

 

Ultimately, I'd like to have some logic defined for an automated system. If I can get the decision making defined well enough to convert to code, that would make the programing easier.

 

Thanks for commenting. If anyone has suggestions, examples, refinements, etc. feel free to make a contribution. Hopefully I can apply some details of my strategy to this framework and make another post.

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This post further defines degrees of a bad entry.

 

  • Enter Long at the Peak of a trend
  • Enter Long on the first move down of a down trend
  • Enter Long Part way down a down trend
  • Enter Long Almost at the bottom of a down trend
  • Enter Long at the very bottom of a down trend

 

Each of the above situations has a different degree of risk and disadvantage. Entering a Long order at the Peak as price is going up, is a much worse situation than entering long as price is going down, slightly before the real bottom of the down trend.

 

Real trading is more complicated than the above 5 possibilities. A long trend may have a retracement, then continue in a second phase of the long trend. You may not know whether the downward move in price is a retracement of an extended longer trend, or the first move down in a down trend.

 

The optimal situation is that a trader has a way to determine what is a retracement down in a long trend, or the first move down of a down trend. Both those situations can look and behave identically or almost identically. And the distinction between the two may not be apparent until after the change has already happened. Therefore you will be reacting well after the optimal window of opportunity has passed.

 

Deciding to suffer "draw down" from the worst situation compared to the next to best situation can have quite different consequences. Taking some draw down on a long entry just before a reversal up can turn out well. Taking draw down on a long entry that was entered at the first down move of a downtrend can turn out badly, especially if the second move down is fast and large. Then if you mistake the second move down for the bottom, and wait, then you could suffer a third move down.

 

In the optimal situation, a trader can determine the difference between a retracement before the second phase of an extended uptrend, and the first move down of a down trend. Let's assume the optimal situation. Even under the optimal situation, the trader must react very quickly, and you may be late unless you guess at what the next price move may be ahead of time and enter orders ahead of time.

 

So even under the optimal situation, a slight loss, and then a less than optimal re-entry may be unavoidable.

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    • Dictionary Thesaurus Medical Dictionary Legal Dictionary Financial Dictionary Acronyms Idioms Encyclopedia Wikipedia Encyclopedia Tools A A A A Language:     Mobile Apps: apple android For surfers: Free toolbar & extensions Word of the Day Bookmark Help For webmasters: Free content Linking Lookup box Close Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. useless Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to useless: indubitably, predecessor, abruptly use·less  (yo͞os′lĭs) adj. 1. a. Being or having no beneficial use; ineffective: This pen is useless because it's out of ink. See Synonyms at futile. b. Having no purpose or reason; pointless; to no avail: It's useless to argue over matters of taste. 2. Incapable of acting or functioning effectively; ineffectual or inept: He panics easily and is useless in an emergency. use′less·ly adv. use′less·ness n. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. useless (ˈjuːslɪs) adj 1. having no practical use or advantage 2. informal ineffectual, weak, or stupid: he's useless at history. ˈuselessly adv ˈuselessness n Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 use•less (ˈyus lɪs) adj. 1. of no use; not serving the purpose or any purpose; unavailing. 2. without useful qualities; of no practical good. [1585–95] use′less•ly, adv. use′less•ness, n. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Adj. 1. useless - having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully; "a kitchen full of useless gadgets"; "she is useless in an emergency" ineffective, ineffectual, uneffective - not producing an intended effect; "an ineffective teacher"; "ineffective legislation" unprofitable - producing little or no profit or gain; "deposits abandoned by mining companies as unprofitable" unserviceable - not ready for service; "unserviceable equipment may be replaced" useful, utile - being of use or service; "the girl felt motherly and useful"; "a useful job"; "a useful member of society" Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. useless adjective 1. worthless, of no use, valueless, pants (slang), ineffective, impractical, fruitless, unproductive, ineffectual, unworkable, disadvantageous, unavailing, bootless, unsuitable He realised that their money was useless in this country. worthless useful, practical, valuable, effective, productive, fruitful, workable, advantageous 2. pointless, hopeless, futile, vain, idle, profitless She knew it was useless to protest. pointless worthwhile, profitable 3. (Informal) inept, no good, hopeless, weak, stupid, pants (slang), incompetent, ineffectual He was useless at any game with a ball. Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002 useless adjective 1. Having no useful purpose: ineffectual, inutile, unusable, worthless. 2. Incapable of being used or availed of to advantage: impracticable, impractical, unnegotiable, unserviceable, unusable, unworkable. 3. Having no useful result: barren, bootless, fruitless, futile, unavailing, unprofitable, unsuccessful, vain. Idiom: in vain. 4. Not having the desired effect: ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious, inefficient. The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Translations Spanish / Español Select a language: inútil useless [ˈjuːslɪs] ADJ 1. (= ineffective) [object] → que no sirve para nada; [person] → inútil this can opener's useless → este abrelatas no sirve para nada compasses are useless in the jungle → las brújulas no sirven para or de nada en la selva she's useless → es una inútil he's useless as a forward → no vale para delantero → no sirve como delantero I was always useless at maths → siempre fui (un) negado or un inútil para las matemáticas 2. (= unusable) [object, vehicle] → inservible; [limb] → inutilizado, inútil he's a mine of useless information! (hum) → se sabe todo tipo de datos y chorraditas que no sirven de nada to render or make sth useless → inutilizar algo 3. (= pointless) → inútil it's useless to shout → de nada sirve gritar, es inútil gritar Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005 use2 (juːs) noun 1. the act of using or state of being used. The use of force to persuade workers to join a strike cannot be justified; This telephone number is for use in emergencies.uso, utilización 2. the/a purpose for which something may be used. This little knife has plenty of uses; I have no further use for these clothes.uso 3. (often in questions or with negatives) value or advantage. Is this coat (of) any use to you?; It's no use offering to help when it's too late.utilidad 4. the power of using. She lost the use of her right arm as a result of the accident.uso 5. permission, or the right, to use. They let us have the use of their car while they were away.uso ˈuseful adjective helpful or serving a purpose well. a useful tool/dictionary; She made herself useful by doing the washing for her mother.útil ˈusefulness noun utilidad ˈusefully adverb in a useful way. He spent the day usefully in repairing the car.útilmente ˈuseless adjective having no use or no effect. Why don't you throw away those useless things?; We can't do it – it's useless to try.inútil be in use, be out of use to be used or not used. How long has the gymnasium been in use / out of use? en uso/desuso, dar un uso/no darle un uso come in useful to become useful. My French came in useful on holiday. resultar útil have no use for to despise. I have no use for such silliness / silly people. no querer saber de it's no use it's impossible or useless. He tried in vain to do it, then said `It's no use.' es inútil make (good) use of, put to (good) use He makes use of his training; He puts his training to good use in that job. sacar partido/provecho de Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd. useless → inútil Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009 useless adj inútil English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Link to this page:   Facebook Twitter     Finally, Farlex brings you all the rules of English grammar, all in one place, explained in simple terms. The Farlex Grammar Book is available now in paperback and eBook formats. Feedback Finally, all the rules of English Grammar in one place. Explore The Farlex Grammar Book now for FREE. Flashcards & Bookmarks ? Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. You can also log in with Facebook Twitter Google+ Yahoo TheFreeDictionary presents: Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. Mentioned in ? aidless anopheles anopheline barren bauchle bitslag bogotify boonless bootless bootlessness Cassate destroy discard dissipation Disutilize dud duff dufferdom effectless References in classic literature ? "I purposely abstain from troubling you by any useless allusions to myself. Vanstone has left it, seems like taking a journey for nothing -- and my staying in London appears to be almost equally useless. View in context The adult might become fitted for sites or habits, in which organs of locomotion or of the senses, &c., would be useless; and in this case the final metamorphosis would be said to be retrograde. View in context Mordaunt tried for a moment to read in the general's face if this was simply a useless question, or whether he knew everything. View in context Useless! The air had made the flame attached to the conductor more active; the match, which at rest might have burnt five minutes, was consumed in thirty seconds, and the infernal work exploded. View in context The attempt proved to be useless, and worse--it seemed to make her suspicious. View in context But while he was seeking with thimbles and care, A Bandersnatch swiftly drew nigh And grabbed at the Banker, who shrieked in despair, For he knew it was useless to fly. View in context During the scene of tumult, Andrea had turned his smiling face towards the assembly; then, leaning with one hand on the oaken rail of the dock, in the most graceful attitude possible, he said: "Gentlemen, I assure you I had no idea of insulting the court, or of making a useless disturbance in the presence of this honorable assembly. View in context "It is useless, mother, to speculate on what might have happened. View in context I'm glad there's something to give my life for, for it's not simply useless but loathsome to me. View in context Those who tried to understand the general course of events and to take part in it by self-sacrifice and heroism were the most useless members of society, they saw everything upside down, and all they did for the common good turned out to be useless and foolish- like Pierre's and Mamonov's regiments which looted Russian villages, and the lint the young ladies prepared and that never reached the wounded, and so on. View in context That is to say, justice is useful when money is useless? 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    • Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie
    • The more useless, toxic, dishonest amd unpleasant something is in this world, the more it's rammed down the publics throat.   Congrats, you fit this paradigm perfectly with your sociopathic personality and 100% useless hindsight bullshit. Told any customers to go fuck themselves recently?
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    • $NOK Nokia stock with a narrow range breakout watch above 4.52 , see https://stockconsultant.com/?NOK
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