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zdo

,,,just Sayin...

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On Monday we talked about beliefs.  Here is a model for you to emulate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$$$$$$$$$$

 

Re: Debt.  Relax.  The World's Biggest Debtor Is Going To Guarantee Everyone’s Debt. 
Re: Equities. Relax.  The financial world is going to accept a 15% ++ premium of stock prices over ‘fair value’  *
Re: Economy.  Relax.  Although “the U.S. economy has been fully financialized, and so costs are unaffordable”, a segment of the population can always support the rest of the economy through increased taxation.

 

 

*“

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Just as we can forecast earnings for a stock, we can also use aggregated earnings to price the S&P 500. From those earnings we can determine if the current price is rich or cheap to what a model suggests is a fair price.
To run this analysis, we made the following assumptions:

  • Future earnings growth – we base this on the 4.85% growth rate of earnings from 2012 to the end of 2019. ...
  • Acceptable return premium – we assume a 7% discounting factor based on historical equity returns
  • Years of cash flows to value – we project and discount earnings for the next 25 years.


PS This model has ALWAYS worked in the past and will also ALWAYS work in the future.  tic
 

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More lockdown wrong ...

Quote

 

A Wirepoints analysis of COVID-19 deaths from the Cook County Medical Examiner’s office reveals that 92 percent of victims from the virus had pre-existing medical conditions.

The medical examiner’s database showed COVID-19 as the primary cause of death for 2,303 people. Of those, 2,112 were shown to have at least one underlying condition as a secondary cause of death. Those conditions, also known as comorbidities, included hypertension, diabetes, obesity and heart disease. There were no secondary causes reported for 191 deaths.

 

Here’s what I ben just sayin’  ----------- Even though “There were no secondary causes reported for 191 deaths” , of those 191 deaths that actually had and died from the C1984, those 191 individuals also had latent underlying conditions/ comorbidities. (ims,  in my stats, ... of course in my stats of their stats, ‘everyone’ who has died in 2020 has died of c1984 ... notice how suddenly no one is dying of the flu.  No one? )

ie lockdowns are (suspiciously) WAY OUT OF PROPORTION to the actual threat

 

 

Quote

Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one.

Charles Mackay ... an Extraordinary ly dated old man.

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fun with viruses and vaccines... primary and secondary effects

Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one.

Charles Mackay ... an Extraordinary ly dated old man.

Do you fall into the "If we can develop a vaccine quickly..." camp?
Do you think everything rests on “When we get a vaccine, then ...”?
Do you think we can’t get this under control “Until we get a vaccine”
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2020-05-14/covid-19-unlikely-kill-you-vaccine-may

What if vaccines for ‘viruses’ is all bad science? What if you cannot give a generalized dose of toxins (which is what a virus is) to everyone in the hopes the vaccine will be sufficient 'practice' in that dose for each body to fight off any subsequent exposure to the toxin?  For example, what if not a single dose of flu vaccine has EVER prevented flu in even one individual?  What if if they were going to get it they got and if they weren’t going to get it they didn’t - whether they had the flu vaccine or not?   What if biologically viruses vaccines simply doesn’t work the way 'science' is telling us they do  - even if generations of ‘scientists’ believe it does?  Is this a good example of unconscious consensus narratives in living color?  Is the promise of a vaccine for a virus- that has never been proven to prevent anything - all it takes for wall street to believe all is well and stocks are underpriced?.

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2020-05-14/covid-19-unlikely-kill-you-vaccine-may

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fun with lockdowns ... primary and secondary effects

 

https://www.rutherford.org/publications_resources/john_whiteheads_commentary/the_worst_is_yet_to_come_contact_tracing_immunity_cards_and_mass_testing

 

...

Quote

 

 Nobody really cares at this point about the data or how weak it is because they simply attribute it all to the coronavirus. It’s a self-inflicted wound. Forgetting about the fact that we were actually wounded anyway. People don’t appreciate the problems that the US economy had – the very deep-seated structural problems that lay beneath that bubble that people still haven’t come to terms with. They’re still focusing on the effects of the coronavirus and not realizing that the economy was very sick long before we got infected with the coronavirus.”

And it was Powell’s policies – the ones he wants to triple down on today – that wounded the economy to begin with.

There is no easy path forward. The bubbles need to deflate. The distortions and misallocations in the economy need to reset. But that would create a great deal of pain that the political class isn’t willing to face. Instead, they will kick the can down the road by repeating the same mistakes of the past on a larger scale.
...

 

Nationalization of economy
https://youtu.be/D5oQoQKqo5A
...
https://www.zerohedge.com/economics/what-real-time-indicators-say-about-true-state-us-and-global-economy

...
Life in a pod
https://summit.news/2020/05/13/1962-life-in-2022-image-depicted-everyone-trapped-in-pods/


 

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Sit quietly at your trading station ... say nothing...

 

 

 

Quote

 

...Big Tech censorship agenda has really kicked into high gear ever since the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) began spreading in the United States and other Western nations. And a big reason for this is the World Health Organization (WHO), which has reportedly been pressuring the tech giants to censor “harmful content” and “misinformation” about the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19).

It would seem as though there is only one narrative allowed concerning this pandemic, and that narrative portends that the virus is so bad that everyone’s freedoms need to be taken away, including the right not to vaccinate, as part of the “new normal.”

...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

...

You can tell by drfow chi’s body language that he is pure as the driven snow. 

 why hell I can tell he has no financial interests patents in this game by his body language

You can tell by this doctor’s body language that she is corrupt and extremely dishonest

https://www.brighteon.com/a4fe1319-502e-4461-a672-8609501adb31

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If you would be a real seeker of truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things

 Descartes

 

 

it appears all the lab rats have been killed in here. 

can't you just order some more?

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Good news!  (and greatly under-reported, btw) -- Flu(s) and pneumonia(s) may have been eradicated.  No deaths from either in months and months.  Thanks god.

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how many corps in the SP500, NQ100, etc indexes "worth less than zero"?  ie they have negative net tangible assets ??  thx.  just askin'

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Posted (edited)

“When the people find that they can vote themselves money that will herald the end of the republic.” Benjamin Franklin

Since we always file stacks of paper forms by mail, our $2400 check was late coming.  It finally arrived on Monday so my wife and I are in high cotton ... for the six days it covers our minimum daily expenses, that is...

In my opinion, all those checks are wasted money, but now most people want to receive  even more free money - not realizing that “whenever a new dollar is introduced into the system, it erodes the value of all dollars that currently exist.  Usually this is a relatively slow process, but now our politicians have gone absolutely nuts and very painful inflation is on the way.”  Free money aint free.  That check is borrowed from and owed back to 'the devil'.  I'm just sayin'

 

 

 

 

 

...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“If we don't listen to that scream—and if we don't respond to it—we may well wind up sitting amidst our own rubble, looking for the truck that hit us—or the bomb that pulverized us. Get the license number of whatever it was that destroyed the dream. And I think we will find that the vehicle was registered in our own name.”  Rod Serling

 

https://www.rutherford.org/publications_resources/john_whiteheads_commentary/the_slippery_slope_to_despotism_paved_with_lockdowns_raids_and_forced_vaccinations

 

 

 

 

...

Instead of just one $1200 time, did you know that certain parties can get a refill every night ????

Edited by zdo

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I have a serious question. It’s a question I’m grateful that many lab partners will have many good answers.  :) -  
What are the results when the fed transitions from being the ‘buyer of last resort’ of bonds to being the ‘only buyer’ of bonds?

thx

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Posted (edited)

Thank you so much for all the enlightened answers to my question yesterday.  😲

This morning we have poverty enhancing lockdowns (and now curfews), dead truth, planned/sponsored/funded riots, looted stores, cities burning ... billions more new fake dollars, fractious liquidity,  ....   .....  ........  blah blah blah  - so Buy the Nasdaq ! Buy the faang !  ie   Info tech is NOT vulnerable !

... except

Here are couple of questions - What happens when amazon can’t deliver?  When their trucks  and the other shipping providers don’t make it more than a couple stops after leaving the distribution centers before being looted?  And for google apple and fakebook, what happens when ‘they’ riot at the base of cell towers and at cable distribution hubs?

Edited by zdo
edit

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SP gets 'interesting' for me at ~3150 and / or ~ 06/15 ... just sayin'

 

 

///

 

“I have love in me the likes of which you can scarcely imagine and rage the likes of which you would not believe. If I cannot satisfy the one, I will indulge the other,” Shelley’s Frankenstein ... could be anyone's Frankenstein ... we've all created a personal franken inside... just sayin'

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Hyperinflation is a monetary phenomenon and demand is not as significant factor in pushing up prices. Prices go up because the value of the fiat paper money is falling as more and more is created.

Example:  In Zimbabwe stores didn't even have goods on the shelves, people were hungry,  water and  electricity was scarce, no public transportation, gas was sold on the black market and large quantities of paper money confiscated...and yet the Stock market kept soaring... As the hyperinflation started to gain traction, there was a six week period in which the currency tumbled 10-fold. That’s a huge drop. During that time the stock market rose 500-fold. So corrected for inflation, the stock market rose 50-fold measured in US dollars. Six weeks later, the Zimbabwe currency had eroded another 100-fold and the Zimbabwe stock market went to zero. It fell 99.9% and then it stopped trading. In other words, ONLY those invested in PHYSICAL Gold and Silver were safe...the others lost it ALL! 

Thank god Nothing and I mean NOTHING like that could ever happen in the developed nations because we are very smart and we don’t have any corruption or moral hazards

...

see https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/M2  for how to smartly drag out destruction and collapse

... still, ultimately ...

"Good money drives out the bad."  So we really just have the one little issue to deal with - for us  no good money currently exists on this planet to drive out the bad ... 

...maybe we should just trust them to build us a new eCurrency on their blockchain. .. I'm just sayin'

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https://tradingeconomics.com/united-states/money-supply-m2

MOAI nflation in slow motion ie more Thank god Nothing and I mean NOTHING like Zimbabwe could ever happen in the developed nations because we are very smart and we don’t have any corruption or moral hazards...  We must understand that the zimbobs had no real need to nflate their money supply, while we do have a ‘real’ crisis that needs more money - insert  :sar chasm smilie for the many context deficits on board: ... We must understand that each increment of new fake money for the not very bright zimbobs (and also the inexperienced 'kingdumbs, viemers, venuzwalens, argents, etc etc')  was meant to be the last ... meanwhile - while  we are assured these measures are only temporary - we are provided no delusions contraindicating that we may have to go much much mush further ... but that we are still going to be THE exception...

like - Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell recently did an interview with Princeton economist Alan Blinder. Powell admitted that the central bank had “crossed a lot of red lines,” but insisted he was comfortable with the actions, given “this is that situation in which you do that, and you figure it out afterward.” (reassured yet?).  Binder then asked Powell if there is any limit to how much the Fed’s balance sheet can grow and Powell said he wasn’t concerned and the balance sheet has a long way to go.

All ‘powell’ is doing is inflation. He is inflating the money supply. That is the definition of inflation. Expand the money supply. But ‘powell’ is not concerned. He’s a one indicator trader.  His indicator’s name is Falling Prices. ... and falling prices indicates to ‘powell’ that things are under the control of ‘normal’ economic cycles instead of under ‘powell’ control.  However it should be noted,  if ‘powell’ really believes there is no limit to the size of the balance sheet that means there is no limit to the depths to which the 'dollar' and all the other fake currs around the world can plunge.  In a podcast, Peter Schiff called it the Nancy Pelosi version of monetary policy. “We need to print the money to see where it goes.” 

My momentary questions are 1 what % of denizens believe this is going to work? and 2 what would it take for them (you) to change these beliefs / this trust... ???

At this point please please please  DO NOT  look at a graph of the USD purchasing power for the last 110 years.

 

must stop now to BmoreofTFD :wink wink?:

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A Friday look at covid1984

https://21stcenturywire.com/2020/06/04/lockdown-boris-karl-friston-80-not-even-susceptible-to-covid-19/

 

 

A Friday look at markets

https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/staggering-powell-bubble-just-one-amazing-chart

 

 

 

A Friday look  at ‘race’

https://asiatimes.com/2020/06/why-americas-revolution-wont-be-televised/

btw

If you have ANY concerns about race, you are racist !!! ... inevitable ...

If you have no concerns about race, you are not racist !!!

btw

‘afro americans’ need to wise up and discover who their real enemies are instead of just projecting  and breaking glass ...

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‘Economy’ just sayin’

The employment ‘numbers’ just indicate that many of the businesses than were not ‘authorized’  to reopen and resume work did reopen -  ‘illegally’  , against official’s orders, in the face of lockdown policies.  Note in states that are still in ‘lockdown’, the employment numbers are not quite as ‘great’ .  Regardless, these numbers do not mean the economy is out of the woods.  The same fragilities and frailties that were developed before the ‘crisis’ are now elevated, not reduced.  Someone said “We should worry about turning into Japan, not Zimbabwe.”  Hellow - Japan IS Zimbabwe... plodding instead of jerking. 

“That which has failed is unsustainable, no matter how many trillions the Federal Reserve tosses against the tides of history. The current travesty of a mockery of a sham system will fragment no matter how desperate the looters, parasites and predators are to maintain their swag.” C H Smith   “Merkel's coalition overcame ideological differences and passed a €130BN stimulus for the foundering German economy”. Shows you have to run it hard even in a race to the bottom...

govt%20spending%205.12_0.jpg?itok=SfVOfu

Quote

To see why “stimulus” truly depresses, consult the basics. The creation of public money and public debt is not the creation of wealth; it is not food, clothing, shelter, energy or the like. Even privately generated money and debt, which reflect the needs of trade and lengthy production chains, represent, facilitate and circulate wealth but are not themselves wealth. Meanwhile, the savings borrowed by governments are unavailable to productive enterprises, and when a government creates fiat money beyond what money holders demand, the money loses purchasing power, which boosts the cost of living. These are not roads to prosperity.

https://www.aier.org/article/japans-three-decades-of-depressive-stimulus-schemes/

...

A “regime of irredeemable currency is inherently dishonest.”

http://news.goldseek.com/GoldSeek/1589993951.php

 

 

Social ( cops murders protests etc...) just sayin’ and questioning the fucking narratives !!!!

Why demonstrate at all?  Everyone is in agreement!  NO ONE wants police murdering people - black or white.  You’d never hear MSM paint it like this but even the “extreme white supremacists” who are quite sure their lives matter too don’t want police murdering people... cause they know if they act out their white neck intolerant criminal asses are even more likely than an intolerant black criminal to be ‘murdered’ by the police .  Personally, while I sympathize,  I would buy into the BLM concept much more if there were any indications on the concrete plantation that black babies' lives actually mattered to all those protesters... just sayin'

https://www.peakprosperity.com/ideas-for-righteous-revolution/

And while we’re at it, just a week ago small business owners protesting the lockdown were spit on as engaging the most dangerous activity possible... now the same officials who prohibited those protests are marching arm in arm with the murder protesters... their double standards are much better than most double standards... I'll give them that.

...and btw, all that protesting and rioting and looting will not save one single life... 

 

But for all the crime victims and families who will be harmed, it would be interesting to see a city sample dissolving the police force and instituting a 'new public safety' agency - where, of course, only dyed in the wool social justice warriors would be ever hired as 'cops' ,,, smells like china where a cop has to have a shining record with the ccp to be hired into that completely just and un-corrupted police force...

 

anyways 

 

...a welfare state ultimately reverts to a slavery state.  ... is that what ‘we’ really want as we continue to protest for more welfare state???  Just sayin’

https://www.rutherford.org/publications_resources/john_whiteheads_commentary/this_is_not_a_revolution._its_a_blueprint_for_locking_down_the_nation

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Markets just sayin’

in the stock mkt right now

down IS still down, but up is not up... up is sideways at best ... a little up is actually down...  

unless! we could get to DJIA 46000 in the next few days... then up from there would be up again.  Stranger things have happened.  Stranger things will happen. 

zombie ain’t natural is it?  These just sayin' posts should be buried under 200 other posts...  I'm just sayin'

 

 

Social just sayin’

Conspiracy (theory) should not be this much fun... seriously

https://www.brighteon.com/bd2d10b6-cc41-4b7f-988a-2252a91a517e

https://www.brighteon.com/073a0d8a-b113-4601-9085-f4aa21b24202


some think black privilege demeans blacks ... crowds them into the "useful idiots" train

https://www.naturalnews.com/2020-06-07-black-privilege-reigns-supreme-in-the-usa.html

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Markets just sayin’

It is amazing to me how deep in delusion individuals and collectives can be and still somehow survive... sometimes even thrive... I’m just sayin’

 

Social just sayin’

 

Thousands go out thinking they are protesting against ‘them’... when actually they are protesting for ‘them’ ... just sayin’

It is amazing to me how dysfunctional individuals and collectives can be and still survive... sometimes even thrive... I’m just sayin’

Quote

 

...

As we move toward a world where certain ideas are forbidden and only officially approved questions can be asked, where governments and corporations have a monopoly on the truth and everything else is a conspiracy theory, only one thing really matters. The evidence.

Hofstadter believed that paranoid style theorist’s constant citation of evidence was merely an attempt to “protect cherished convictions.” This could be true, but the only way to find out is to look at that evidence. The label of the conspiracy theorist has been deliberately created in order to convince you not to look at evidence. [edits mine]

Regardless of whether or not you think someone’s opinion is a conspiracy theory, you owe it to yourself and your children to consider the evidence they cite. Perhaps you will reject it. There’s nothing wrong with that.

But to reject it, without knowing what it is, really is crazy. Your only other option is to unquestioningly accept whatever you are told by the government, globalist think tanks, multinational corporations and their mainstream media partners.

If you choose to believe that everyone who claims to have identified the malfeasance of officials, the crimes of government or the corruption of powerful global institutions, are all conspiracy theorists, then you have accepted that the establishment is beyond reproach.

If you also agree the same established hierarchy can not only determine what you can or cannot know, but can also set all the policies and legislation which dictates your behavior and defines the limits of your freedom, you have elected to be a slave...

 

https://off-guardian.org/2020/06/03/a-conspiracy-theorist-confesses/?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=fb8877ada6a9be1be8b72c918ced393eb070c731-1591793894-0-ASu667zWkhLTm53j11KPtXG1W1WKqp0vsuzN4hQXfqI5_Pq69NnV-g5YG5_PvrSHOtMtqif6yBr_zwXCjKNBfG6F4l6XL7XADZJD0l_3D7nXa60a2fl9UDPg_9cCSZvdVp6AiQU9H5NqyOkp3pusuVPp0g21Lc2OQyslyeFJMOMtP84t5nGTRVA6Q8Z4VRumfJ3mbXA4KEqOpz_ycGMcnsa0lrFWIqT5iq4ZIGfC6h1gHI508UTQBQUvGGBuRUEOrRGvp_nDJNwLYkKPv-6we0BeLN96M8Nlz8nxlqQNOJdAVxMT5XExaJ4tPReb6xri30IYgnAnX_ycFR0xV8sIesI

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Examples -

You can’t make this shit up... maybe an Orwell or a Huxley could, but obviously not you. 😉

https://www.naturalnews.com/2020-06-09-instagram-bans-users-posting-federal-crime-statistics.html

 

//

In the spacetime of 10 days the narrative has gone from demanding police arrest ‘stay-at-home’ protesters for the crime of gathering outside, to encouraging mass 24/7 gatherings of people outside and demanding the abolition of police. 10 days...

to me it indicates mass insanity at the core ... it certainly does not indicate anything remotely akin to principled living by those given some authority...

//

https://www.theburningplatform.com/2020/06/05/coincidence-theorists-see-all-donut-and-no-holes-in-the-coronation-of-the-cult/

//

And for the tough and resilient

https://countercurrents.org/2020/06/the-shallow-deep-state-goes-deeper-as-it-moves-toward-martial-law/

///

trying to get in and out before all the posts about trading show up... it's not pretty for a 'just sayin' post to be at the top of the list...

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This black lives matter crap is starting to look more and more like some of the shit that went down in the  french revolution ... which ultimately didn’t turn out to be much good for ANYONE or any group btw... Anyways, under the guise of fighting another invisible and extremely overestimated 'virus' called ‘systemic racism’ it looks like another round in history of  mob rule dragging any sucker they can find out to apologize, prostrate... looks like demands for rule of man / rule of mob instead of rule of law.  BLM doods here’s a hint - BLM is run and funded by white ‘lives’ and you are nothing more than a useful tool  idiot to them. 

I’m speaking from experience. ... you will not find what you’re really looking for at the extremes.   If you really want to resolve this instead of just being a tool go forgive ALL the injustices done to you by man and nature and get on with your life.  ...  forgiving here  does not mean submission, it does not mean you no longer will hold perpetrators accountable.   What forgiving here means is you simply cancel/drop all your internal plans for revenge and move on...

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Posted (edited)

Markets  ... just sayin’

long the stock market = long big business = long fascism

long big business - as in “...because the market doesn’t represent the economy; it represents the future of big business.” Jim Cramer

long fascism - as in the shining 'big business' stocks of the current ‘market’ were literally seeded and are now backstopped with new, 1st money every night by the system's bank.

Defining fascism:  fascism is a system centrally controlled, but private ownership of enterprises is still allowed.  That’s it. ie  If you conflate fascism with cruelty in the body politic during fascist regimes, you’re just as off as you are if you conflate antifa with anarchs, or inflation with rising prices, or  ...

Any system centrally controlled is far left of center... not quite as far left as communism of course, but still way out there left ... out there far enough left to be an elite globalist’s wet dream... especially when they can suddenly own the private owners and go on past even full commie when their time is right...

But like all the other ‘isms’, fascism ultimately doesn’t scale up well at all for everyone else... just sayin’

 

 

Social ... just sayin’

BLM dotdvl is aligned with, serving, doing the useful disposable idiot engineered race war dirty work for a group whose unspoken slogan is “No Lives Matter”... that’s a problem.

But on the ground there’s another problem with the movement.  “Black Lives Matter” as a slogan is simply not going to work dumbasses.  Here’s why.  EVERYONE, whatever skin pig, is silently generating a reaction under their breath.  That reaction tweetys “All Lives Matter”.  The only ones who are going to really buy your mantra are those who already shame based and are out there compensate screaming with you.  You’re losing everyone else... yes you’re even losing the stupid CEO’s who are falling all over themselves to virtue signal you off with their stock holders’ money...

If your purpose is to drive a wedge and as a consequence matter less and less to the many, then the mantra “Black Lives Matter” is working.  If your purpose is to convince more people that you feel black lives need to matter more than they currently appear to matter, it ain’t working.   Stop and fix your signs to something like “Black Lives Need To  Matter More” and stop screaming or implying “racist” when someone points out the wedging slogan and reveals the “All Lives Matter” reaction and you will get more traction...

Also, your symbol of police killing black men for ‘black lives don’t matter’ is weak.  Statistically when police arrest criminals there are sometimes going to be altercations and occasionally criminals are going to be injured or killed and occasionally police are going to be injured or killed.  And if you or Colin Kareernikt actually think you’re going to truly convince the many that Chauvin even slightly begins to represent all cops, your BLM message is turning to crap.   Just because social media helps censor the stats for propaganda purposes don’t make it so.  And , btw, why should we really  align with this current weak symbol when there is evidence that those two had pre-existing non police, probably criminal, issues ... that for sure we don’t have the whole story on this one?

 Can you imagine if you had put all that rioting mob energy into forcing  your state and city council to pass laws with teeth allowing any public worker who’s not appropriate for the job to be released - yes cops, teachers, bureaucrats, court officials - all public employees.  It should not cost the taxpayers an average of $500,000 to get rid of someone who’s not correctly doing what they were hired for.  Then way fewer ‘chauvins’ would not be on the job.  Put your energy into convincing teachers’ unions to help get rid of underperformers instead of protecting them and see what happens to your culture.

Can you imagine what might happen if Colin rented a place in South Chicago where black lives apparently don't matter at all and went there just 10 weeks out of the year to help stop black on black killings?  It would take him courage and hard work to convince that cohort that ‘black lives matter’.  He might get plugged himself.  But I bet all of a sudden he wouldn’t have hardly any problems getting the ‘Drews’ of the world to ‘take a knee’ with him - authentically.      I’m just sayin’

 

 

PS

Followup links for recent posts

https://libertyblitzkrieg.com/2020/06/08/resist-the-crazy/

https://gilad.online/writings/2020/6/8/weimar-2020

https://www.zerohedge.com/political/democrats-virtue-signaling-goes-11

PPS

Gone again for a while.  We decided crowd free travel is worth it.   If you’re looking,  I’ll be the guy without a mask ... don’t bother harassing us.  if you’re scared of virus, stay home...or at least stay 24’ out my face.    

Edited by zdo

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    • Dictionary Thesaurus Medical Dictionary Legal Dictionary Financial Dictionary Acronyms Idioms Encyclopedia Wikipedia Encyclopedia Tools A A A A Language:     Mobile Apps: apple android For surfers: Free toolbar & extensions Word of the Day Bookmark Help For webmasters: Free content Linking Lookup box Close Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. useless Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to useless: indubitably, predecessor, abruptly use·less  (yo͞os′lĭs) adj. 1. a. Being or having no beneficial use; ineffective: This pen is useless because it's out of ink. See Synonyms at futile. b. Having no purpose or reason; pointless; to no avail: It's useless to argue over matters of taste. 2. Incapable of acting or functioning effectively; ineffectual or inept: He panics easily and is useless in an emergency. use′less·ly adv. use′less·ness n. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. useless (ˈjuːslɪs) adj 1. having no practical use or advantage 2. informal ineffectual, weak, or stupid: he's useless at history. ˈuselessly adv ˈuselessness n Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 use•less (ˈyus lɪs) adj. 1. of no use; not serving the purpose or any purpose; unavailing. 2. without useful qualities; of no practical good. [1585–95] use′less•ly, adv. use′less•ness, n. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Adj. 1. useless - having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully; "a kitchen full of useless gadgets"; "she is useless in an emergency" ineffective, ineffectual, uneffective - not producing an intended effect; "an ineffective teacher"; "ineffective legislation" unprofitable - producing little or no profit or gain; "deposits abandoned by mining companies as unprofitable" unserviceable - not ready for service; "unserviceable equipment may be replaced" useful, utile - being of use or service; "the girl felt motherly and useful"; "a useful job"; "a useful member of society" Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. useless adjective 1. worthless, of no use, valueless, pants (slang), ineffective, impractical, fruitless, unproductive, ineffectual, unworkable, disadvantageous, unavailing, bootless, unsuitable He realised that their money was useless in this country. worthless useful, practical, valuable, effective, productive, fruitful, workable, advantageous 2. pointless, hopeless, futile, vain, idle, profitless She knew it was useless to protest. pointless worthwhile, profitable 3. (Informal) inept, no good, hopeless, weak, stupid, pants (slang), incompetent, ineffectual He was useless at any game with a ball. Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002 useless adjective 1. Having no useful purpose: ineffectual, inutile, unusable, worthless. 2. Incapable of being used or availed of to advantage: impracticable, impractical, unnegotiable, unserviceable, unusable, unworkable. 3. Having no useful result: barren, bootless, fruitless, futile, unavailing, unprofitable, unsuccessful, vain. Idiom: in vain. 4. Not having the desired effect: ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious, inefficient. The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Translations Spanish / Español Select a language: inútil useless [ˈjuːslɪs] ADJ 1. (= ineffective) [object] → que no sirve para nada; [person] → inútil this can opener's useless → este abrelatas no sirve para nada compasses are useless in the jungle → las brújulas no sirven para or de nada en la selva she's useless → es una inútil he's useless as a forward → no vale para delantero → no sirve como delantero I was always useless at maths → siempre fui (un) negado or un inútil para las matemáticas 2. (= unusable) [object, vehicle] → inservible; [limb] → inutilizado, inútil he's a mine of useless information! (hum) → se sabe todo tipo de datos y chorraditas que no sirven de nada to render or make sth useless → inutilizar algo 3. (= pointless) → inútil it's useless to shout → de nada sirve gritar, es inútil gritar Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005 use2 (juːs) noun 1. the act of using or state of being used. The use of force to persuade workers to join a strike cannot be justified; This telephone number is for use in emergencies.uso, utilización 2. the/a purpose for which something may be used. This little knife has plenty of uses; I have no further use for these clothes.uso 3. (often in questions or with negatives) value or advantage. Is this coat (of) any use to you?; It's no use offering to help when it's too late.utilidad 4. the power of using. She lost the use of her right arm as a result of the accident.uso 5. permission, or the right, to use. They let us have the use of their car while they were away.uso ˈuseful adjective helpful or serving a purpose well. a useful tool/dictionary; She made herself useful by doing the washing for her mother.útil ˈusefulness noun utilidad ˈusefully adverb in a useful way. He spent the day usefully in repairing the car.útilmente ˈuseless adjective having no use or no effect. Why don't you throw away those useless things?; We can't do it – it's useless to try.inútil be in use, be out of use to be used or not used. How long has the gymnasium been in use / out of use? en uso/desuso, dar un uso/no darle un uso come in useful to become useful. My French came in useful on holiday. resultar útil have no use for to despise. I have no use for such silliness / silly people. no querer saber de it's no use it's impossible or useless. He tried in vain to do it, then said `It's no use.' es inútil make (good) use of, put to (good) use He makes use of his training; He puts his training to good use in that job. sacar partido/provecho de Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd. useless → inútil Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009 useless adj inútil English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Link to this page:   Facebook Twitter     Finally, Farlex brings you all the rules of English grammar, all in one place, explained in simple terms. The Farlex Grammar Book is available now in paperback and eBook formats. Feedback Finally, all the rules of English Grammar in one place. Explore The Farlex Grammar Book now for FREE. Flashcards & Bookmarks ? Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. You can also log in with Facebook Twitter Google+ Yahoo TheFreeDictionary presents: Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. Mentioned in ? aidless anopheles anopheline barren bauchle bitslag bogotify boonless bootless bootlessness Cassate destroy discard dissipation Disutilize dud duff dufferdom effectless References in classic literature ? "I purposely abstain from troubling you by any useless allusions to myself. Vanstone has left it, seems like taking a journey for nothing -- and my staying in London appears to be almost equally useless. View in context The adult might become fitted for sites or habits, in which organs of locomotion or of the senses, &c., would be useless; and in this case the final metamorphosis would be said to be retrograde. View in context Mordaunt tried for a moment to read in the general's face if this was simply a useless question, or whether he knew everything. View in context Useless! The air had made the flame attached to the conductor more active; the match, which at rest might have burnt five minutes, was consumed in thirty seconds, and the infernal work exploded. View in context The attempt proved to be useless, and worse--it seemed to make her suspicious. View in context But while he was seeking with thimbles and care, A Bandersnatch swiftly drew nigh And grabbed at the Banker, who shrieked in despair, For he knew it was useless to fly. View in context During the scene of tumult, Andrea had turned his smiling face towards the assembly; then, leaning with one hand on the oaken rail of the dock, in the most graceful attitude possible, he said: "Gentlemen, I assure you I had no idea of insulting the court, or of making a useless disturbance in the presence of this honorable assembly. View in context "It is useless, mother, to speculate on what might have happened. View in context I'm glad there's something to give my life for, for it's not simply useless but loathsome to me. View in context Those who tried to understand the general course of events and to take part in it by self-sacrifice and heroism were the most useless members of society, they saw everything upside down, and all they did for the common good turned out to be useless and foolish- like Pierre's and Mamonov's regiments which looted Russian villages, and the lint the young ladies prepared and that never reached the wounded, and so on. View in context That is to say, justice is useful when money is useless? View in context More results ►   Dictionary browser ? ▲ Usbegs Usbek USC USCA USCB USCG USD USDA USDAW use use immunity use of force policy use of goods and services use up useable useableness use-by date used used to used-car used-car lot usedn't useful usefully usefulness useless uselessly uselessness Usenet usen't user user group user interface user-definable user-defined key user-friendliness user-friendly username user-unfriendly Ushant U-shaped U-shaped valley Ushas usher usher in usher out Usherance Usherdom usherette ushering in Usherless ▼ Full browser ? ▲ usefully usefulness usefulness usefulness usefulness usefulness usefulness usefulness Usefulness of Training Topics for Domestic Violence Questionnaire usefulnesses usefulnesses USEG usege usege usege USEI USEIA USEIC USEIGHT Usein Kysytyt Kysymykset Useinov, Mikael Useinov, Mikael Aleskerovich USEIR Useit USEITI USEK USEL USELC USELEMCMOC USELEMNORAD useless useless as an ashtray on a motorbike useless as tits on a boar hog useless as tits on a bull useless as tits on a nun Useless Bits of Information Useless Fact of the Day Useless Inert Nothing Useless Information for You Useless Information Society Useless language Useless languages Useless Management Overhead Useless Movie Quotes Useless Piece of Information Useless Piece of Stuff Useless S. Grant Useless S. Grant Useless use of cat Useless Use of Grep Useless, Unsuccessful, And/Or Unpopular Memes uselessly uselessly uselessness uselessness USELMNORAD USELMS USEM usen't Usenbaev, Alymkul Usenet ▼ Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. Facebook Share Twitter CITE   Site: Follow: Facebook Twitter Rss Mail Share: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Mail Open / Close More from Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Translations Mobile Apps Apple Android Kindle Windows Windows Phone Free Tools For surfers: Free toolbar & extensions Word of the Day Bookmark Help For webmasters: Free content Linking Lookup box Terms of Use Privacy policy Feedback Advertise with Us Copyright © 2003-2020 Farlex, Inc Disclaimer All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. 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    • Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie
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