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Many of you know that I have a back ground in Stock Car racing. The more I think about it, the more I see similarities that racing and trading the markets have in common. Particularly that they both require intense focus.

 

I was thinking back on my racing days and I remembered a statement that my crew chief made to me. That statement not only gave me the edge in racing but virtually in every other venture that I was a part of. Are you ready for that magic set of words? Well, I think it would be prudent for me to explain a few things first.

 

You see, in racing, you are rewarded for being fast, having cautious aggressiveness and being the most consistent; in addition, everything is measured in fractions of seconds.... In some cases the decisions you make, or don't make for that matter, could injure you or even worse, could be fatal. When you hear these words that I am going to share with you, it may not make sense at first but experienced individuals know how important this is. OKAY, are you ready?

 

My crew chief said to me, "Jeff, if you want to go fast you have to slow way down." Now you can just imagine the confusion on my face when I was told this. I think my exact response was, "Huh?" He went on to explain to me that to be fast, you need to slow down in the corners so that you can set up the car for the exit. Most people drive off in a corner and man handle the car and as a result, they have a poor exit. By simply rolling into the corner rather than driving 100% into the corner, you will have more momentum in the majority of the track, which is in the straight away. I finally began to understand this concept and since then, I have applied it to many things in my life.

 

So, here is the big question... How does this apply to trading the markets? Many people that are embarking on a new career want the experience of success," YESTERDAY"! They "rev up" their trading account and go full-speed into the corner not giving any consideration to consistency. They don't even know what their car has under the hood. They start buying and selling stocks as if they were selling tickets to a Broadway show. No strategy, no plan, just pure adrenalin and emotion.

 

Most new traders feel that if you are in the trading business, you should be trading; not sitting and waiting. Unfortunately, a very high percentage of new traders never make a proper exit off the corner. Man handling their trading eventually causes them to end up in the wall, and I don't mean Wall Street. If they would just learn how to roll into the corner (paper trade) and set their car up for the exit (proper education FIRST) they would learn how to pass the majority of people down the straight away.

 

I had a conversation once with racing legend Bill Elliot who has gone down in history as one of the most winning drivers on the NASCAR circuit. This is basically what he told me: "Jeff, if you were to paint a line around the track where your front tires are tracking, the goal would be to only focus on hitting your marks." He went on to say "Sloppiness or inconsistency of your line around the track is one of the most damaging things a racer can do."

 

That made so much sense to me the more I thought about it. So many people spend so much time looking for the better way around or a better system that they lose the peril and momentum of consistency. By the time they find their "line" (the Holy Grail that does not exist) they have already used up their equipment. You do not need to trade 20 or even 100 trades per day to be a trader. The professionals ARE NOT TRADING the majority of the time, they are just following their line (only taking their setups and not looking for the newest and "better way" to make a lot of money in the markets.)

 

The sooner you learn and understand that taking less trades with more consistent setups is really the only way to achieve financial rewards in day-trading, the sooner you will be on your way to consistent profits.

 

Jeff Yates

Contributing Editor

Interactive Trading Room Moderator

Gap, Intra-Day and Swing Trading Specialist

Instructor and Traders Coach

editorface_jeffyates_blank.gif

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" If they would just learn how to roll into the corner (paper trade) and set their car up for the exit (proper education FIRST) they would learn how to pass the majority of people down the straight away."

 

I agree in part, I have spent time on the track myself and understand the concept of "slow in/fast out" and "throwaway corners".

 

But paper trading isn't the same as "seat time".

 

Proper education is a matter of opinion when it comes to trading. I have been trading since the 1970s using paper charts and reading ticker tape. The traditional trading education is full of myths and concepts. Those who teach about reality are few and far between. That's why I get so much "heat" on trading forums because I expose the myths and concepts for what they are!

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Many of you know that I have a back ground in Stock Car racing. The more I think about it, the more I see similarities that racing and trading the markets have in common. Particularly that they both require intense focus.

 

I was thinking back on my racing days and I remembered a statement that my crew chief made to me. That statement not only gave me the edge in racing but virtually in every other venture that I was a part of. Are you ready for that magic set of words? Well, I think it would be prudent for me to explain a few things first.

 

You see, in racing, you are rewarded for being fast, having cautious aggressiveness and being the most consistent; in addition, everything is measured in fractions of seconds.... In some cases the decisions you make, or don't make for that matter, could injure you or even worse, could be fatal. When you hear these words that I am going to share with you, it may not make sense at first but experienced individuals know how important this is. OKAY, are you ready?

 

My crew chief said to me, "Jeff, if you want to go fast you have to slow way down." Now you can just imagine the confusion on my face when I was told this. I think my exact response was, "Huh?" He went on to explain to me that to be fast, you need to slow down in the corners so that you can set up the car for the exit. Most people drive off in a corner and man handle the car and as a result, they have a poor exit. By simply rolling into the corner rather than driving 100% into the corner, you will have more momentum in the majority of the track, which is in the straight away. I finally began to understand this concept and since then, I have applied it to many things in my life.

 

So, here is the big question... How does this apply to trading the markets? Many people that are embarking on a new career want the experience of success," YESTERDAY"! They "rev up" their trading account and go full-speed into the corner not giving any consideration to consistency. They don't even know what their car has under the hood. They start buying and selling stocks as if they were selling tickets to a Broadway show. No strategy, no plan, just pure adrenalin and emotion.

 

Most new traders feel that if you are in the trading business, you should be trading; not sitting and waiting. Unfortunately, a very high percentage of new traders never make a proper exit off the corner. Man handling their trading eventually causes them to end up in the wall, and I don't mean Wall Street. If they would just learn how to roll into the corner (paper trade) and set their car up for the exit (proper education FIRST) they would learn how to pass the majority of people down the straight away.

 

I had a conversation once with racing legend Bill Elliot who has gone down in history as one of the most winning drivers on the NASCAR circuit. This is basically what he told me: "Jeff, if you were to paint a line around the track where your front tires are tracking, the goal would be to only focus on hitting your marks." He went on to say "Sloppiness or inconsistency of your line around the track is one of the most damaging things a racer can do."

 

That made so much sense to me the more I thought about it. So many people spend so much time looking for the better way around or a better system that they lose the peril and momentum of consistency. By the time they find their "line" (the Holy Grail that does not exist) they have already used up their equipment. You do not need to trade 20 or even 100 trades per day to be a trader. The professionals ARE NOT TRADING the majority of the time, they are just following their line (only taking their setups and not looking for the newest and "better way" to make a lot of money in the markets.)

 

The sooner you learn and understand that taking less trades with more consistent setups is really the only way to achieve financial rewards in day-trading, the sooner you will be on your way to consistent profits.

 

Jeff Yates

Contributing Editor

Interactive Trading Room Moderator

Gap, Intra-Day and Swing Trading Specialist

Instructor and Traders Coach

editorface_jeffyates_blank.gif

 

What you say has merit Jeff. But for guys like me who spend 2 years following a "successful: make that 2 successful traders/moderators in a trading room trying to get what they are doing, and then find that what they are doing doesnt have a positive expectancy anymore, you will either over trade to find out what the heck went wrong, or.....quit and just paper trade till you find out how to make a winning system again. I did both and sometimes that winning system can take years to come up with again. You know so many people talk about what kind of money you need to have as a starting bankroll in trading. No one talks about the bigger expense........the money you need to survive and pay your bills until you become a winner(at least on paper.) Now what I say should scare some guys but, when I started daytrading 5 years ago, I was on my way to be able to retire at 55. Now Im 53 and Im in worse shape now. Not from losing money, but from not trading and HAVING the discipline to paper trade. Well, paper trading doesn't pay the rent! Lately I've seen for the first time several articles all over the web with this title: Is every system destined to fail? I am now wondering that myself. Lets think, if in the bull run we have had these last 3 years which may not come again in another 15 years, if you cant make a living just being long stocks in today's bullish trend, maybe you never will. Sorry, reality sometimes hurts. Yet for me as a day trader the volatility we had in the 2003-2008 era was much better for me even though it wreaked havoc for most peoples accounts. Makes me think a republican in the white house is better for traders. Now I have people like my sister who dont even know what an ETF is, that are making a fortune in her 401k mutual funds and think buy and hold must be the magic way, while I sit on the sidelines paper trading. Its really frustrating. Anyone else going thru this? BTW....for swing traders who hold 2 days to 6 months, this market is like taking candy from a baby. Sadly, I switched from equities to Forex to take a break in the last year, and we all know forex has slowed to a crawl for day traders these last 2 months. I will also say this...the best and brightest traders from Market Wizards fame, 70% of them could not make a living in todays equity climate. It was a different world in the 90's. The markets were cycling differently. Anyone agree?

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" If they would just learn how to roll into the corner (paper trade) and set their car up for the exit (proper education FIRST) they would learn how to pass the majority of people down the straight away."

 

I agree in part, I have spent time on the track myself and understand the concept of "slow in/fast out" and "throwaway corners".

 

But paper trading isn't the same as "seat time".

 

Proper education is a matter of opinion when it comes to trading. I have been trading since the 1970s using paper charts and reading ticker tape. The traditional trading education is full of myths and concepts. Those who teach about reality are few and far between. That's why I get so much "heat" on trading forums because I expose the myths and concepts for what they are!

 

I agree to the concept "paper trading isn't the same as seat time" I firmly believe paper trading to long never brings the reality of real money to the table. Its the emotional side of trading that we have to work through. I believe paper trading should be done but at some point you need to get on the track and experience the real world as well. I would just start with small shares and slowly bring the emotion up to speed. In time, you will be running your own race.

 

-Jeff

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I agree to the concept "paper trading isn't the same as seat time" I firmly believe paper trading to long never brings the reality of real money to the table. Its the emotional side of trading that we have to work through. I believe paper trading should be done but at some point you need to get on the track and experience the real world as well. I would just start with small shares and slowly bring the emotion up to speed. In time, you will be running your own race.

 

-Jeff

 

I have traded both Forex and stocks in both sim mode and a real account. For me, there is no difference. If anything, it is slightly harder to keep my self control in a sim acct because I can always rationalize that if I just triple up for this one play, I can get even for the week and if not, it's only sim anyway. Also paper trading losses make me more upset than real losses because I cant trade for real until I am out of losses in sim. Also the nonsense I hear about slippage and bad executions in real compared to sim, almost never, I mean never happen to me. I use FXCM as my Forex Broker and I get faster executions in both sim and real than with any broker I've dealt with in stocks. Besides.......when you use a strategy that allows you to place stop entry orders only,and take profits at a limit, you can take your time, not get stressed, suffer little or no slippage and enjoy yourself more than if you do everything manually. In fact, one of my final lessons in becoming a winning day or even swing trader has been, if you can use a method that allows you to set it and forget it, you will have less stress and less regrets than any system where you manually just buy with a mouse click! That lesson was worth a fortune for me. I should start a trade room based just on that method of entry/exit and I would bet I could make 33% of my students profitable.

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I have traded both Forex and stocks in both sim mode and a real account. For me, there is no difference. If anything, it is slightly harder to keep my self control in a sim acct because I can always rationalize that if I just triple up for this one play, I can get even for the week and if not, it's only sim anyway. Also paper trading losses make me more upset than real losses because I cant trade for real until I am out of losses in sim. Also the nonsense I hear about slippage and bad executions in real compared to sim, almost never, I mean never happen to me. I use FXCM as my Forex Broker and I get faster executions in both sim and real than with any broker I've dealt with in stocks. Besides.......when you use a strategy that allows you to place stop entry orders only,and take profits at a limit, you can take your time, not get stressed, suffer little or no slippage and enjoy yourself more than if you do everything manually. In fact, one of my final lessons in becoming a winning day or even swing trader has been, if you can use a method that allows you to set it and forget it, you will have less stress and less regrets than any system where you manually just buy with a mouse click! That lesson was worth a fortune for me. I should start a trade room based just on that method of entry/exit and I would bet I could make 33% of my students profitable.

 

Losing in sim bothers you more? That is purely gold. I can't wait to see what you post next. Hopefully, you do not grow up first.

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Losing in sim bothers you more? That is purely gold. I can't wait to see what you post next. Hopefully, you do not grow up first.

 

Only those over age 45 or 50 could understand the wisdom. You see, when you lose in sim, you are losing "time" which is a far, far greater commodity than money. (Unless you are blowing up huge accounts.) When I suffer a loss in a live account it means I still have the confidence I am in a winning system or I would not be in live mode! When you are still young and foolish(as 95% of us are) you put money and winning always first. So you wind up the sucker. You wind up giving away many years of your time to get someone else's money. The wise man is happy to give a lot of his money with no guarantees, so he will have so many more years to know how to earn,enjoy and accumulate more of it over his life time. Didnt Uncle Walter teach you the old saw, when 2 men meet, and one has a lot of money and one has a lot of time, the younger man winds up with the older mans amount of time, and the older man winds up with the others money!

 

When you are 50, most of us would gladly empty our bank account to be 21 again. But no one who is 21 and poor would take the wealthy mans account and be 50 years old. This is just the warm-up,son. It gets a lot, lot more painful as you head towards 60. Spirituality is not for everyone.

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Only those over age 45 or 50 could understand the wisdom. You see, when you lose in sim, you are losing "time" which is a far, far greater commodity than money. (Unless you are blowing up huge accounts.) When I suffer a loss in a live account it means I still have the confidence I am in a winning system or I would not be in live mode! When you are still young and foolish(as 95% of us are) you put money and winning always first. So you wind up the sucker. You wind up giving away many years of your time to get someone else's money. The wise man is happy to give a lot of his money with no guarantees, so he will have so many more years to know how to earn,enjoy and accumulate more of it over his life time. Didnt Uncle Walter teach you the old saw, when 2 men meet, and one has a lot of money and one has a lot of time, the younger man winds up with the older mans amount of time, and the older man winds up with the others money!

 

When you are 50, most of us would gladly empty our bank account to be 21 again. But no one who is 21 and poor would take the wealthy mans account and be 50 years old. This is just the warm-up,son. It gets a lot, lot more painful as you head towards 60. Spirituality is not for everyone.

 

Interesting response. I am over both age 45 and 50. I personally have no desire to be 21 or 26 again. I am only interested in what tomorrow brings.

 

I hate losing live, do not trade sim, but if I did trade sim, I honestly would not care if I lost. Time is very valuable, but in the market money is king. Your success in the market is measured directly by how much money you have made and not by how much time you have saved.

 

Spirituality is for those who have more time than things to do with their time. If you are concerned about wasting time, you shouldn't concern yourself with spirituality.

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So with regard to trading less....for me the concept is valid....now how you implement it is really where the rubber meets the road...

 

For me, it is a relatively easy to work it out....I know in advance where entries are likely to occur, also I keep good records and finally I know what my system is likely to produce per each time period....that is due primarily to the fact that I have done my homework, in contrast to the majority of folks who seek out chat rooms, advisories, and other resources where the primary service is to tell them when to buy and when to sell....YOU SEE?

 

So there are a couple of things to say about this thread...first as with most of the things Pristine reprentatives post, the basic premise is valid....the real question is can they provide some practical alternative, and will there be enough demand from the populace...

 

Frankly I doubt it....and I think the folks at pristine know that....they are here for other reasons.

 

As I've said before they ask good questions....and suggest valid concepts but never provide much substance after that......in other words its a promotional article....nothing wrong with that.

 

There's a simple way to trade less (and more efficiently)....but you have to be willing to do the work....I'll be showing students how to do this after I show them how to identify high probability entries...first things first.

Edited by steve46

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    • Dictionary Thesaurus Medical Dictionary Legal Dictionary Financial Dictionary Acronyms Idioms Encyclopedia Wikipedia Encyclopedia Tools A A A A Language:     Mobile Apps: apple android For surfers: Free toolbar & extensions Word of the Day Bookmark Help For webmasters: Free content Linking Lookup box Close Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. useless Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to useless: indubitably, predecessor, abruptly use·less  (yo͞os′lĭs) adj. 1. a. Being or having no beneficial use; ineffective: This pen is useless because it's out of ink. See Synonyms at futile. b. Having no purpose or reason; pointless; to no avail: It's useless to argue over matters of taste. 2. Incapable of acting or functioning effectively; ineffectual or inept: He panics easily and is useless in an emergency. use′less·ly adv. use′less·ness n. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. useless (ˈjuːslɪs) adj 1. having no practical use or advantage 2. informal ineffectual, weak, or stupid: he's useless at history. ˈuselessly adv ˈuselessness n Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 use•less (ˈyus lɪs) adj. 1. of no use; not serving the purpose or any purpose; unavailing. 2. without useful qualities; of no practical good. [1585–95] use′less•ly, adv. use′less•ness, n. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Adj. 1. useless - having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully; "a kitchen full of useless gadgets"; "she is useless in an emergency" ineffective, ineffectual, uneffective - not producing an intended effect; "an ineffective teacher"; "ineffective legislation" unprofitable - producing little or no profit or gain; "deposits abandoned by mining companies as unprofitable" unserviceable - not ready for service; "unserviceable equipment may be replaced" useful, utile - being of use or service; "the girl felt motherly and useful"; "a useful job"; "a useful member of society" Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. useless adjective 1. worthless, of no use, valueless, pants (slang), ineffective, impractical, fruitless, unproductive, ineffectual, unworkable, disadvantageous, unavailing, bootless, unsuitable He realised that their money was useless in this country. worthless useful, practical, valuable, effective, productive, fruitful, workable, advantageous 2. pointless, hopeless, futile, vain, idle, profitless She knew it was useless to protest. pointless worthwhile, profitable 3. (Informal) inept, no good, hopeless, weak, stupid, pants (slang), incompetent, ineffectual He was useless at any game with a ball. Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002 useless adjective 1. Having no useful purpose: ineffectual, inutile, unusable, worthless. 2. Incapable of being used or availed of to advantage: impracticable, impractical, unnegotiable, unserviceable, unusable, unworkable. 3. Having no useful result: barren, bootless, fruitless, futile, unavailing, unprofitable, unsuccessful, vain. Idiom: in vain. 4. Not having the desired effect: ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious, inefficient. The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Translations Spanish / Español Select a language: inútil useless [ˈjuːslɪs] ADJ 1. (= ineffective) [object] → que no sirve para nada; [person] → inútil this can opener's useless → este abrelatas no sirve para nada compasses are useless in the jungle → las brújulas no sirven para or de nada en la selva she's useless → es una inútil he's useless as a forward → no vale para delantero → no sirve como delantero I was always useless at maths → siempre fui (un) negado or un inútil para las matemáticas 2. (= unusable) [object, vehicle] → inservible; [limb] → inutilizado, inútil he's a mine of useless information! (hum) → se sabe todo tipo de datos y chorraditas que no sirven de nada to render or make sth useless → inutilizar algo 3. (= pointless) → inútil it's useless to shout → de nada sirve gritar, es inútil gritar Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005 use2 (juːs) noun 1. the act of using or state of being used. The use of force to persuade workers to join a strike cannot be justified; This telephone number is for use in emergencies.uso, utilización 2. the/a purpose for which something may be used. This little knife has plenty of uses; I have no further use for these clothes.uso 3. (often in questions or with negatives) value or advantage. Is this coat (of) any use to you?; It's no use offering to help when it's too late.utilidad 4. the power of using. She lost the use of her right arm as a result of the accident.uso 5. permission, or the right, to use. They let us have the use of their car while they were away.uso ˈuseful adjective helpful or serving a purpose well. a useful tool/dictionary; She made herself useful by doing the washing for her mother.útil ˈusefulness noun utilidad ˈusefully adverb in a useful way. He spent the day usefully in repairing the car.útilmente ˈuseless adjective having no use or no effect. 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Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Link to this page:   Facebook Twitter     Finally, Farlex brings you all the rules of English grammar, all in one place, explained in simple terms. The Farlex Grammar Book is available now in paperback and eBook formats. Feedback Finally, all the rules of English Grammar in one place. Explore The Farlex Grammar Book now for FREE. Flashcards & Bookmarks ? Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. You can also log in with Facebook Twitter Google+ Yahoo TheFreeDictionary presents: Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Correct all you're your grammar errors instantly. Try it now. Mentioned in ? aidless anopheles anopheline barren bauchle bitslag bogotify boonless bootless bootlessness Cassate destroy discard dissipation Disutilize dud duff dufferdom effectless References in classic literature ? 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View in context Those who tried to understand the general course of events and to take part in it by self-sacrifice and heroism were the most useless members of society, they saw everything upside down, and all they did for the common good turned out to be useless and foolish- like Pierre's and Mamonov's regiments which looted Russian villages, and the lint the young ladies prepared and that never reached the wounded, and so on. View in context That is to say, justice is useful when money is useless? 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    • Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie   Fake news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia     Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation). This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)   Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6] Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7] The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12] Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint. During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21] Contents 1 Definition 2 Types 3 Identifying 3.1 Detecting fake news online 4 History 4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval 4.3 Early modern period 4.4 19th century 4.5 20th century 5 21st century 5.1 On the Internet 5.2 Response 5.3 Jair Bolsonaro 5.4 Donald Trump 5.5 Criticism of the term 6 By country 6.1 Armenia 6.2 Australia 6.3 Austria 6.4 Belgium 6.5 Brazil 6.6 Canada 6.7 China 6.8 Colombia 6.9 Czech Republic 6.10 Finland 6.11 France 6.12 Germany 6.13 Hong Kong 6.14 India 6.15 Indonesia 6.16 Israel/Palestinian Territories 6.17 Malaysia 6.18 Mexico 6.19 Myanmar 6.20 Netherlands 6.21 Pakistan 6.22 Philippines 6.23 Poland 6.24 Romania 6.25 Russia 6.26 Saudi Arabia 6.27 Serbia 6.28 Singapore 6.29 South Africa 6.30 South Korea 6.31 Spain 6.32 Sweden 6.33 Syria 6.34 Taiwan 6.35 Ukraine 6.36 United Kingdom 6.37 United States 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading Definition Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23] Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25] The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26] Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27] satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool") false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content") misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual") false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information") impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources) manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo) fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm") In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30] In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31] Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33] In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34] Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35] Types Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody Sloppy journalism Misleading headings Biased or slanted news These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36] Identifying   Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are: Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire) Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment) Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40] Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Detecting fake news online Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42] History Ancient   Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44] In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45] During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44] During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51] Medieval In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie
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