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# Elliott Wave Principle ( Part V )

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Lesson 5:

Combinations (Double and Triple Three)

Elliott called a sideways combination of two corrective patterns a "double three" and three patterns a "triple three." While a single three is any zigzag or flat, a triangle is an allowable final component of such combinations and in this context is called a "three." A combination is composed of simpler types of corrections, including zigzags, flats and triangles. Their occurrence appears to be the flat correction's way of extending sideways action. As with double and triple zigzags, the simple corrective pattern components are labeled W, Y and Z. Each reactionary wave, labeled X, can take the shape of any corrective pattern but is most commonly a zigzag. As with multiple zigzags, three patterns appear to be the limit, and even those are rare compared to the more common double three.

Combinations of threes were labeled differently by Elliott at different times, although the illustrative pattern always took the shape of two or three juxtaposed flats, as shown in Figures 1-45 and 1-46. However, the component patterns more commonly alternate in form. For example, a flat followed by a triangle is a more typical type of double three, as illustrated in Figure 1-47.

Figure 1-45 Figure 1-46

Figure 1-47

A flat followed by a zigzag is another example, as shown in Figure 1-48. Naturally, since the figures in this section depict corrections in bull markets, they need only be inverted to observe them as upward corrections in bear markets.

Figure 1-48

For the most part, a combination is horizontal in character. Elliott indicated that the entire formation could slant against the larger trend, although we have never found this to be the case. One reason is that there never appears to be more than one zigzag in a combination. Neither is there more than one triangle. Recall that triangles occurring alone precede the final movement of a larger trend. Combinations appear to recognize this character and sport triangles only as the final wave in a double or triple three.

Guidelines of Wave Formation

Although different in that their angle of trend is sharper than the sideways trend of combinations, double and triple zigzags can be characterized as non-horizontal combinations, as Elliott seemed to suggest in Nature's Law. However, double and triple threes are different from double and triple zigzags, not only in their angle but in their goal. In a double or triple zigzag, the first zigzag is rarely large enough to constitute an adequate price correction of the preceding wave. The doubling or tripling of the initial form is typically necessary to create an adequately sized price retracement. In a combination, however, the first simple pattern often constitutes an adequate price correction. The doubling or tripling appears to occur mainly to extend the duration of the corrective process after price targets have been substantially met. Sometimes additional time is needed to reach a channel line or achieve a stronger kinship with the other correction in an impulse wave. As the consolidation continues, the attendant psychology and fundamentals extend their trends accordingly.

As this section makes clear, there is a qualitative difference between the number series 3 + 4 + 4 + 4, etc., and the series 5 + 4 + 4 + 4, etc. Notice that while impulse waves have a total count of 5, with extensions leading to 9, 13 or 17 waves, and so on, corrective waves have a count of 3, with combinations leading to 7 or 11 waves, and so on. Triangles appear to be an exception, although they can be counted as one would a triple three, totaling 11 waves. Thus, if an internal count is unclear, the analyst can sometimes reach a reasonable conclusion merely by counting waves. A count of 9, 13 or 17 with few overlaps, for instance, is likely motive, while a count of 7, 11 or 15 with numerous overlaps is likely corrective. The main exceptions are diagonal triangles of both types, which are hybrids of motive and corrective forces.

Orthodox Tops and Bottoms

Sometimes a pattern's end differs from the associated price extreme. In such cases, the end of the pattern is called the "orthodox" top or bottom in order to differentiate it from the actual price high or low that occurs intra-pattern. For example, in Figure 1-11, the end of wave 5 is the orthodox top despite the fact that wave 3 registered a higher price. In Figure 1-12, the

end of wave 5 is the orthodox bottom. In Figures 1-33 and 1-34, the starting point of wave A is the orthodox top of the preceding bull market despite the higher high of wave B. In Figure 1-47, the end of wave Y is the orthodox bottom of the bear market even though the price low occurs at the end of wave W.

This concept is important primarily because a successful analysis always depends upon a proper labeling of the patterns. Assuming falsely that a particular price extreme is the correct starting point for wave labeling can throw analysis off for some time, while being aware of the requirements of wave form will keep you on track. Further, when applying the forecasting concepts that will be introduced in Lessons 20 through 25, the length and duration of a wave are typically determined by measuring from and projecting orthodox ending points.

Reconciling Function and mode

In Lessons 3 and 4, we described the two functions waves may perform (action and reaction), as well as the two modes of structural development (motive and corrective) that they undergo. Now that we have reviewed all types of waves, we can summarize their labels as follows:

— The labels for actionary waves are 1, 3, 5, A, C, E, W, Y and Z.

— The labels for reactionary waves are 2, 4, B, D and X.

As stated earlier, all reactionary waves develop in corrective mode, and most actionary waves develop in motive mode. The preceding sections have described which actionary waves develop in corrective mode. They are:

— waves 1, 3 and 5 in an ending diagonal,

— wave A in a flat correction,

— waves A, C and E in a triangle,

— waves W and Y in double zigzags and double corrections,

— wave Z in triple zigzags and triple corrections.

Because the waves listed above are actionary in relative direction yet develop in corrective mode, we term them "actionary corrective" waves.

As far as we know, we have listed all wave formations that can occur in the price movement of the broad stock market averages. Under the Wave Principle, no other formations than those listed here will occur. Indeed, since the hourly readings are a nearly perfectly matched filter for detailing waves of

Subminuette degree, the authors can find no examples of waves above the Subminuette degree that cannot be counted satisfactorily by the Elliott method. In fact, Elliott Waves of much smaller degree than Subminuette are revealed by computer generated charts of minute-by-minute transactions. Even the few data points (transactions) per unit of time at this low a degree are enough to reflect accurately the Wave Principle of human behavior by recording the rapid shifts in psychology occurring in the "pits" and on the exchange floor. All rules (which were covered in Lessons 1 through 9) and guidelines (which are covered in Lessons 1 through 15) fundamentally apply to actual market mood, not its recording per se or lack thereof. Its clear manifestation requires free market pricing. When prices are fixed by government edict, such as those for gold and silver for half of the twentieth century, waves restricted by the edict are not allowed to register. When the available price record differs from what might have existed in a free market, rules and guidelines must be considered in that light. In the long run, of course, markets always win out over edicts, and edict enforcement is only possible if the mood of the market allows it. All rules and guidelines presented in this course presume that your price record is accurate. Now that we have presented the rules and rudiments of wave formation, we can move on to some of the guidelines for successful analysis under the Wave Principle.

The Guidelines of Alternation

The guidelines presented in Lessons 10-15 are discussed and illustrated in the context of a bull market. Except where specifically excluded, they apply equally in bear markets, in which context the illustrations and implications would be inverted.

Alternation

The guideline of alternation is very broad in its application and warns the analyst always to expect a difference in the next expression of a similar wave. Hamilton Bolton said,

The writer is not convinced that alternation is inevitable in types of waves in larger formations, but there are frequent enough cases to suggest that one should look for it rather than the contrary.

Although alternation does not say precisely what is going to happen, it gives valuable notice of what not to expect and is therefore useful to keep in mind when analyzing wave formations and assessing future possibilities. It primarily instructs the analyst not to assume, as most people tend to do, that because the last market cycle behaved in a certain manner, this one is sure to be the same. As "contrarians" never cease to point out, the day that most investors "catch on" to an apparent habit of the market is the day it will change to one completely different. However, Elliott went further in stating that, in fact, alternation was virtually a law of markets.

Alternation Within Impulses

If wave two of an impulse is a sharp correction, expect wave four to be a sideways correction, and vice versa. Figure 2-1 shows the most characteristic breakdowns of impulse waves, both up

and down, as suggested by the guideline of alternation. Sharp corrections never include a new price extreme, i.e., one that lies beyond the orthodox end of the preceding impulse wave. They are almost always zigzags (single, double or triple); occasionally they are double threes that begin with a zigzag. Sideways corrections include flats, triangles, and double and triple corrections. They usually include a new price extreme, i.e., one that lies beyond the orthodox end of the preceding impulse wave. In rare cases, a regular triangle (one that does not include a new price extreme) in the fourth wave position will take the place of a sharp correction and alternate with another type of sideways pattern in the second wave position. The idea of alternation within impulses can be summarized by saying that one of the two corrective processes will contain a move back to or beyond the end of the preceding impulse, and the other will not.

Figure 2-1

Diagonal triangles do not display alternation between subwaves 2 and 4. Typically they are both zigzags. Extensions are an expression of alternation, as the motive waves alternate their lengths. Typically the first is short, the third is extended, and the fifth is short again. Extensions, which normally occur in wave 3, sometimes occur in wave 1 or 5, another manifestation of alternation.

Alternation within Corrective Waves

If a large correction begins with a flat a-b-c construction for wave A, expect a zigzag a-b-c formation for wave B (see Figure 2-2), and vice versa (see Figure 2-3). With a moment's thought, it is obvious that this occurrence is sensible, since the first illustration reflects an upward bias in both subwaves while the second reflects a downward bias.

Figure 2-2

Figure 2-3

Quite often, if a large correction begins with a simple a-b-c zigzag for wave A, wave B will stretch out into a more intricately subdivided a-b-c zigzag to achieve a type of alternation, as in Figure 2-4. Sometimes wave C will be yet more complex, as in Figure 2-5. The reverse order of complexity is somewhat less common.

Figure 2-4

Figure 2-5

Forecasting Corrective Waves

Depth of Corrective Waves (Bear Market Limitations)

No market approach other than the Wave Principle gives as satisfactory an answer to the question, "How far down can a bear market be expected to go?" The primary guideline is that corrections, especially when they themselves are fourth waves, tend to register their maximum retracement within the span of travel of the previous fourth wave of one lesser degree, most commonly near the level of its terminus.

Example #1: The 1929-1932 Bear Market

The chart of stock prices adjusted to constant dollars developed by the Foundation for the Study of Cycles shows a contracting triangle as wave (IV). Its lows bottom within the area of the previous fourth wave of Cycle degree, an expanding triangle (see chart below).

Example #2: The 1942 Bear Market Low

In this case, the Cycle degree wave II bear market from 1937 to 1942, a zigzag, terminates within the area of Primary wave [4] of the bull market from 1932 to 1937 (see Figure 5-3).

Figure 5-3

Example #3: The 1962 Bear Market Low

The wave [4] plunge in 1962 brought the averages down to just above the 1956 high of the five-wave Primary sequence from 1949 to 1959. Ordinarily, the bear would have reached into the zone of wave (4), the fourth wave correction within wave [3]. This narrow miss nevertheless illustrates why this guideline is not a rule. The preceding strong third wave extension and the shallow A wave and strong B wave within [4] indicated strength in the wave structure, which carried over into the moderate net depth of the correction (see Figure 5-3).

Wave Extensions

Example #4: The 1974 Bear Market Low

The final decline into 1974, ending the 1966-1974 Cycle degree wave IV correction of the entire wave III rise from 1942, brought the averages down to the area of the previous fourth wave of lesser degree (Primary wave[ 4]). Again, Figure 5-3 shows what happened.

Our analysis of small degree wave sequences over the last twenty years further validates the proposition that the usual limitation of any bear market is the travel area of the preceding fourth wave of one lesser degree, particularly when the bear market in question is itself a fourth wave. However, in a clearly reasonable modification of the guideline, it is often the case that if the first wave in a sequence extends, the correction following the fifth wave will have as a typical limit the bottom of the second wave of lesser degree. For example, the decline into March 1978 in the DJIA bottomed exactly at the low of the second wave in March 1975, which followed an extended first wave off the December 1974 low.

On occasion, flat corrections or triangles, particularly those following extensions (see Example #3), will barely fail to reach into the fourth wave area. Zigzags, on occasion, will cut deeply and move down into the area of the second wave of lesser degree, although this almost exclusively occurs when the zigzags are themselves second waves. "Double bottoms" are sometimes formed in this manner.

Behavior Following Fifth Wave Extensions

The most important empirically derived rule that can be distilled from our observations of market behavior is that when the fifth wave of an advance is an extension, the ensuing correction will be sharp and find support at the level of the low of wave two of the extension. Sometimes the correction will end there, as illustrated in Figure 2-6. Although a limited number of real life examples exist, the precision with which "A" waves have reversed at the level of the low of wave two of the preceding fifth wave extension is remarkable. Figure 2-7 is an illustration involving an expanded flat correction. (For future reference, please make a note of two real-life examples that we will show in charts of upcoming lessons. An example involving a zigzag can be found in Figure 5-3 at the low of wave [a] of II, and an example involving an expanded flat can be found in Figure 2-16 at the low of wave a of A of 4. As you will see in Figure 5-3, wave A of (IV) bottoms near wave (2) of [5], which is an extension within wave V from 1921 to 1929.)

Since the low of the second wave of an extension is commonly in or near the price territory of the immediately preceding fourth wave of one larger degree, this guideline implies behavior similar to that for the preceding guideline. It is notable for its precision, however. Additional value is provided by the fact that fifth wave extensions are typically followed by swift retracements. Their occurrence, then, is an advance warning of a dramatic reversal to a specific level, a powerful combination of knowledge. This guideline does not apply separately to fifth wave extensions of fifth wave extensions.

Figure 2-6 Figure 2-7

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• Date : 28th October 2020.Alphabet Q3 earnings: Focus on advertising revenue.Once again the FAANGs excluding Netflix plan to report their earnings the same day within 30 minutes of each other. FAANGs illustrate 20% of the S&P500’s total value. Even though most of them face increasing antitrust scrutiny, all posted an impressive rally this year as their shares have surged and sustained close to record highs as the pandemic reckoned with online services such as shopping, streaming, clouds.Hence in addition to our earnings articles, today we will focus also on Alphabet’s third quarter earnings for 2020 which will be reported along with the rest of the giants. Just a quick reminder, Alphabet Inc. is a holding company and Google’s parent company. The company’s businesses include Google Inc. (which is the largest one) and its Internet products, such as Access, Calico, CapitalG, GV, Nest, Verily, Waymo and X. The company’s segments include Google and Other Bets.Alphabet’s report will be key after its first year-over-year revenue decline in company history in Q2 as a result of the lack of advertisement demand from the majority of businesses amid the economic slowdown globally. However the forecasts for Q3 have the company well positioned with the consensus recommendation “strong buy”, corresponding to the majority of the consensus recommendation from Reuters Eikon, as 30 out of 36 analyst firms recommend “buy” and “strong buy”, while only 6 recommend ‘hold’. Hence, no analyst firm is making a “sell” or “underperform” recommendation for the company.GROWTH FOR ALPHABET INCAccording to Zacks Investment Research and Reuters Refinitiv, the information service is expected to have \$11.33 in earnings per share during the third quarter of 2020, which represents a yearly rise of 12% since the reported EPS for the fiscal quarter ending September 2019. Focus should also turn onto the revenues number which is projected to hit a 6% yoy spike, to around \$42.8 billion, from the \$40.49 billion reported last year. Net sales meanwhile are seen at \$35.26 billion.Revenue by business segment:   Google Search & Other (ad revenue, dominated by Google Search) – consensus of \$24.96 billion* YouTube ads – consensus of \$4.38 billion* Google Network (ad sales on third-party websites/apps) – consensus of \$5.07 billion (down 4%) Google Cloud – consensus of \$3.32 billion* Google Other (Play Store, hardware, YouTube subscriptions) – consensus of \$5.11 billion* Other Bets (Google Fiber, Verily, Waymo, etc.) – consensus of \$153 million (down 1%) Despite the huge diversification of its portfolio, Alphabet Inc earns nearly 71% of its revenue from advertising. Hence even though, the travel sector is still weak the majority of the analysts remain bullish on the advertisement services of Alphabet into Q3 given the slightly ‘temporary as it seems’ recovery that we have seen as the pandemic eased over the summer and business began reopening. Morgan Stanley stated also that they came into earnings season positive about the online ad market recovery but grew more optimistic following Snap’s blowout ad revenue beat and better-than-expected ad results from Verizon subsidiary AOL, Sirius-owned Pandora, and Interpublic Group.The positive consensus for Q3 could also be driven by the shift of Alphabet to Google Play and YouTube to help its partners support their businesses. The majority of the analysts believe that we could see strength in YouTube ad pricing and the return of brand spending in its channel checks.Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai however highlighted in his latest statements GOOGL’s focus on non-advertising segments. Like tech giant and its cloudspace rival Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT), GOOGL has the capacity and resources to strategically pivot, from a large “legacy” company to an aggressive emergent; in this case, from search to various ‘other segments’ offering potential growth.Meanwhile, the risks that Alphabet faces ahead of the report is the solid competition from Amazon in advertising business and cloud services but also the cold headwinds on the earnings front in addition to emerging regulatory challenges. Coming off a not-so-stellar Q1 reporting season, GOOGL fell short in Q2, reporting its first ever year-over-year quarterly decline.Earlier this week, the Justice Department, along with 11 Republican state attorneys general, filed an antitrust lawsuit against Google, alleging an unlawful monopoly on search services and advertising. US Deputy Attorney General Jeffrey Rosen called GOOGL, “the gateway to the internet” and said the company “has maintained its monopoly power through exclusionary practices that are harmful to competition.”At this stage, we have to point out that a consensus recommendation, similarly to economic data forecasts, has a significant effect on the near-term stock price, as it represents a company’s wealth picture. Hence on every earning report, stock price is highly influenced by the comparison between the outcome and the expectations. The market tends to react positively if the outcome comes in better or at least in line with the forecast, while the price moves lower if the reported earnings miss expectations.Technically, the current Google price action has posted a sharp rally since the March panic with the stock rebounding from the \$1,000 area to record highs at \$1,732.41. Currently the asset is traded at the \$1,524 area which is just a 23.6% loss from all-years highs. The overall bias remains strongly positive even though medium term momentum indicators signal a potential pullback lower.Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!Click HERE to READ more Market news. Andria Pichidi Market Analyst HotForex Disclaimer: This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.
• Date : 27th October 2020.USD improves, GBP Mixed, CB decisions & TRY.The Dollar firmed up into the London open and beyond, paring declines seen earlier in pre-Europe trading in Asia. The move drove gold and oil prices lower, too, indicating there has been some depth in dollar buying, although the magnitude of movement hasn’t been great.US equity index futures have managed modest gains after the S&P 500 closed with a 1.9% loss yesterday, though investor sentiment in global markets remains decidedly restive. Most Asian stock markets declined, and Australia’s ASX 200 equity index closed with a 1.7% loss in its worst single day performance in a month. Soaring positive Covid tests and the associated trend toward increasingly restrictive countermeasures, along with the risk of next week’s US election results being contested, and the delay in US stimulus relief, are keeping markets on edge. Overall strong Q3 economic data are being overlooked as markets look to what is appearing to be a grim winter ahead in the northern hemisphere, with risks of a double dip recession being factored in, especially in Europe. Amid this, the Dollar has been holding up, despite a narrowing in nominal US yields relative to peers in recent days, including Bunds and JGBs, revealing that the US currency is functioning as a safe haven currency again.The USDIndex index lifted back above 93.00, though remains down on yesterday’s and Friday’s highs at 93.11-13. EURUSD tipped back to levels around 1.1800 after posting a high at 1.1836. USDJPY remained settled in the upper 104.00s in what could be termed a consolidation of the steep decline seen last Wednesday but has tested below S1 below to 104.60. The pair remains about 0.7% down from week-ago levels. Sterling continued to trade without direction, overall, holding over 1.3000 around 1.3020. EU and UK trade talks continue in London through to tomorrow before relocating to Brussels. They are reportedly working to a mid-November deadline.Taking a step back, the currencies that are showing the biggest gains on the year-to-date are the ones that most would expect to have risen against the backdrop of the global pandemic crisis, being currencies of current account surplus economies, specifically ones that don’t have a high commodity export component. Thereby the Euro, Swiss Franc and Yen are the biggest gainers, while the dollar bloc and the likes of the South African Rand and Russian Ruble, among others, are showing the biggest year-to-date declines, save the politically savaged Turkish Lira. Turkey seems to be in dispute with all its neighbours and some further afield. The Central Bank holding rates last week has not helped its predicament – USDTRY printed a new all time high earlier at 8.1580.USDCAD lifted out of a correction low at 1.3169, with oil prices, although up yesterday’s lows, coming under moderate pressure during the early London session. WTI benchmark crude prices are down 6.5% from week-ago levels, and prospects for a sustained rebound look to be limited given the supply glut and weakening demand as Covid-containing measures intensify across Europe and some parts of North America. This backdrop should keep USDCAD underpinned. The pair has been trending lower since March, though we have been noting trend derailing risks. A run to levels around 1.3500 and above seems possible, as the BOC decision tomorrow and the US Election next week remain the key immediate fundamentals .Always trade with strict risk management. Your capital is the single most important aspect of your trading business.Please note that times displayed based on local time zone and are from time of writing this report.Click HERE to access the full HotForex Economic calendar.Want to learn to trade and analyse the markets? Join our webinars and get analysis and trading ideas combined with better understanding on how markets work. Click HERE to register for FREE!Click HERE to READ more Market news. Stuart Cowell Head Market Analyst HotForex Disclaimer: This material is provided as a general marketing communication for information purposes only and does not constitute an independent investment research. Nothing in this communication contains, or should be considered as containing, an investment advice or an investment recommendation or a solicitation for the purpose of buying or selling of any financial instrument. All information provided is gathered from reputable sources and any information containing an indication of past performance is not a guarantee or reliable indicator of future performance. Users acknowledge that any investment in FX and CFDs products is characterized by a certain degree of uncertainty and that any investment of this nature involves a high level of risk for which the users are solely responsible and liable. We assume no liability for any loss arising from any investment made based on the information provided in this communication. This communication must not be reproduced or further distributed without our prior written permission.
• “Self-evident truths” ( btw the ‘trading’ industry runs on a lot of these “self-evident truths” too) https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/escobar-make-america-jeffersonian-again and a study in current “defactualization” https://consortiumnews.com/2020/10/19/patrick-lawrence-the-damage-russiagate-has-done/
• Overtrading either trading too big or too often – is the most common reason why forex traders fail. Overtrading might be caused by unrealistically high profit goals, market addiction, or insufficient capitalization.
• Yes, i do trust my broker. LMFX offers are very good and attractive. They have high leverage for newbie so do try with opening Demo account with LMFX.
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