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Rande Howell

The Saboteur in the Mind

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“There is someone in my head, but it’s not me.” Pink Floyd

 

Have you ever noticed all that idle chatter going on in your mind while you trade? Have you ever taken the time to listen to it? I mean really listen to it. Have you ever connected the dots between it and the success or failure of your performance in trading? This running commentary in your mind is so ubiquitous, so commonly familiar, so ordinary – that most do not give it a second thought. In their blindness they think, “It’s just me and my thoughts.”

 

Yet, when it comes to crunch time (like the mental and emotional readiness you need to pull the trigger, or maintaining emotional sobriety while in a trade), the seeming harmless self- talk that you simply pushed away or ignored moments ago roars like a lion in hot pursuit of its prey – you. Meanwhile, you keep believing that if only you could push those pesky thoughts out of your mind, you would be able to break through the barrier that separates you from consistent profitability.

 

But at exactly the most critical moments in your trading, this background noise in your mind keeps suddenly erupting into a tirade of self-doubt or temptation, judgment, blame, or fear. How can something that is supposed to be so familiar and harmless rise up and become a tidal wave that sweeps your trading mind away?

 

Well, just because it so common that it attracts no attention does not mean that it is harmless. What is important to realize here is that you, as a trader, do not understand the power of the internal dialog or what comprises this narrative in the mind. That lack of understanding shows up in your trading account in the form of losses or the loss of potential profits every day until you come to a very new understanding about what is actually going on underneath the hood of your mind.

 

Thoughts Set the Stage of the Internal Struggle

 

First let’s make sure you recognize an internal dialog that is, in fact, going on in the mind as you are attempting to follow your trading plan in the midst of a trading performance. When a trader commits to a trade and the order is filled, often a wild ride ensues – almost like a roller coaster ride with no safety equipment to keep you in your seat.

 

Initially in the uncertainty of the trading environment, the trade is bouncing around in a flux that rattles you. You begin losing your composure. Thoughts of the trade going against you (and you losing, again) begin to overwhelm your untrained mind. By the time it begins to trend, you are so exacerbated that you jump out of the trade because now your fear of missing out of even a little profit has so consumed you that you cannot think straight. You’re just happy to have grabbed a little profit, rather than another loss. Then, after you get out of the trade with only a skinny profit, you watch the trade trend and take off – just like your trade plan had indicated. All that planning, all that charting, all that knowledge of trading - down the drain again.

 

If you have experienced this scenario, you have been on the losing end of the internal struggle that goes on in the mind when it is challenged by uncertainty. The dominant thought pattern that has taken over the mind is usually, “What if I lose?” or “I’m going to lose” or “I always mess up in the clutch” or “Who said that I could trade successfully?” Trying to force yourself to not hear these thoughts, or voices, in the mind by acting as if you are a tough, seasoned trader does not work. You can’t "fake it 'till you make it" in trading. You truly have to develop a mind that is built to embrace uncertainty – not fear it.

 

Linking Brain, Emotion, and Thought

 

Let’s take a look at what is really happening in the brain and mind as this cacophony takes over the thinking of the trader’s mind. The brain’s job is to adapt us to survive in whatever environment it finds itself. It does this by creating programs that keep the organism (that’s you) alive. Once the program produces success in dealing with the environment, it becomes embedded into the neural circuitry and begins to run automatically totally out of the awareness of the conscious mind. It then operates out of pattern recognition and simply reactively “pops up” when circumstances trigger it (trading offers countless opportunities for this to occur).

 

This is how the brain links emotion and thought. An emotion (defined as "any disruption to a standard sensory pattern that the brain has already created") erupts to control the kind of thinking needed to solve the problem in the context of the environment in which the program was created. Usually this emotional program is created during the formative period of the brain/mind – a period when mature problem solving skills have not yet come on line. It becomes locked in and is triggered reactively. This does not bode well for traders.

 

Initially these programs are simply wired into your perceptual repertoire. These guide your responses to environmental cues (think avoidance of danger and uncertainty). This is called adaptation. However, if the programs become successful over countless generations, they are burned into the DNA. This is called instinct. And how do you experience these programs? As voices, or narratives, in the mind. These programs show up as the seemingly idle chatter going on in the mind. Most of the time, they appear harmless enough.

 

Uncertainty and the Brain of the Trader

 

However, adaptation and instinct collide in trading because the emotional brain (the one that controls the kind of thinking you do) does not distinguish between uncertainty and fear. All neural programs are wired to create patterns of avoidant response when stimulated by perceived threats in the environment. And the trading environment, due to its rooting in the management of uncertainty, is going to trigger to fear-based programs. Hence, both instinct and adaptation in the untrained mind create a perfect storm for losing your emotional sobriety while attempting to manage a trade.

 

And how do these neural programs show up in your mind? They appear as the internal dialog or voices in the mind. Thought becomes the voice of your programmed beliefs about your capacity to manage uncertainty. And remember, the brain does not distinguish between uncertainty and fear. This is something that has become instinctual, burned into our DNA, as a successful solution for a greater probability of survival of both the individual and the species.

 

So…this idle chatter that you may not even be aware of most of the time or that can become pesky at other times, is, in fact, the tip of an iceberg that lays out the blueprint of how you react to environmental stressors (like managing a trade). And the programs were created in a time when your brain was not developmentally mature and could not make the kind of decisions it is capable of now. This is what is running your trading mind as you trade.

 

How Does This Apply to Trading?

 

In his book “Incognito” David Eagleman, the neuro-scientist, describes these programs established by the brain as a rivalry of equals. In the generation of thought from neural behavior that describes the relationship between brain and mind, these programs show up as thoughts, voices, or narratives in the mind. Most are developed through adaptation as a successful response towards survival and become residents of the unobserved mind. And these programs, working in the background of an untrained mind under the stress of trading, take over the rival of rational thought. Your brain, whether you like it or not, creates a community of rivals. Your job as a student of trading will be to re-organize this community into an effective team for managing the uncertainty found in trading.

 

Another way of describing this situation from a psychological perspective is that the current organization of the rivals of the mind is the baggage that you bring to trading. Fortunately, the adaptation to the avoidance of the fusion of uncertainty/fear can be re-developed through the application of emotional regulation, mindfulness, and the examined development of other internal resources that have been burned into our DNA.

 

Until you learn to regulate the triggering of these emotionally-based programs that give rise to thought, you do not get to the door of the mind. You stay hijacked by programs the brain has already established when you perceive threat. Once emotional regulation is a working skill, mindfulness can be developed so that you become aware of all the rival programs showing up as thoughts or voices in the mind. And you discover that you and your thoughts are not the same. They are simply programs running you.

 

In applied mindfulness, you develop the talent of choosing which rivals run the thinking of the mind. This is the personal development that all traders need to embrace. This is the internal discipline needed to organize the rivals in the mind into a state of mind that embraces uncertainty and probability. This is the journey that trading demands to become successful.

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What are your thoughts on right brained v left brained being an advantage/disadvantage in trading?

I would have thought that the dialogue going on in our heads would be influenced by which camp we are in.

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What are your thoughts on right brained v left brained being an advantage/disadvantage in trading?

I would have thought that the dialogue going on in our heads would be influenced by which camp we are in.

 

In our culture not much emphasis is placed on the intuitiveness of the right brain and much is placed on the analytical left brain. While we never learned to manage the gifts that the right brain can bring, they can become a liability in most trader's performance. It is the right side that can read emotion while the left side can analyse the structure of that emotion. This is what you see in really good traders. Jill Bolte Taylor and her book, Stroke of Insight, really turned me around on this. As a celebrated neuro-scientist, she had a stroke that wiped out her left brain and left only her right brain for perception. They are now reintegrated, but they are partners now, making a much more nuanced human being. In trading a client of mine, Christopher Castro-Viaho (sometimes I get that spelling wrong) has the same sort of right brain, left brain synthesis. Not only does he analyse, but he also intuitively "smells the blood". His major job was to learn to trust this part (his right brain) and make it a member of his trading mind. The results have been impressive.

 

I believe you can be profitable without the right brain's contribution to the trading mind, but, add skilled intuition, and the competency of the trader really goes to a new level.

 

Rande Howell

www.tradersstateofmind.com

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Your comment fits very well with my experience being right brained,both in trading and in designing methods.In the early days the right side would make bad trading decisions and had no discipline.Interestingly the left side would be voicing an opinion but the right side would completely ignore it.It took a long time to resolve this,but finally the left side said look.do you want to keep on losing or what?

If i could use music as an analogy,it is better to lay down an identifiable rhythm and melody and then improvise when appropriate.The more experience you have the more you can trust your instinct.It is at that point that the right brained side really comes into it's own.

 

One thing that made this process even longer was once the right side had been consigned to the doghouse it was reluctant to be itself,So on occasions,when it "smelled blood" the left side kept it reigned in.Eventually when the left side saw how many opportunities were being lost it too got taught a lesson and since that time they appear to be working in harmony.:)

Though it's never a 50/50 relationship,i would guess it falls into the cliche 80/20 category.

 

Who would have thought that Rande and mitsubishi would find some common ground....?

Now don't get carried away folks,it's still an 80/20 thing:)

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My view on this is that "it" is largely a matter of maturation.....that is to say, those who have matured sufficiently that they understand and accept the complexity of the world around them are likely to A) be able to tolerate the tension of not knowing (temporarily) whether a trade will win or lose and B) will also be able to tolerate the tension associated with delayed gratification as they try to hold a position until it is terminated with a profit or loss.

 

For those folks (displaying adult self-esteem) this is simplified by the fact that they were raised correctly (also known in developmental psychology terms as "good enough" parenting")...and they display the ability to adapt where others of us, have to either learn by hard experience or perhaps fail and find other less emotionally taxing methods of earning a living...

 

What I like about this is that is does not require me to generate and work with the needless complexity of architypes and all the associated paraphenalia....and once you understand it, you can simply move forward....you see once you obtain (internalize) this understanding of what it is that you are feeling when you trade, you can choose the path to correcting that deficit....as an example, good results are often obtained simply by incorporating a variation of stress training as mentioned in Brett Steenbargen's books...

 

Not to suggest that the study of architypes won't work, it may...so might praying or voodoo ritual, or exorcism for that matter...

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To steve46

 

I often find myself scratching my head when I read comments from you.

 

In your comments you make reference to certain groups of attachment theroy types and the environment from which they spring -- so we'll start there. "For those" and "those" that you refer to in your comments are incredibly small subsets of the world of humans -- of which you may be a privileged minority. In John Bowlby's and Mary Ainsworth's notion of "good enough" parenting style, less than 10% grow up and adapted to such an environment. In Mary Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" mountain top experience, it was discovered that the vast majority of people would have no cue what secure attachment style is. Reactiveness was the norm rather than "good enough". Having practiced as an attachment focused therapist working with really difficult populations (even today in trading), I can certainly appreciate the truth of their findings.

 

These are the same proportioned numbers who come to trading also. Reactiveness to fear, either by avoidance or pushing away, show up in people's trading every day. A number of very successful traders also have a disconnect in their capacity to be aware of and process emotion -- it is called high functioning autism. It's actually a great trait to embody for a profession in trading. I don't know if I would try to relate to the rest of the folks who are trying to learn how to manage emotions if I were a trader some where on the spectrum though.

 

I certainly encourage people to explore other providers of psychological development in the arena of trading. I currently have 2 clients working with me who have been presenters of one such guy who also teaches how to trade. Go figure. I don't think you understand Emotional Intelligence or its connection to Jungian archetypes. Archetypes are neural programs, first adaptive in nature, that have proven successful over evolutionary history and have been burned into the DNA of our humanness. Each archetype will have a feeling component of the archetypal emotional grounding. It is this feeling element of the emotion that creates the kind of thinking that is associated with the archetype. It is biologically rooted and is burned into DNA. It becomes your choice to develop these aspects of your brain/mind's repetoire or not. This is what I call "taking control of the community of rivals in the mind". You are going to have programs wired into your neural circuitry that compete for control of the thinking mind. I prefer to have a language that allows me to understand what is actually going on in mind and be able to manage it. Most traders, in their journey to consistent profitability, seek this understanding.

 

Good luck with your trading and better luck still with trying to teach your students how to develop the mind that trades. I have no doubt you can teach a person to trade, and I have a lot of doubt that your methods teach "the rest of us" how to build a mind for trading. And I hope I'm wrong. As I've traveled this journey, I have found very few teachers who can get their heads around the trading mind -- and fewer still who acknowledge this self development aspect of trading has to be taught alongside methodology. It is much easier to stick to methodology and ignore the need to develop the mind that trades.

 

Rande Howell

www.tradersstateofmind.com

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I like this is comment from Dr. Amanda Morris at the National Institutes of Mental Health

 

"Emotional Regulation refers to an individual's ability to modulate emotional responses across a variety of contexts. In young children, this modulation is in part controlled externally, by parents and other authority figures. As children develop, they take on more and more responsibility for their internal state. Studies have shown that the development of ER is affected by the emotional regulation children observe in parents and caretakers, the emotional climate in the home, and the reaction of parents and caretakers to the child's emotions."

 

Clearly the ability to regulate emotion is a pre-requisite for successful participation in this profession (trading)...I may not have a PhD in Psychology....but as I recall, neither do you sir. so in this circumstance I feel equally well prepared to provide an opinion as to what "really works".....

 

As to whether the ability to regulate emotion is best obtained by Jungian therapy or by simple stress training, that I think remains an open question, but I would maintain that at least some folks (for example those who experienced "good enough" parenting during early childhood) will have an easier time learning this seemingly difficult to acquire skill...and those are the folks I prefer to work with....

 

I hope this simple explanation doesn't offend the many orphans and derelicts that abound here at TL....:)

 

Best Regards

Steve

Edited by steve46

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I am very much in agreement on the necessity or at least the desirability of left brain/right brain coordination as an ingredient in successful trading. there is a great deal of empirical evidence to support feasibility of training the two aspects of our "logical thinking" to work together. In my case, I found the mindless chatter to be independent of the logical aspects of my thought processes and directly related to insecurities and other characterlogical aspects of my person-hood. Understanding that these thoughts were not my basic person-hood opened the way to controlling their effect on my decision making process. Hence understanding the nature of "mind clutter" is crucial to having the clarity of thought process necessary for making good trading decisions. I think this is a great article and I am glad to see such quality of thought and writing in traders Lab.

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Unsolicited :spam: Plug

 

Archetypes - In tales, they can be taken into the forest and abandoned… they can be stunned into latency by spells and potions, etc etc…

Archetypes - For each (type of) human activity we humans carry out, there is a constellation of best focus of attention, body flow (or lack of it), neural processing, emotions, attitudes, (and if we must,beliefs) we bring to that activity.

 

Steve46 mentioned maturity. Archetypal expression is typically developmentally / stage / age specific to a high degree. Yet, as templates for our humanness, it is possible to access and express them to some (and even full) degree at any age. For example, it is possible for a young boy or girl to bring forth genuine acts of warrior or parenting or … – not for long – but the point is, ‘it’s’ in there.

 

Otoh, whether the trader is “mature” or not, it is also possible to be blinded to / blocked from access to one or more of these archetype pal constellations. ‘It’s’ in there – but for many different reasons, one can’t get at it, experience it, express it, in a consistent and reliable instrumental way. (Re &) Establishing availability of and connection to a set of these context specific strengths is Rande’s work.

 

This way not for everyone. …And it’s equally important to say - it is indispensable for some if they are ever to thrive as traders! In my experience, the best traders, the anecdotal ‘Wizards’, do not need or avail themselves ‘coaching’. But many ‘very good’ traders and below could profitably avail themselves some ‘coaching’.

 

Protocol prerequisites: (imho)

> blessed with some imagination (at least a 2.5 on a scale of 1 -10 )

> willingness to (learn to, if nec) be with and fully experience emotions. One constraining ‘trap’ that holds many ‘rationals’ back from such work is seeing it as simply emotional “control” or even emotional “modulation”. That is a very limiting, 'mind bound' view of ‘sympathetic’ arousal processes, etc, etc… sophomoric at best.

> … and closely related – some courage… mostly courage to delve in before you have any confidence, courage to regress, and courage to persevere when a behavior doesn't supply immediate and obvious success.

> imo, those entering should make a minimum 6 month commitment. The work is developing ready access to +4 ‘main’ and +2 ‘minor’ archetypes. Generally, for most individuals, within a period of weeks 60 - 80 % of the whole will fall into place via pre-existing ‘competence’ / access . But the remaining percentage will be shadowy and require more intensive, guided work… ie one of two of the members of the ‘inner archetypal trading team’ will require extended, individualized work to really get a reliable integration

… individualizd processes and challenges… and so individual requirements and results will vary….

 

 

All the best,

 

zdo

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You can certainly set your price target higher, and probably should aim for at least 1:1 regardless of strategy, potentially 2:1 or more in certain circumstances. Then you can choose the market direction correctly only half the time and still make money in your account. The actual distance you place your stops and limits will depend on the conditions in the market at the time, such as volatility, currency pair, and where you see support and resistance. You can apply the same reward/risk ratio to any trade. If you have a stop level 40 pips away from entry, you should have a profit target 40 pips or more away. If you have a stop level 500 pips away, your profit target should be at least 500 pips away. We will use this as a basis for further study on real trader behavior as we look to uncover the traits of successful traders. *Data is drawn from FXCM Inc. accounts excluding Eligible Contract Participants, Clearing Accounts, Hong Kong, and Japan subsidiaries from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Interested in developing your own strategy? On page 2 of our Building Confidence in Trading Guide, we help you identify your trading style and create your own trading plan. Why Do Many Forex Traders Lose Money? Here is the Number 1 Mistake David Rodriguez 11-14 minutes We look through 43 million real trades to measure trader performance Majority of trades are successful and yet traders are losing Reward to Risk ratios play a vital role in capital preservation Why do major currency moves bring increased trader losses? To find out, the DailyFX research team has looked through over 40 million real trades placed via a major FX broker's trading platforms. In this article, we look at the biggest mistake that forex traders make, and a way to trade appropriately. Why Does the Average Forex Trader Lose Money? The average forex trader loses money, which is in itself a very discouraging fact. But why? Put simply, human psychology makes trading difficult. We looked at over 43 million real trades placed on a major FX broker's trading servers from Q2, 2014 – Q1, 2015 and came to some very interesting conclusions. The first is encouraging: traders make money most of the time as over 50% of trades are closed out at a gain. Percent of All Trades Closed Out at a Gain and Loss per Currency Pair     Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart shows results of over 43 million trades conducted by these traders worldwide from Q2, 2014 through Q1, 2015 across the 15 most popular currency pairs. The blue bar shows the percentage of trades that ended with a profit for the trader. Red shows the percentage of trades that ended in loss. For example, the Euro saw an impressive 61% of all trades closed out at a gain. And indeed every single one of these instruments saw the majority of traders turned a profit more than 50 percent of the time. If traders were right more than half of the time, why did most lose money? Average Profit/Loss per Winning and Losing Trades per Currency Pair Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart says it all. In blue, it shows the average number of pips traders earned on profitable trades. In red, it shows the average number of pips lost in losing trades. We can now clearly see why traders lose money despite being right more than half the time. They lose more money on their losing trades than they make on their winning trades. Let’s use EUR/USD as an example. We see that EUR/USD trades were closed out at a profit 61% of the time, but the average losing trade was worth 83 pips while the average winner was only 48 pips. Traders were correct more than half the time, but they lost over 70% more on their losing trades as they won on winning trades. The track record for the volatile GBP/USD pair was even worse. Traders captured profits on 59% of all GBP/USD trades. Yet they overall lost money as they turned an average 43 pip profit on each winner and lost 83 pips on losing trades. What gives? Identifying that there is a problem is important in itself, but we’ll need to understand the reasons behind it in order to look for a solution. Cut Losses, Let Profits Run – Why is this So Difficult to Do? In our study we saw that traders were very good at identifying profitable trading opportunities--closing trades out at a profit over 50 percent of the time. They utlimately lost, however, as the average loss far outweighed the gain. Open nearly any book on trading and the advice is the same: cut your losses early and let your profits run. When your trade goes against you, close it out. Take the small loss and then try again later, if appropriate. It is better to take a small loss early than a big loss later. If a trade is in your favor, let it run. It is often tempting to close out at a small gain in order to protect profits, but oftentimes we see that patience can result in greater gains. But if the solution is so simple, why is the issue so common? The simple answer: human nature. In fact this is not at all limited to trading. To further illustrate the point we draw on significant findings in psychology. A Simple Wager – Understanding Human Behavior Towards Winning and Losing What if I offered you a simple wager on a coin flip? You have two choices. Choice A means you have a 50% chance of winning 1000 dollars and 50% chance of winning nothing. Choice B is a flat 450 point gain. Which would you choose?         Expected Return Gains Choice A 50% chance to Win 1000 50% chance to Win 0 Expect to win $500 over time   Choice B Win 450   Win $450 Over time it makes sense to take Choice A—the expected gain of $500 is greater than the fixed $450. Yet many studies have shown that most people will consistently choose Choice B. Let’s flip the wager and run it again.         Expected Return Losses Choice A 50% chance to Lose 1000 50% chance to Lose 0 Expect to lose $500 over time   Choice B Lose 450   Lose $450 In this case we can expect to lose less money via Choice B, but in fact studies have shown that the majority of people will pick choice A every single time. Here we see the issue. Most people avoid risk when it comes to taking profits but then actively seek it if it means avoiding a loss. Why? Losses Hurt Psychologically far more than Gains Give Pleasure – Prospect Theory Nobel prize-winning clinical psychologist Daniel Kahneman based on his research on decision making. His work wasn’t on trading per se but clear implications for trade management and is quite relevant to FX trading. His study on Prospect Theory attempted to model and predict choices people would make between scenarios involving known risks and rewards. The findings showed something remarkably simple yet profound: most people took more pain from losses than pleasure from gains. It feels “good enough” to make $450 versus $500, but accepting a $500 loss hurts too much and many are willing to gamble that the trade turns around. This doesn’t make any sense from a trading perspective—500 dollars lost are equivalent to 500 dollars gained; one is not worth more than the other. Why should we then act so differently? Prospect Theory: Losses Typically Hurt Far More than Gains Give Pleasure Taking a purely rational approach to markets means treating a 50 point gain as morally equivalent to a 50 point loss. Unfortunately our data on real trader behavior suggests that the majority can’t do this. We need to think more systematically to improve our chances at success. Avoid the Common Pitfall Avoiding the loss-making problem described above is very simple in theory: gain more in each winning trade than you give back in each losing trade. But how might we do it concretely? When trading, always follow one simple rule: always seek a bigger reward than the loss you are risking. This is a valuable piece of advice that can be found in almost every trading book. Typically, this is called a “reward/risk ratio”. If you risk losing the same number of pips as you hope to gain, then your reward/risk ratio is 1-to-1 (also written 1:1). If you target a profit of 80 pips with a risk of 40 pips, then you have a 2:1 reward/risk ratio. If you follow this simple rule, you can be right on the direction of only half of your trades and still make money because you will earn more profits on your winning trades than losses on your losing trades. What ratio should you use? It depends on the type of trade you are making. We recommend to always use a minimum 1:1 ratio. That way, if you are right only half the time, you will at least break even. Certain strategies and trading techniques tend to produce high winning percentages as we saw with real trader data. If this is the case, it is possible to use a lower reward/risk ratio—such as between 1:1 and 2:1. For lower probability trading, a higher reward/risk ratio is recommended, such as 2:1, 3:1, or even 4:1. Remember, the higher the reward/risk ratio you choose, the less often you need to correctly predict market direction in order to make money trading. We will discuss different trading techniques in further detail in subsequent installments of this series. Stick to Your Plan: Use Stops and Limits Once you have a trading plan that uses a proper reward/risk ratio, the next challenge is to stick to the plan. Remember, it is natural for humans to want to hold on to losses and take profits early, but it makes for bad trading. We must overcome this natural tendency and remove our emotions from trading. The best way to do this is to set up your trade with Stop-Loss and Limit orders from the beginning. This will allow you to use the proper reward/risk ratio (1:1 or higher) from the outset, and to stick to it. Once you set them, don’t touch them (One exception: you can move your stop in your favor to lock in profits as the market moves in your favor). Managing your risk in this way is a part of what many traders call “money management”. Many of the most successful forex traders are right about the market’s direction less than half the time. Since they practice good money management, they cut their losses quickly and let their profits run, so they are still profitable in their overall trading. Does Using 1:1 Reward to Risk Really Work? Our data certainly suggest it does. We use our data on our top 15 currency pairs to determine which trader accounts closed their Average Gain at least as large as their Average Loss—or a minimum Reward:Risk of 1:1. Were traders ultimately profitable if they stuck to this rule? Past performance is not indicative of future results, but the results certainly support it. Our data shows that 53 percent of all accounts which operated on at least a 1:1 Reward to Risk ratio turned a net-profit in our 12-month sample period. Those under 1:1? A mere 17 percent. Traders who adhered to this rule were 3 times more likely to turn a profit over the course of these 12 months—a substantial difference. Why Do Many Forex Traders Lose Money? Here is the Number 1 Mistake David Rodriguez 11-14 minutes We look through 43 million real trades to measure trader performance Majority of trades are successful and yet traders are losing Reward to Risk ratios play a vital role in capital preservation Why do major currency moves bring increased trader losses? To find out, the DailyFX research team has looked through over 40 million real trades placed via a major FX broker's trading platforms. In this article, we look at the biggest mistake that forex traders make, and a way to trade appropriately. Why Does the Average Forex Trader Lose Money? The average forex trader loses money, which is in itself a very discouraging fact. But why? Put simply, human psychology makes trading difficult. We looked at over 43 million real trades placed on a major FX broker's trading servers from Q2, 2014 – Q1, 2015 and came to some very interesting conclusions. The first is encouraging: traders make money most of the time as over 50% of trades are closed out at a gain. Percent of All Trades Closed Out at a Gain and Loss per Currency Pair Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart shows results of over 43 million trades conducted by these traders worldwide from Q2, 2014 through Q1, 2015 across the 15 most popular currency pairs. The blue bar shows the percentage of trades that ended with a profit for the trader. Red shows the percentage of trades that ended in loss. For example, the Euro saw an impressive 61% of all trades closed out at a gain. And indeed every single one of these instruments saw the majority of traders turned a profit more than 50 percent of the time. If traders were right more than half of the time, why did most lose money? Average Profit/Loss per Winning and Losing Trades per Currency Pair Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart says it all. In blue, it shows the average number of pips traders earned on profitable trades. In red, it shows the average number of pips lost in losing trades. We can now clearly see why traders lose money despite being right more than half the time. They lose more money on their losing trades than they make on their winning trades. Let’s use EUR/USD as an example. We see that EUR/USD trades were closed out at a profit 61% of the time, but the average losing trade was worth 83 pips while the average winner was only 48 pips. Traders were correct more than half the time, but they lost over 70% more on their losing trades as they won on winning trades. The track record for the volatile GBP/USD pair was even worse. Traders captured profits on 59% of all GBP/USD trades. Yet they overall lost money as they turned an average 43 pip profit on each winner and lost 83 pips on losing trades. What gives? Identifying that there is a problem is important in itself, but we’ll need to understand the reasons behind it in order to look for a solution. Cut Losses, Let Profits Run – Why is this So Difficult to Do? In our study we saw that traders were very good at identifying profitable trading opportunities--closing trades out at a profit over 50 percent of the time. They utlimately lost, however, as the average loss far outweighed the gain. Open nearly any book on trading and the advice is the same: cut your losses early and let your profits run. When your trade goes against you, close it out. Take the small loss and then try again later, if appropriate. It is better to take a small loss early than a big loss later. If a trade is in your favor, let it run. It is often tempting to close out at a small gain in order to protect profits, but oftentimes we see that patience can result in greater gains. But if the solution is so simple, why is the issue so common? The simple answer: human nature. In fact this is not at all limited to trading. To further illustrate the point we draw on significant findings in psychology. A Simple Wager – Understanding Human Behavior Towards Winning and Losing What if I offered you a simple wager on a coin flip? You have two choices. Choice A means you have a 50% chance of winning 1000 dollars and 50% chance of winning nothing. Choice B is a flat 450 point gain. Which would you choose?         Expected Return Gains Choice A 50% chance to Win 1000 50% chance to Win 0 Expect to win $500 over time   Choice B Win 450   Win $450 Over time it makes sense to take Choice A—the expected gain of $500 is greater than the fixed $450. Yet many studies have shown that most people will consistently choose Choice B. Let’s flip the wager and run it again.         Expected Return Losses Choice A 50% chance to Lose 1000 50% chance to Lose 0 Expect to lose $500 over time   Choice B Lose 450   Lose $450 In this case we can expect to lose less money via Choice B, but in fact studies have shown that the majority of people will pick choice A every single time. Here we see the issue. Most people avoid risk when it comes to taking profits but then actively seek it if it means avoiding a loss. Why? Losses Hurt Psychologically far more than Gains Give Pleasure – Prospect Theory Nobel prize-winning clinical psychologist Daniel Kahneman based on his research on decision making. His work wasn’t on trading per se but clear implications for trade management and is quite relevant to FX trading. His study on Prospect Theory attempted to model and predict choices people would make between scenarios involving known risks and rewards. The findings showed something remarkably simple yet profound: most people took more pain from losses than pleasure from gains. It feels “good enough” to make $450 versus $500, but accepting a $500 loss hurts too much and many are willing to gamble that the trade turns around. This doesn’t make any sense from a trading perspective—500 dollars lost are equivalent to 500 dollars gained; one is not worth more than the other. Why should we then act so differently? Prospect Theory: Losses Typically Hurt Far More than Gains Give Pleasure Taking a purely rational approach to markets means treating a 50 point gain as morally equivalent to a 50 point loss. Unfortunately our data on real trader behavior suggests that the majority can’t do this. We need to think more systematically to improve our chances at success. Avoid the Common Pitfall Avoiding the loss-making problem described above is very simple in theory: gain more in each winning trade than you give back in each losing trade. But how might we do it concretely? When trading, always follow one simple rule: always seek a bigger reward than the loss you are risking. This is a valuable piece of advice that can be found in almost every trading book. Typically, this is called a “reward/risk ratio”. If you risk losing the same number of pips as you hope to gain, then your reward/risk ratio is 1-to-1 (also written 1:1). If you target a profit of 80 pips with a risk of 40 pips, then you have a 2:1 reward/risk ratio. If you follow this simple rule, you can be right on the direction of only half of your trades and still make money because you will earn more profits on your winning trades than losses on your losing trades. What ratio should you use? It depends on the type of trade you are making. We recommend to always use a minimum 1:1 ratio. That way, if you are right only half the time, you will at least break even. Certain strategies and trading techniques tend to produce high winning percentages as we saw with real trader data. If this is the case, it is possible to use a lower reward/risk ratio—such as between 1:1 and 2:1. For lower probability trading, a higher reward/risk ratio is recommended, such as 2:1, 3:1, or even 4:1. Remember, the higher the reward/risk ratio you choose, the less often you need to correctly predict market direction in order to make money trading. We will discuss different trading techniques in further detail in subsequent installments of this series. Stick to Your Plan: Use Stops and Limits Once you have a trading plan that uses a proper reward/risk ratio, the next challenge is to stick to the plan. Remember, it is natural for humans to want to hold on to losses and take profits early, but it makes for bad trading. We must overcome this natural tendency and remove our emotions from trading. The best way to do this is to set up your trade with Stop-Loss and Limit orders from the beginning. This will allow you to use the proper reward/risk ratio (1:1 or higher) from the outset, and to stick to it. Once you set them, don’t touch them (One exception: you can move your stop in your favor to lock in profits as the market moves in your favor). Managing your risk in this way is a part of what many traders call “money management”. Many of the most successful forex traders are right about the market’s direction less than half the time. Since they practice good money management, they cut their losses quickly and let their profits run, so they are still profitable in their overall trading. Does Using 1:1 Reward to Risk Really Work? Our data certainly suggest it does. We use our data on our top 15 currency pairs to determine which trader accounts closed their Average Gain at least as large as their Average Loss—or a minimum Reward:Risk of 1:1. Were traders ultimately profitable if they stuck to this rule? Past performance is not indicative of future results, but the results certainly support it. Our data shows that 53 percent of all accounts which operated on at least a 1:1 Reward to Risk ratio turned a net-profit in our 12-month sample period. Those under 1:1? A mere 17 percent. Traders who adhered to this rule were 3 times more likely to turn a profit over the course of these 12 months—a substantial difference. Why Do Many Forex Traders Lose Money? Here is the Number 1 Mistake David Rodriguez 11-14 minutes We look through 43 million real trades to measure trader performance Majority of trades are successful and yet traders are losing Reward to Risk ratios play a vital role in capital preservation Why do major currency moves bring increased trader losses? To find out, the DailyFX research team has looked through over 40 million real trades placed via a major FX broker's trading platforms. In this article, we look at the biggest mistake that forex traders make, and a way to trade appropriately. Why Does the Average Forex Trader Lose Money? The average forex trader loses money, which is in itself a very discouraging fact. But why? Put simply, human psychology makes trading difficult. We looked at over 43 million real trades placed on a major FX broker's trading servers from Q2, 2014 – Q1, 2015 and came to some very interesting conclusions. The first is encouraging: traders make money most of the time as over 50% of trades are closed out at a gain. Percent of All Trades Closed Out at a Gain and Loss per Currency Pair   Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart shows results of over 43 million trades conducted by these traders worldwide from Q2, 2014 through Q1, 2015 across the 15 most popular currency pairs. The blue bar shows the percentage of trades that ended with a profit for the trader. Red shows the percentage of trades that ended in loss. For example, the Euro saw an impressive 61% of all trades closed out at a gain. And indeed every single one of these instruments saw the majority of traders turned a profit more than 50 percent of the time. If traders were right more than half of the time, why did most lose money? Average Profit/Loss per Winning and Losing Trades per Currency Pair Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart says it all. In blue, it shows the average number of pips traders earned on profitable trades. In red, it shows the average number of pips lost in losing trades. We can now clearly see why traders lose money despite being right more than half the time. They lose more money on their losing trades than they make on their winning trades. Let’s use EUR/USD as an example. We see that EUR/USD trades were closed out at a profit 61% of the time, but the average losing trade was worth 83 pips while the average winner was only 48 pips. Traders were correct more than half the time, but they lost over 70% more on their losing trades as they won on winning trades. The track record for the volatile GBP/USD pair was even worse. Traders captured profits on 59% of all GBP/USD trades. Yet they overall lost money as they turned an average 43 pip profit on each winner and lost 83 pips on losing trades. What gives? Identifying that there is a problem is important in itself, but we’ll need to understand the reasons behind it in order to look for a solution. Cut Losses, Let Profits Run – Why is this So Difficult to Do? In our study we saw that traders were very good at identifying profitable trading opportunities--closing trades out at a profit over 50 percent of the time. They utlimately lost, however, as the average loss far outweighed the gain. Open nearly any book on trading and the advice is the same: cut your losses early and let your profits run. When your trade goes against you, close it out. Take the small loss and then try again later, if appropriate. It is better to take a small loss early than a big loss later. If a trade is in your favor, let it run. It is often tempting to close out at a small gain in order to protect profits, but oftentimes we see that patience can result in greater gains. But if the solution is so simple, why is the issue so common? The simple answer: human nature. In fact this is not at all limited to trading. To further illustrate the point we draw on significant findings in psychology. A Simple Wager – Understanding Human Behavior Towards Winning and Losing What if I offered you a simple wager on a coin flip? You have two choices. Choice A means you have a 50% chance of winning 1000 dollars and 50% chance of winning nothing. Choice B is a flat 450 point gain. Which would you choose?         Expected Return Gains Choice A 50% chance to Win 1000 50% chance to Win 0 Expect to win $500 over time   Choice B Win 450   Win $450 Over time it makes sense to take Choice A—the expected gain of $500 is greater than the fixed $450. Yet many studies have shown that most people will consistently choose Choice B. Let’s flip the wager and run it again.         Expected Return Losses Choice A 50% chance to Lose 1000 50% chance to Lose 0 Expect to lose $500 over time   Choice B Lose 450   Lose $450 In this case we can expect to lose less money via Choice B, but in fact studies have shown that the majority of people will pick choice A every single time. Here we see the issue. Most people avoid risk when it comes to taking profits but then actively seek it if it means avoiding a loss. Why? Losses Hurt Psychologically far more than Gains Give Pleasure – Prospect Theory Nobel prize-winning clinical psychologist Daniel Kahneman based on his research on decision making. His work wasn’t on trading per se but clear implications for trade management and is quite relevant to FX trading. His study on Prospect Theory attempted to model and predict choices people would make between scenarios involving known risks and rewards. The findings showed something remarkably simple yet profound: most people took more pain from losses than pleasure from gains. It feels “good enough” to make $450 versus $500, but accepting a $500 loss hurts too much and many are willing to gamble that the trade turns around. This doesn’t make any sense from a trading perspective—500 dollars lost are equivalent to 500 dollars gained; one is not worth more than the other. Why should we then act so differently? Prospect Theory: Losses Typically Hurt Far More than Gains Give Pleasure Taking a purely rational approach to markets means treating a 50 point gain as morally equivalent to a 50 point loss. Unfortunately our data on real trader behavior suggests that the majority can’t do this. We need to think more systematically to improve our chances at success. Avoid the Common Pitfall Avoiding the loss-making problem described above is very simple in theory: gain more in each winning trade than you give back in each losing trade. But how might we do it concretely? When trading, always follow one simple rule: always seek a bigger reward than the loss you are risking. This is a valuable piece of advice that can be found in almost every trading book. Typically, this is called a “reward/risk ratio”. If you risk losing the same number of pips as you hope to gain, then your reward/risk ratio is 1-to-1 (also written 1:1). If you target a profit of 80 pips with a risk of 40 pips, then you have a 2:1 reward/risk ratio. If you follow this simple rule, you can be right on the direction of only half of your trades and still make money because you will earn more profits on your winning trades than losses on your losing trades. What ratio should you use? It depends on the type of trade you are making. We recommend to always use a minimum 1:1 ratio. That way, if you are right only half the time, you will at least break even. Certain strategies and trading techniques tend to produce high winning percentages as we saw with real trader data. If this is the case, it is possible to use a lower reward/risk ratio—such as between 1:1 and 2:1. For lower probability trading, a higher reward/risk ratio is recommended, such as 2:1, 3:1, or even 4:1. Remember, the higher the reward/risk ratio you choose, the less often you need to correctly predict market direction in order to make money trading. We will discuss different trading techniques in further detail in subsequent installments of this series. Stick to Your Plan: Use Stops and Limits Once you have a trading plan that uses a proper reward/risk ratio, the next challenge is to stick to the plan. Remember, it is natural for humans to want to hold on to losses and take profits early, but it makes for bad trading. We must overcome this natural tendency and remove our emotions from trading. The best way to do this is to set up your trade with Stop-Loss and Limit orders from the beginning. This will allow you to use the proper reward/risk ratio (1:1 or higher) from the outset, and to stick to it. Once you set them, don’t touch them (One exception: you can move your stop in your favor to lock in profits as the market moves in your favor). Managing your risk in this way is a part of what many traders call “money management”. Many of the most successful forex traders are right about the market’s direction less than half the time. Since they practice good money management, they cut their losses quickly and let their profits run, so they are still profitable in their overall trading. Does Using 1:1 Reward to Risk Really Work? Our data certainly suggest it does. We use our data on our top 15 currency pairs to determine which trader accounts closed their Average Gain at least as large as their Average Loss—or a minimum Reward:Risk of 1:1. Were traders ultimately profitable if they stuck to this rule? Past performance is not indicative of future results, but the results certainly support it. Our data shows that 53 percent of all accounts which operated on at least a 1:1 Reward to Risk ratio turned a net-profit in our 12-month sample period. Those under 1:1? A mere 17 percent. Traders who adhered to this rule were 3 times more likely to turn a profit over the course of these 12 months—a substantial difference. Why Do Many Forex Traders Lose Money? Here is the Number 1 Mistake David Rodriguez 11-14 minutes We look through 43 million real trades to measure trader performance Majority of trades are successful and yet traders are losing Reward to Risk ratios play a vital role in capital preservation Why do major currency moves bring increased trader losses? To find out, the DailyFX research team has looked through over 40 million real trades placed via a major FX broker's trading platforms. In this article, we look at the biggest mistake that forex traders make, and a way to trade appropriately. Why Does the Average Forex Trader Lose Money? The average forex trader loses money, which is in itself a very discouraging fact. But why? Put simply, human psychology makes trading difficult. We looked at over 43 million real trades placed on a major FX broker's trading servers from Q2, 2014 – Q1, 2015 and came to some very interesting conclusions. The first is encouraging: traders make money most of the time as over 50% of trades are closed out at a gain. Percent of All Trades Closed Out at a Gain and Loss per Currency Pair   Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart shows results of over 43 million trades conducted by these traders worldwide from Q2, 2014 through Q1, 2015 across the 15 most popular currency pairs. The blue bar shows the percentage of trades that ended with a profit for the trader. Red shows the percentage of trades that ended in loss. For example, the Euro saw an impressive 61% of all trades closed out at a gain. And indeed every single one of these instruments saw the majority of traders turned a profit more than 50 percent of the time. If traders were right more than half of the time, why did most lose money? Average Profit/Loss per Winning and Losing Trades per Currency Pair Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. The above chart says it all. In blue, it shows the average number of pips traders earned on profitable trades. In red, it shows the average number of pips lost in losing trades. We can now clearly see why traders lose money despite being right more than half the time. They lose more money on their losing trades than they make on their winning trades. Let’s use EUR/USD as an example. We see that EUR/USD trades were closed out at a profit 61% of the time, but the average losing trade was worth 83 pips while the average winner was only 48 pips. Traders were correct more than half the time, but they lost over 70% more on their losing trades as they won on winning trades. The track record for the volatile GBP/USD pair was even worse. Traders captured profits on 59% of all GBP/USD trades. Yet they overall lost money as they turned an average 43 pip profit on each winner and lost 83 pips on losing trades. What gives? Identifying that there is a problem is important in itself, but we’ll need to understand the reasons behind it in order to look for a solution. Cut Losses, Let Profits Run – Why is this So Difficult to Do? In our study we saw that traders were very good at identifying profitable trading opportunities--closing trades out at a profit over 50 percent of the time. They utlimately lost, however, as the average loss far outweighed the gain. Open nearly any book on trading and the advice is the same: cut your losses early and let your profits run. When your trade goes against you, close it out. Take the small loss and then try again later, if appropriate. It is better to take a small loss early than a big loss later. If a trade is in your favor, let it run. It is often tempting to close out at a small gain in order to protect profits, but oftentimes we see that patience can result in greater gains. But if the solution is so simple, why is the issue so common? The simple answer: human nature. In fact this is not at all limited to trading. To further illustrate the point we draw on significant findings in psychology. A Simple Wager – Understanding Human Behavior Towards Winning and Losing What if I offered you a simple wager on a coin flip? You have two choices. Choice A means you have a 50% chance of winning 1000 dollars and 50% chance of winning nothing. Choice B is a flat 450 point gain. Which would you choose?         Expected Return Gains Choice A 50% chance to Win 1000 50% chance to Win 0 Expect to win $500 over time   Choice B Win 450   Win $450 Over time it makes sense to take Choice A—the expected gain of $500 is greater than the fixed $450. Yet many studies have shown that most people will consistently choose Choice B. Let’s flip the wager and run it again.         Expected Return Losses Choice A 50% chance to Lose 1000 50% chance to Lose 0 Expect to lose $500 over time   Choice B Lose 450   Lose $450 In this case we can expect to lose less money via Choice B, but in fact studies have shown that the majority of people will pick choice A every single time. Here we see the issue. Most people avoid risk when it comes to taking profits but then actively seek it if it means avoiding a loss. Why? Losses Hurt Psychologically far more than Gains Give Pleasure – Prospect Theory Nobel prize-winning clinical psychologist Daniel Kahneman based on his research on decision making. His work wasn’t on trading per se but clear implications for trade management and is quite relevant to FX trading. His study on Prospect Theory attempted to model and predict choices people would make between scenarios involving known risks and rewards. The findings showed something remarkably simple yet profound: most people took more pain from losses than pleasure from gains. It feels “good enough” to make $450 versus $500, but accepting a $500 loss hurts too much and many are willing to gamble that the trade turns around. This doesn’t make any sense from a trading perspective—500 dollars lost are equivalent to 500 dollars gained; one is not worth more than the other. Why should we then act so differently? Prospect Theory: Losses Typically Hurt Far More than Gains Give Pleasure Taking a purely rational approach to markets means treating a 50 point gain as morally equivalent to a 50 point loss. Unfortunately our data on real trader behavior suggests that the majority can’t do this. We need to think more systematically to improve our chances at success. Avoid the Common Pitfall Avoiding the loss-making problem described above is very simple in theory: gain more in each winning trade than you give back in each losing trade. But how might we do it concretely? When trading, always follow one simple rule: always seek a bigger reward than the loss you are risking. This is a valuable piece of advice that can be found in almost every trading book. Typically, this is called a “reward/risk ratio”. If you risk losing the same number of pips as you hope to gain, then your reward/risk ratio is 1-to-1 (also written 1:1). If you target a profit of 80 pips with a risk of 40 pips, then you have a 2:1 reward/risk ratio. If you follow this simple rule, you can be right on the direction of only half of your trades and still make money because you will earn more profits on your winning trades than losses on your losing trades. What ratio should you use? It depends on the type of trade you are making. We recommend to always use a minimum 1:1 ratio. That way, if you are right only half the time, you will at least break even. Certain strategies and trading techniques tend to produce high winning percentages as we saw with real trader data. If this is the case, it is possible to use a lower reward/risk ratio—such as between 1:1 and 2:1. For lower probability trading, a higher reward/risk ratio is recommended, such as 2:1, 3:1, or even 4:1. Remember, the higher the reward/risk ratio you choose, the less often you need to correctly predict market direction in order to make money trading. We will discuss different trading techniques in further detail in subsequent installments of this series. Stick to Your Plan: Use Stops and Limits Once you have a trading plan that uses a proper reward/risk ratio, the next challenge is to stick to the plan. Remember, it is natural for humans to want to hold on to losses and take profits early, but it makes for bad trading. We must overcome this natural tendency and remove our emotions from trading. The best way to do this is to set up your trade with Stop-Loss and Limit orders from the beginning. This will allow you to use the proper reward/risk ratio (1:1 or higher) from the outset, and to stick to it. Once you set them, don’t touch them (One exception: you can move your stop in your favor to lock in profits as the market moves in your favor). Managing your risk in this way is a part of what many traders call “money management”. Many of the most successful forex traders are right about the market’s direction less than half the time. Since they practice good money management, they cut their losses quickly and let their profits run, so they are still profitable in their overall trading. Does Using 1:1 Reward to Risk Really Work? Our data certainly suggest it does. We use our data on our top 15 currency pairs to determine which trader accounts closed their Average Gain at least as large as their Average Loss—or a minimum Reward:Risk of 1:1. Were traders ultimately profitable if they stuck to this rule? Past performance is not indicative of future results, but the results certainly support it. Our data shows that 53 percent of all accounts which operated on at least a 1:1 Reward to Risk ratio turned a net-profit in our 12-month sample period. Those under 1:1? A mere 17 percent. Traders who adhered to this rule were 3 times more likely to turn a profit over the course of these 12 months—a substantial difference. dont forget- like subscribe Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Game Plan: What Strategy Can I Use? Trade forex with stops and limits set to a risk/reward ratio of 1:1 or higher Whenever you place a trade, make sure that you use a stop-loss order. Always make sure that your profit target is at least as far away from your entry price as your stop-loss is. You can certainly set your price target higher, and probably should aim for at least 1:1 regardless of strategy, potentially 2:1 or more in certain circumstances. Then you can choose the market direction correctly only half the time and still make money in your account. The actual distance you place your stops and limits will depend on the conditions in the market at the time, such as volatility, currency pair, and where you see support and resistance. You can apply the same reward/risk ratio to any trade. If you have a stop level 40 pips away from entry, you should have a profit target 40 pips or more away. If you have a stop level 500 pips away, your profit target should be at least 500 pips away. We will use this as a basis for further study on real trader behavior as we look to uncover the traits of successful traders. *Data is drawn from FXCM Inc. accounts excluding Eligible Contract Participants, Clearing Accounts, Hong Kong, and Japan subsidiaries from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Interested in developing your own strategy? On page 2 of our Building Confidence in Trading Guide, we help you identify your trading style and create your own trading plan. View the next articles in the Traits of Successful Series: Trading Leverage - A Real Look at How Traders May Use it Effectively Do the Hours I Trade Matter? Yes - Quite a Bit Analysis prepared and written by David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist for DailyFX.com Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Game Plan: What Strategy Can I Use? Trade forex with stops and limits set to a risk/reward ratio of 1:1 or higher Whenever you place a trade, make sure that you use a stop-loss order. Always make sure that your profit target is at least as far away from your entry price as your stop-loss is. You can certainly set your price target higher, and probably should aim for at least 1:1 regardless of strategy, potentially 2:1 or more in certain circumstances. Then you can choose the market direction correctly only half the time and still make money in your account. The actual distance you place your stops and limits will depend on the conditions in the market at the time, such as volatility, currency pair, and where you see support and resistance. You can apply the same reward/risk ratio to any trade. If you have a stop level 40 pips away from entry, you should have a profit target 40 pips or more away. If you have a stop level 500 pips away, your profit target should be at least 500 pips away. We will use this as a basis for further study on real trader behavior as we look to uncover the traits of successful traders. *Data is drawn from FXCM Inc. accounts excluding Eligible Contract Participants, Clearing Accounts, Hong Kong, and Japan subsidiaries from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Interested in developing your own strategy? On page 2 of our Building Confidence in Trading Guide, we help you identify your trading style and create your own trading plan. View the next articles in the Traits of Successful Series: Trading Leverage - A Real Look at How Traders May Use it Effectively Do the Hours I Trade Matter? Yes - Quite a Bit Analysis prepared and written by David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist for DailyFX.com   Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Game Plan: What Strategy Can I Use? Trade forex with stops and limits set to a risk/reward ratio of 1:1 or higher Whenever you place a trade, make sure that you use a stop-loss order. Always make sure that your profit target is at least as far away from your entry price as your stop-loss is. You can certainly set your price target higher, and probably should aim for at least 1:1 regardless of strategy, potentially 2:1 or more in certain circumstances. Then you can choose the market direction correctly only half the time and still make money in your account. The actual distance you place your stops and limits will depend on the conditions in the market at the time, such as volatility, currency pair, and where you see support and resistance. You can apply the same reward/risk ratio to any trade. If you have a stop level 40 pips away from entry, you should have a profit target 40 pips or more away. If you have a stop level 500 pips away, your profit target should be at least 500 pips away. We will use this as a basis for further study on real trader behavior as we look to uncover the traits of successful traders. *Data is drawn from FXCM Inc. accounts excluding Eligible Contract Participants, Clearing Accounts, Hong Kong, and Japan subsidiaries from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Interested in developing your own strategy? On page 2 of our Building Confidence in Trading Guide, we help you identify your trading style and create your own trading plan. View the next articles in the Traits of Successful Series: Trading Leverage - A Real Look at How Traders May Use it Effectively Do the Hours I Trade Matter? Yes - Quite a Bit Analysis prepared and written by David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist for DailyFX.com   Data source: Derived from data from a major FX broker* across 15 most traded currency pairs from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Game Plan: What Strategy Can I Use? Trade forex with stops and limits set to a risk/reward ratio of 1:1 or higher Whenever you place a trade, make sure that you use a stop-loss order. Always make sure that your profit target is at least as far away from your entry price as your stop-loss is. You can certainly set your price target higher, and probably should aim for at least 1:1 regardless of strategy, potentially 2:1 or more in certain circumstances. Then you can choose the market direction correctly only half the time and still make money in your account. The actual distance you place your stops and limits will depend on the conditions in the market at the time, such as volatility, currency pair, and where you see support and resistance. You can apply the same reward/risk ratio to any trade. If you have a stop level 40 pips away from entry, you should have a profit target 40 pips or more away. If you have a stop level 500 pips away, your profit target should be at least 500 pips away. We will use this as a basis for further study on real trader behavior as we look to uncover the traits of successful traders. *Data is drawn from FXCM Inc. accounts excluding Eligible Contract Participants, Clearing Accounts, Hong Kong, and Japan subsidiaries from 3/1/2014 to 3/31/2015. Interested in developing your own strategy? On page 2 of our Building Confidence in Trading Guide, we help you identify your trading style and create your own trading plan. View the next articles in the Traits of Successful Series: Trading Leverage - A Real Look at How Traders May Use it Effectively Do the Hours I Trade Matter? Yes - Quite a Bit Analysis prepared and written by David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist for DailyFX.com     View the next articles in the Traits of Successful Series: Trading Leverage - A Real Look at How Traders May Use it Effectively Do the Hours I Trade Matter? Yes - Quite a Bit Analysis prepared and written by David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist for DailyFX.com
    • Waiting for one constructive comment from you guys..anyone dont forget to like and subscribe
    • enjoy.. good profits in forex dont forget to like and subscribe          
    • try again..   1. MakingMoneyin ForexTradingTheForexmarkethasadailyvolumeofover $4trillionper day,dwarfingthevolumeof theequityandfuturesmarketscombined.Thousands ofpeople,allover theworld,are tradingForexandmakingtonsofmoney.Whynotyou?All youneedtostarttradingForexis acomputer andanInternetconnection.Youcan doitfrom thecomfortofyour home,inyour sparetimewithoutleavingyour dayjob. Andyoudon'tneedalargesum ofmoneytostart,youcantradeinitially withaminimal sum,or betteroff,youcanstartpracticingwithademoaccountwithouttheneedto depositanymoney.OnceyouconsiderstartingForextrading,oneofthefirstthings youneedtodois chooseabroker,choosingareliablebroker is thesinglemostcriticalfactor toForex success.We currently trade at eToro platform. After testing several Forex platforms we find this one to be the best. What made the difference is a unique feature that allow us to watch and copy the strategies and trades of the best performing traders on the platform. You can actually see each move the "Guru" traders make. This method works nicely for us. Since we started trading at this broker we noticed an increase of our successful trades and profits when compared to our former brokers. You may want to check them out.Please note that all trading involves risk. Only risk capital you're prepared to lose. Past performance does not guarantee future results. This post is for educational purposes and should not be considered as investment advice.NowIwouldstronglyencourageyoutogoandvisittheabovebroker's siterightnow evenifyouarenotyetdecidedwhether youwanttogointoForextrading.Why? Becauseitprovides tons offreeeducationmaterials,videosandbestofall ademo accountthatallows youtopracticeForextradingforfreewithouttheneedtodeposit anymoney.Simplygotothesite,registerforafreeaccountandstart"trading"-by actuallypracticingandexperiencingitfirsthandyou'll beabletodecidewhether Forex tradingisfor you.Inanycase,beforestartingtotradefor real,itis advisablethatyoupracticewithademo account.Onceyoubuildsomeskill andfeelmorecomfortablewiththesystemyou can starttradinggraduallyfor real money.GotoTo2.WhatisForexTradingForeignexchange,popularlyknownas 'Forex'or 'FX',is thetradeofasinglecurrency for another atadecidedtradepriceontheover-the-counter (OTC)marketplace.Forex is definitelytheworld's mosttradedmarket,havinganaverageturnover ofmorethan US$4trillioneachday.ComparethistotheNewYork Stock Exchange,thathasadailyturnover ofabout US$70billionanditisveryobvious howtheForexmarketisdefinitelythelargest financialmarketontheglobe.Inessence,Forexcurrencytradingis theactofsimultaneouslypurchasingoneforeign currencywhilstsellinganother,mainlyfor thepurposeofspeculation.Foreigncurrency values increase(appreciate) anddrop(depreciate) towards oneanother asaresultof varietyoffactors suchas economics andgeopolitics.ThenormalobjectiveofFXtraders is tomakemoneyfrom thesetypes ofchanges inthevalueofoneforeigncurrency againstanother byactivelyspeculatingonwhichwayforeignexchangerates arelikelytoturninthefuture.Incontrasttothemajorityoffinancialmarkets,theOTC (over-the-counter) currency marketsdoes nothaveanyphysical placeormainexchangeandtrades 24-hours every dayviaaworldwidesystem ofcompanies,financial institutionsandindividuals.Because ofthis,currencyratesarecontinuouslyrisingandfallinginvaluetowards oneanother, providingnumerous tradingchoices.Oneoftheimportantelements regardingForex's popularityis thefactthatcurrency tradingmarkets usuallyareavailable24-hours adayfromSundayeveningrightthrough toFridaynight.Buyingandsellingfollows theclock,beginningonMondaymorningin Wellington,NewZealand,movingontoAsiantradespearheadedfrom Tokyoand Singapore,aheadofgoingtoLondonandconcludingonFridayeveninginNewYork.Thefactthatprices areavailabletodeal 24-hours dailymakes certainthatprice gapping(whenever apriceleapsfrom onelevel toanother withnotradingbetween) is less andmakes surethattraders couldtakeapositioneachtimetheydesire, irrespectiveoftime,eventhoughinrealitythereareparticular 'lull' occasions when volumes tendtobebelowtheir dailyaveragewhichcouldwidenmarketspreads.Forexis aleveraged(or margined) item,whichmeansthatyouaresimplyrequiredto putinasmall percentageofthefull valueofyour positiontosetaforeignexchange trade.Becauseofthis,thechanceofprofit,orloss,fromyour primarymoneyoutlayis considerablygreater thaninconventional trading.Currencies aredesignatedbythreeletter symbols.Thestandardsymbolsfor someof themostcommonlytradedcurrencies are: EUR –EuUSD –UnitedStatesdollar CAD –Canadiandollar GBP–BritishpoundJPY–JapaneseYen AUD –Australiandollar CHF –Swiss francForextransactionsarequotedinpairsbecauseyouarebuyingonecurrencywhile sellinganother.Thefirstcurrencyis thebasecurrencyandthesecondcurrencyis the quotecurrency.Theprice,or rate,thatis quotedistheamountofthesecondcurrencyrequiredto purchaseoneunitofthefirstcurrency.For example,ifEUR/USD has anask priceof1.2327,youcanbuyoneEurofor 1.2327USdollars.Thereareso-calledmajors,for whicharound75%ofallmarketoperations onForexare held:theEUR/USD,GBP/USD,USD/CHF,andUSD/JPY.Aswesee,theUSdollar is representedinall currencypairs,thus,ifacurrencypair contains theUSdollar,this pair is consideredamajorcurrencypair.Pairs whichdonotincludetheUSdollar arecalled cross currencypairs,or cross rates.Thefollowingcross rates arethemostactively traded:EUR/CHF = euro-franc EUR/GBP= euro-sterling EUR/JPY= euro-Yen GBP/JPY= sterling-Yen AUD/JPY= aussie-Yen NZD/JPY= kiwi-YenTogiveyouatasteofwhatis happeningintheForexarenaherearesomehistoricalForexevents.Oneofthemostinterestingmovements intheForexmarketinvolvingtheBritishpound tookplaceintheSeptember16,1992.Thatdayis knownas BlackWednesdaywiththe BritishPoundpostingits biggestfall.Itwas mostlyseenintheGBP/DEM (BritishPound vs.theDeutschemark)andtheGBP/USD (BritishPoundvs.theUSdollar) currency pairs.ThefalloftheBritishpoundagainsttheUSdollar intheperiodfrom November toDecember 1992constituted25%(from2.01to1.51GBThegeneral reasonsfor this "sterlingcrisis"aresaidtobetheparticipationofGreat BritainintheEuropeancurrencysystemwithfixedexchangeratecorridors;recently passedparliamentaryelections;areductionintheBritishindustrialoutput;theBank of Englandeffortstoholdtheparityratefor theDeutschemark,as well as adramatic outflowofinvestors.Atthesametime,duetoaprofitabilityslant,theGermancurrency marketbecamemoreattractivethantheBritishone.All inall,thespeculators were rushingtosellpoundsfor Deutschemarks andfor USdollars.Theconsequencesofthis currencycrisiswereas follows:asharpincreaseintheBritishinterestratefrom 10%to15%,theBritishGovernmenthadtoacceptpounddevaluationandtosecedefrom the EuropeanMonetarySystem.Asaresult,thepoundreturnedtoafloatingexchange rate.Another intriguingcurrencypair is theUSdollar vs.theJapaneseYen(USD/JPY).The USdollar andJapaneseYenis thethirdonthelistofmosttradedcurrencypairs after theEUR/USDandGBP/USD.Itistradedmostactivelyduringsessions inAsia. Movementsofthis pairareusuallysmooth;theUSD/JPYpair quicklyreacts totherisk peakingoffinancialmarkets.From themid80's theYenratings startedrisingactively versus theUSDollar.Intheearly90's aprosperouseconomic developmentturnedinto astandstill inJapan,theunemploymentincreased;earnings andwages slidas well as thelivingstandardsoftheJapanesepopulation.Andfrom thebeginningoftheyear1991,this causedbankruptcies ofnumerousfinancialorganizationsinJapan.As a consequence,thequotes ontheTokyoStockExchangecollapsed,aYendevaluation tookplace,thereafter,anewwaveofbankruptcies amongmanufacturingcompanies began.In1995ahistorical lowoftheUSD/JPYpair was recordedat-79.80.TheabovestartedanAsiancrisis intheyears1997-1998thatledaYencrash.It resultedinatumbleoftheYen-USdollar pair from 115YensforoneUSdollar to150.Theglobaleconomic crisis touchedalmostall fields ofhumanactivities.Forexcurrency marketwas noexception.Though,Forexparticipants (central banks,commercialbanks, investmentbanks,brokers anddealers,pensionfunds,insurancecompaniesand transnational companies) wereinadifficultposition,theForexmarketcontinues to functionsuccessfully,itis astableandprofitableasnever before.Thefinancial crisis of2007has ledtodrasticchanges intheworld's currencies values. Duringthecrisis,theYenstrengthenedmostofall againstall other currencies.Neither theUSdollar,nor theeuro,buttheYenprovedtobethemostreliablecurrency instrumentfor traders.Oneofthereasonsforsuchstrengtheningcanbeattributedto thefactthattraders neededtofindasanctuaryamidamonetarychaos.Askand BidWhentraders wanttoplaceanorder ontheForexmarkettheyshouldbeawareofthe currencypair as well as thepriceofthispair.AForexmarketpriceofacurrencypair is denotedbytwosymbols,Ask andBid,whichhavespecific digitAsk priceis thehighestpriceinthepair’s quotationatwhichatrader buys thecurrency, standingfirstintheabbreviationofthecurrencypair.Consequently,atrader sells the currencystandingsecond.Bidpriceis thelowestpriceinthequotationofthecurrencypair,atwhichatrader sells thecurrencystandingfirstintheabbreviationofthecurrencypair.Respectively,atrader buys thecurrencystandingsecond.Seemcomplicated?here'sanexample:Let's assumethatwehavethecurrencypair ofEUR/USD withthequotationof1.3652/1.3655.Thismeansthatyoucanbuy1eurofor1.3655dollars or tosell1euro for 1.3652dollars.ThedifferencebetweentheBidpriceandtheAsk priceis called spread.Thespreadisactually thecommissionofthebroker.TheSpreadsinForextradingare actuallyverysmall comparedtocurrencyspreads atbanks.Aterm thatyou'll seealotwhiletradingForexis "pip"and"pips"-a“pip” standsfor “PercentageinPoint”.Apipis thesmallestpricemovementofatradedcurrency.Itis alsoreferredtoasa“point”.Itis veryimportantthatyouunderstandwhatapipis inthe Forextradingbecauseyouwill beusingpips incalculatingyour profits andlosses..For mostcurrenciesapipis 0.0001or 1/100ofacent.Whenacurrencymovesfromavalueof1.2911to1.2914,itmoved3pips.Whenapip has avalueof$10,youhavegained$30.Thereis anexceptionfor quotationsfor JapaneseYenagainstothercurrencies.For currencies inrelationtoJapaneseYenapipis 0.01or 1cent.Another termthatyou'll needtounderstandinrelationtoForextradingis “Lots”.Alotis theminimal tradedamountfor eachcurrencytransaction.For regular accounts onelot equals 100,000unitsofthebasecurrency.Howeveryoucanalsoopenminiandmicro accounts thatallowtradinginsmaller lots.Understanding thePip Spread -Thespreadis closelyassociatedwiththepipandhas amajor importanceforyouas atrader.Asmentionedabove,Itis thedifferencebetweenthesellingandthebuyingpriceofacurrencypair.Itis thedifferenceinthebid andask price.Theaskis thepriceatwhichyoubuyandthebidis thepriceatwhichyousell.SupposetheEUR/USDis quotedat1.4502bidand1.4505ask.Inthis casethespread is 3pips.Thepipspreadis your costofdoingbusiness here.Inthecaseaboveitmeans yousustainapaper lossequal to3pips atthemomentyouenter thetrade.Your contracthastoappreciateby3pipsbeforeyoubreakeven.Thelower thepipspreadtheeasier is itfor youtoprofit.Generallythemoreactiveandbigger themarket,thelower thepipspread.Smaller and moreexotic markets tendtohaveahigher spread.Mostbrokers willbeofferingdiffere thats better dont forget to like and subscribe  
    • or how about... 1. MakingMoneyin ForexTradingTheForexmarkethasadailyvolumeofover $4trillionper day,dwarfingthevolumeof theequityandfuturesmarketscombined.Thousands ofpeople,allover theworld,are tradingForexandmakingtonsofmoney.Whynotyou?All youneedtostarttradingForexis acomputer andanInternetconnection.Youcan doitfrom thecomfortofyour home,inyour sparetimewithoutleavingyour dayjob. Andyoudon'tneedalargesum ofmoneytostart,youcantradeinitially withaminimal sum,or betteroff,youcanstartpracticingwithademoaccountwithouttheneedto depositanymoney.OnceyouconsiderstartingForextrading,oneofthefirstthings youneedtodois chooseabroker,choosingareliablebroker is thesinglemostcriticalfactor toForex success.We currently trade at eToro platform. After testing several Forex platforms we find this one to be the best. What made the difference is a unique feature that allow us to watch and copy the strategies and trades of the best performing traders on the platform. You can actually see each move the "Guru" traders make. This method works nicely for us. Since we started trading at this broker we noticed an increase of our successful trades and profits when compared to our former brokers. You may want to check them out.Please note that all trading involves risk. Only risk capital you're prepared to lose. Past performance does not guarantee future results. This post is for educational purposes and should not be considered as investment advice.NowIwouldstronglyencourageyoutogoandvisittheabovebroker's siterightnow evenifyouarenotyetdecidedwhether youwanttogointoForextrading.Why? Becauseitprovides tons offreeeducationmaterials,videosandbestofall ademo accountthatallows youtopracticeForextradingforfreewithouttheneedtodeposit anymoney.Simplygotothesite,registerforafreeaccountandstart"trading"-by actuallypracticingandexperiencingitfirsthandyou'll beabletodecidewhether Forex tradingisfor you.Inanycase,beforestartingtotradefor real,itis advisablethatyoupracticewithademo account.Onceyoubuildsomeskill andfeelmorecomfortablewiththesystemyou can starttradinggraduallyfor real money.GotoTop           2.WhatisForexTradingForeignexchange,popularlyknownas 'Forex'or 'FX',is thetradeofasinglecurrency for another atadecidedtradepriceontheover-the-counter (OTC)marketplace.Forex is definitelytheworld's mosttradedmarket,havinganaverageturnover ofmorethan US$4trillioneachday.ComparethistotheNewYork Stock Exchange,thathasadailyturnover ofabout US$70billionanditisveryobvious howtheForexmarketisdefinitelythelargest financialmarketontheglobe.Inessence,Forexcurrencytradingis theactofsimultaneouslypurchasingoneforeign currencywhilstsellinganother,mainlyfor thepurposeofspeculation.Foreigncurrency values increase(appreciate) anddrop(depreciate) towards oneanother asaresultof varietyoffactors suchas economics andgeopolitics.ThenormalobjectiveofFXtraders is tomakemoneyfrom thesetypes ofchanges inthevalueofoneforeigncurrency againstanother byactivelyspeculatingonwhichwayforeignexchangerates arelikelytoturninthefuture.Incontrasttothemajorityoffinancialmarkets,theOTC (over-the-counter) currency marketsdoes nothaveanyphysical placeormainexchangeandtrades 24-hours every dayviaaworldwidesystem ofcompanies,financial institutionsandindividuals.Because ofthis,currencyratesarecontinuouslyrisingandfallinginvaluetowards oneanother, providingnumerous tradingchoices.Oneoftheimportantelements regardingForex's popularityis thefactthatcurrency tradingmarkets usuallyareavailable24-hours adayfromSundayeveningrightthrough toFridaynight.Buyingandsellingfollows theclock,beginningonMondaymorningin Wellington,NewZealand,movingontoAsiantradespearheadedfrom Tokyoand Singapore,aheadofgoingtoLondonandconcludingonFridayeveninginNewYork.Thefactthatprices areavailabletodeal 24-hours dailymakes certainthatprice gapping(whenever apriceleapsfrom onelevel toanother withnotradingbetween) is less andmakes surethattraders couldtakeapositioneachtimetheydesire, irrespectiveoftime,eventhoughinrealitythereareparticular 'lull' occasions when volumes tendtobebelowtheir dailyaveragewhichcouldwidenmarketspreads.Forexis aleveraged(or margined) item,whichmeansthatyouaresimplyrequiredto putinasmall percentageofthefull valueofyour positiontosetaforeignexchange trade.Becauseofthis,thechanceofprofit,orloss,fromyour primarymoneyoutlayis considerablygreater thaninconventional trading.Currencies aredesignatedbythreeletter symbols.Thestandardsymbolsfor someof themostcommonlytradedcurrencies are: EUR –Euros   USD –UnitedStatesdollar CAD –Canadiandollar GBP–BritishpoundJPY–JapaneseYen AUD –Australiandollar CHF –Swiss francForextransactionsarequotedinpairsbecauseyouarebuyingonecurrencywhile sellinganother.Thefirstcurrencyis thebasecurrencyandthesecondcurrencyis the quotecurrency.Theprice,or rate,thatis quotedistheamountofthesecondcurrencyrequiredto purchaseoneunitofthefirstcurrency.For example,ifEUR/USD has anask priceof1.2327,youcanbuyoneEurofor 1.2327USdollars.Thereareso-calledmajors,for whicharound75%ofallmarketoperations onForexare held:theEUR/USD,GBP/USD,USD/CHF,andUSD/JPY.Aswesee,theUSdollar is representedinall currencypairs,thus,ifacurrencypair contains theUSdollar,this pair is consideredamajorcurrencypair.Pairs whichdonotincludetheUSdollar arecalled cross currencypairs,or cross rates.Thefollowingcross rates arethemostactively traded:EUR/CHF = euro-franc EUR/GBP= euro-sterling EUR/JPY= euro-Yen GBP/JPY= sterling-Yen AUD/JPY= aussie-Yen NZD/JPY= kiwi-YenTogiveyouatasteofwhatis happeningintheForexarenaherearesomehistoricalForexevents.Oneofthemostinterestingmovements intheForexmarketinvolvingtheBritishpound tookplaceintheSeptember16,1992.Thatdayis knownas BlackWednesdaywiththe BritishPoundpostingits biggestfall.Itwas mostlyseenintheGBP/DEM (BritishPound vs.theDeutschemark)andtheGBP/USD (BritishPoundvs.theUSdollar) currency pairs.ThefalloftheBritishpoundagainsttheUSdollar intheperiodfrom November toDecember 1992constituted25%(from2.01to1.51GBP/USD).     Thegeneral reasonsfor this "sterlingcrisis"aresaidtobetheparticipationofGreat BritainintheEuropeancurrencysystemwithfixedexchangeratecorridors;recently passedparliamentaryelections;areductionintheBritishindustrialoutput;theBank of Englandeffortstoholdtheparityratefor theDeutschemark,as well as adramatic outflowofinvestors.Atthesametime,duetoaprofitabilityslant,theGermancurrency marketbecamemoreattractivethantheBritishone.All inall,thespeculators were rushingtosellpoundsfor Deutschemarks andfor USdollars.Theconsequencesofthis currencycrisiswereas follows:asharpincreaseintheBritishinterestratefrom 10%to15%,theBritishGovernmenthadtoacceptpounddevaluationandtosecedefrom the EuropeanMonetarySystem.Asaresult,thepoundreturnedtoafloatingexchange rate.Another intriguingcurrencypair is theUSdollar vs.theJapaneseYen(USD/JPY).The USdollar andJapaneseYenis thethirdonthelistofmosttradedcurrencypairs after theEUR/USDandGBP/USD.Itistradedmostactivelyduringsessions inAsia. Movementsofthis pairareusuallysmooth;theUSD/JPYpair quicklyreacts totherisk peakingoffinancialmarkets.From themid80's theYenratings startedrisingactively versus theUSDollar.Intheearly90's aprosperouseconomic developmentturnedinto astandstill inJapan,theunemploymentincreased;earnings andwages slidas well as thelivingstandardsoftheJapanesepopulation.Andfrom thebeginningoftheyear1991,this causedbankruptcies ofnumerousfinancialorganizationsinJapan.As a consequence,thequotes ontheTokyoStockExchangecollapsed,aYendevaluation tookplace,thereafter,anewwaveofbankruptcies amongmanufacturingcompanies began.In1995ahistorical lowoftheUSD/JPYpair was recordedat-79.80.TheabovestartedanAsiancrisis intheyears1997-1998thatledaYencrash.It resultedinatumbleoftheYen-USdollar pair from 115YensforoneUSdollar to150.Theglobaleconomic crisis touchedalmostall fields ofhumanactivities.Forexcurrency marketwas noexception.Though,Forexparticipants (central banks,commercialbanks, investmentbanks,brokers anddealers,pensionfunds,insurancecompaniesand transnational companies) wereinadifficultposition,theForexmarketcontinues to functionsuccessfully,itis astableandprofitableasnever before.Thefinancial crisis of2007has ledtodrasticchanges intheworld's currencies values. Duringthecrisis,theYenstrengthenedmostofall againstall other currencies.Neither theUSdollar,nor theeuro,buttheYenprovedtobethemostreliablecurrency instrumentfor traders.Oneofthereasonsforsuchstrengtheningcanbeattributedto thefactthattraders neededtofindasanctuaryamidamonetarychaos.Askand BidWhentraders wanttoplaceanorder ontheForexmarkettheyshouldbeawareofthe currencypair as well as thepriceofthispair.AForexmarketpriceofacurrencypair is denotedbytwosymbols,Ask andBid,whichhavespecific digital notations.     Ask priceis thehighestpriceinthepair’s quotationatwhichatrader buys thecurrency, standingfirstintheabbreviationofthecurrencypair.Consequently,atrader sells the currencystandingsecond.Bidpriceis thelowestpriceinthequotationofthecurrencypair,atwhichatrader sells thecurrencystandingfirstintheabbreviationofthecurrencypair.Respectively,atrader buys thecurrencystandingsecond.Seemcomplicated?here'sanexample:Let's assumethatwehavethecurrencypair ofEUR/USD withthequotationof1.3652/1.3655.Thismeansthatyoucanbuy1eurofor1.3655dollars or tosell1euro for 1.3652dollars.ThedifferencebetweentheBidpriceandtheAsk priceis called spread.Thespreadisactually thecommissionofthebroker.TheSpreadsinForextradingare actuallyverysmall comparedtocurrencyspreads atbanks.Aterm thatyou'll seealotwhiletradingForexis "pip"and"pips"-a“pip” standsfor “PercentageinPoint”.Apipis thesmallestpricemovementofatradedcurrency.Itis alsoreferredtoasa“point”.Itis veryimportantthatyouunderstandwhatapipis inthe Forextradingbecauseyouwill beusingpips incalculatingyour profits andlosses..For mostcurrenciesapipis 0.0001or 1/100ofacent.Whenacurrencymovesfromavalueof1.2911to1.2914,itmoved3pips.Whenapip has avalueof$10,youhavegained$30.Thereis anexceptionfor quotationsfor JapaneseYenagainstothercurrencies.For currencies inrelationtoJapaneseYenapipis 0.01or 1cent.Another termthatyou'll needtounderstandinrelationtoForextradingis “Lots”.Alotis theminimal tradedamountfor eachcurrencytransaction.For regular accounts onelot equals 100,000unitsofthebasecurrency.Howeveryoucanalsoopenminiandmicro accounts thatallowtradinginsmaller lots.Understanding thePip Spread -Thespreadis closelyassociatedwiththepipandhas amajor importanceforyouas atrader.Asmentionedabove,Itis thedifferencebetweenthesellingandthebuyingpriceofacurrencypair.Itis thedifferenceinthebid andask price.Theaskis thepriceatwhichyoubuyandthebidis thepriceatwhichyousell.SupposetheEUR/USDis quotedat1.4502bidand1.4505ask.Inthis casethespread is 3pips.Thepipspreadis your costofdoingbusiness here.Inthecaseaboveitmeans yousustainapaper lossequal to3pips atthemomentyouenter thetrade.Your contracthastoappreciateby3pipsbeforeyoubreakeven.Thelower thepipspreadtheeasier is itfor youtoprofit.Generallythemoreactiveandbigger themarket,thelower thepipspread.Smaller and moreexotic markets tendtohaveahigher spread.Mostbrokers willbeofferingdifferent  
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