Jump to content

Welcome to the new Traders Laboratory! Please bear with us as we finish the migration over the next few days. If you find any issues, want to leave feedback, get in touch with us, or offer suggestions please post to the Support forum here.

  • Welcome Guests

    Welcome. You are currently viewing the forum as a guest which does not give you access to all the great features at Traders Laboratory such as interacting with members, access to all forums, downloading attachments, and eligibility to win free giveaways. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free. Create a FREE Traders Laboratory account here.

analyst75

Insights from Learn2.trade

Recommended Posts

GBPJPY RECORDS INTENSE SELLING FOR THE FOURTH STRAIGHT SESSION, STAYS BENEATH 132.00 LEVEL

GBPJPY Price Analysis – June 21

In the last session, the GBPJPY cross lost some extra ground and slipped to new monthly lows while staying beneath the 132.00 level. The collapse was supported by the strongly offered tone encircling the British pound which accompanied the last session’s policy decision by the Bank of England (BoE).

Key Level
Resistance Levels: 147.95, 139.74, 136.23
Support Levels: 129.29, 123.99, 122.75
GBPJPY-Daily-June-21.pngGBPJPY Long term Trend: Ranging
In the wider context, we’re witnessing price actions from 122.75 (low) level, which is observed as a sideways consolidation trend. So long the resistance level of 147.95 holds, there is a potential downside breakout in support.

A strong breach of 147.95 level may however increase the risk of a long-term bullish reversal. Then the emphasis is shifted to the level of resistance of 156.59 for validation.
GBPJPY-4-Hour-June-21.pngGBPJPY Short term Trend: Bearish
GBPJPY’s decline from the short term high level of 139.74 stretched to as low as last week’s level of 131.90. A recent trend implies a corrective recovery from level 123.99 has been accomplished with 3 phases to level 139.74. This week’s initial bias stays on the downside with support level 129.29.

A strong breach there will affirm this bearish scenario and open the way for low-level retests of 123.99. On the positive side, to signify the finalization of the collapse, a breakage of 136.23 minor resistance level is required. Alternatively, in the circumstance of recovery, further collapse is anticipated.

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

USD/JPY RETESTS LEVEL 107.000, RESUMES DOWNTREND

Key Resistance Levels: 111.000, 112.000, 113.000
Key Support Levels: 104.000, 103.000, 102.000

USD/JPY Price Long-term Trend: Ranging
USD/JPY pair is currently on a downward move. The green correction candle body tested the 0.786 retracement level. It indicates that the Yen will fall to a low of 1.272 extension level. After reaching the target price, the market will reverse. However, the reversal will not be immediate.

USDJPY-Learn2trade-7.png USD/PY – Daily Chart

 
Daily Chart Indicators Reading:
The 21-day SMA and 50-day SMA are sloping downward. The market is now in a downtrend. The Yen has fallen below a 20% range of daily stochastic. It indicates that the market is approaching the oversold region. Buyers are likely to emerge when the pair reached the oversold.

USD/JPY Medium-term Trend: Bearish
The USD/JPY pair is currently on a descending channel. The price is testing the 12-day EMA on the upside. The Japenese Yen will fall if resisted by the 12-day EMA. The market will fall and reach a low of level 106.000.

4-hour Chart Indicators Reading
The SMAs are also sloping downward. The pair has fallen to level 44 of the Relative Strength Index. It indicates that Yen is in the downtrend zone and likely to fall.

USDJPY-Learn2trade.4-Hour-png.png USD/USD – 4 Hour Chart

General Outlook for USD/JPY

The pair is presently retesting the 12-day EMA. Perhaps, after the retest, it will make a downward move. As long as the price bars are below the EMAs, the market will continue to have a downward movement.

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

GOLD TO HIT $1,800 MARK AS INFLATION-HEDGE ASSETS GAINS APPEAL: TD STRATEGISTS DECLARE

Gold remains range-bound around the $1,770 level for the better part of the European session and even now as we approach the close of the session. Meanwhile, strategists at TD Securities have opined that the yellow metal will likely surpass the $1,800 mark as inflation-hedge assets gain popularity.

According to the strategists, gold is on the brink of a breakout as recent price action continues to strengthen investors’ view of gold’s role switching from just a safe-haven asset to an inflation-hedge product. They added that the whole “maturity spectrum” of inflation breakevens are still considered to be below policy objectives. This means that declining rates should extend further support for gold to take the $1,800s in the near-term.

They ended by citing that recent changes in the Federal Reserve’s template strongly suggest that inflation-hedge assets like gold could continue to grow in popularity.

IMG_8324.png XAUUSD – Daily Chart

Gold (XAU) Value Forecast — June 29

XAU/USD Major Bias: Bullish

Supply Levels: $1,779, $1,790, and $1,800

Demand Levels: $1,765, $1,758, and $1,745

Gold remained in a consolidation range throughout today’s trading session considering there were no significant fundamental catalysts today. We can observe a descending trendline on our MACD indicator. A break above this line will be a healthy signal that gold has regained its bullish steam and we could see it go for the $1,800 yet again.

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

EUR/CHF RESUMES UPTREND, TARGETS LEVEL 1.07000

Key Resistance Levels: 1.09000, 1.10000, 1.11000
Key Support Levels: 1.05400, 1.05200, 1.05000

EUR/CHF Price Long-term Trend: Bullish
EUR/CHF pair is in an uptrend. A correction candle body tested the 0.382 Fibonacci retracement level. It indicates that the market will reach a low of 2.618 extension level. EUR/CHF’s first target will be at  level 1.618 Fibonacci extension level. The second target will be at level 2.618 extension level.

EURCHF-Learn2trade-10.png EUR/CHF – Daily Chart

Daily Chart Indicators Reading:
EUR/CHF has fallen to level 51 of the Relative Strength Index period 14. The pair is now in the uptrend zone and above the centerline 50. The 50-day SMA and 21-day SMA are sloping downward which indicates the previous trend.

EUR/CHF Medium-term Trend: Bullish
On the 4-hour chart, the EUR/CHF pair is in an upward move. The pair fell to level 1.06306 and resumed an upward move. The price is approaching level 1.07000 which is a resistance level. The pair will continue its upward move if that resistance is breached. Otherwise, the pair will be repelled.

EURCHF-Learn2trade4-Hour-8.png EUR/CHF – 4 Hour Chart

4-hour Chart Indicators Reading
The 50-day and 21-day SMA are sloping upward. It indicates the uptrend. The pair is above 60% range of the daily stochastic. EUR/CHF is in a bullish momentum. The market is approaching the overbought region.


General Outlook for EUR/CHF
EUR/CHF pair has resumed an upward move after falling to the low of level 1.06306. According to the Fibonacci tool, the uptrend will reach the high of level 2.618 extension level. In other words, the pair will rise and reach the high of 1.14486

 

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The more useless, toxic, dishonest amd unpleasant something is in this world, the more it's rammed down the publics throat.

 

Congrats, you fit this paradigm perfectly with your sociopathic personality and 100% useless hindsight bullshit.

Told any customers to go fuck themselves recently?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Fake news

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).
40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)
Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
 
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7]

The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12]

Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21]

Contents

Definition

Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25]

The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26]

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27]

  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30]

In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31]

Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':

  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34]

Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35]

Types

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:

  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news

These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36]

Identifying

page1-220px-How_to_Spot_Fake_News.pdf.jp
 
Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40]

Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41]

40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Detecting fake news online

Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42]

History

Ancient

stone sculpture of a man's head and neck
 
Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44]

In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45]

During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44]

During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51]

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie

Fake news

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).
40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)
Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
 
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7]

The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12]

Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21]

Contents

Definition

Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25]

The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26]

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27]

  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30]

In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31]

Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':

  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34]

Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35]

Types

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:

  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news

These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36]

Identifying

page1-220px-How_to_Spot_Fake_News.pdf.jp
 
Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40]

Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41]

40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Detecting fake news online

Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42]

History

Ancient

stone sculpture of a man's head and neck
 
Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44]

In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45]

During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44]

During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51]

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie

Fake news

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).
40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)
Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
 
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7]

The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12]

Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21]

Contents

Definition

Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25]

The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26]

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27]

  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30]

In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31]

Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':

  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34]

Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35]

Types

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:

  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news

These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36]

Identifying

page1-220px-How_to_Spot_Fake_News.pdf.jp
 
Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40]

Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41]

40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Detecting fake news online

Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42]

History

Ancient

stone sculpture of a man's head and neck
 
Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44]

In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45]

During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44]

During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51]

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie

 

Fake news

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).
40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)
Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
 
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7]

The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12]

Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21]

Contents

Definition

Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25]

The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26]

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27]

  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30]

In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31]

Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':

  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34]

Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35]

Types

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:

  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news

These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36]

Identifying

page1-220px-How_to_Spot_Fake_News.pdf.jp
 
Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40]

Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41]

40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Detecting fake news online

Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42]

History

Ancient

stone sculpture of a man's head and neck
 
Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44]

In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45]

During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44]

During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51]

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie

 

Fake news

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).
40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 75 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. (November 2019)
Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
 
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

Fake news, also known as junk news, pseudo-news, alternative facts or hoax news,[1][2] is a form of news consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.[3][4] Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.[5] The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.[6]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[7][8][9] often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.[7]

The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed,[3] have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,[7][10] which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.[11][12]

Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancy.[13] Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.[14] An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[15] Anonymously-hosted fake news websites[3] lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.[16] The term "lying press"[17][18] is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, President Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense, regardless of the truthfulness of the news, when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[19][20] In part, as a result of Trump's misuse, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."[21]

Contents

Definition

Fake news is a neologism[22] often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media[3] or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.[23]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.[24] He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."[25]

The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[7] Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".[26]

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:[27]

  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[28][29][30]

In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons commenced a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".[31]

Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.[32][33]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':

  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.[34]

Author Terry Pratchett, who had a background as a journalist and press officer, was among the first to be concerned about the spread of fake news on the Internet. In a 1995 interview with Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, he said "Let's say I call myself the Institute for Something-or-other and I decide to promote a spurious treatise saying the Jews were entirely responsible for the second world war and the Holocaust didn't happen and it goes out there on the Internet and is available on the same terms as any piece of historical research which has undergone peer review and so on. There's a kind of parity of esteem of information on the net. It's all there: there's no way of finding out whether this stuff has any bottom to it or whether someone has just made it up". Gates was optimistic and disagreed, saying that authorities on the Net would index and check facts and reputations in a much more sophisticated way than in print. But it was Pratchett who had "accurately predicted how the internet would propagate and legitimise fake news".[35]

Types

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:

  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news

These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.[36]

Identifying

page1-220px-How_to_Spot_Fake_News.pdf.jp
 
Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.[37] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgment)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.[38] In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.[39] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".[40]

Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.[41]

40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Detecting fake news online

Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.[42] These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose.[42] Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.[43] When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements.[43] specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks.[43] Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source.[43] On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate and provides more clarity on the news.[43] There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as "Snopes" try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.[42]

History

Ancient

stone sculpture of a man's head and neck
 
Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation.[44]

In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.[45]

During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.[46] He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.[47] Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.[44]

During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.[48][49] In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,[50] while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.[51]

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.[52] The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake.[52]Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control.[52] Storie

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Tools
Language:
 

useless


Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to useless: indubitably, predecessor, abruptly

use·less

 (yo͞os′lĭs)
adj.
1.
a. Being or having no beneficial use; ineffective: This pen is useless because it's out of ink. See Synonyms at futile.
b. Having no purpose or reason; pointless; to no avail: It's useless to argue over matters of taste.
2. Incapable of acting or functioning effectively; ineffectual or inept: He panics easily and is useless in an emergency.

use′less·ly adv.
use′less·ness n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

useless

(ˈjuːslɪs)
adj
1. having no practical use or advantage
2. informal ineffectual, weak, or stupid: he's useless at history.
ˈuselessly adv
ˈuselessness n
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

use•less

(ˈyus lɪs)

adj.
1. of no use; not serving the purpose or any purpose; unavailing.
2. without useful qualities; of no practical good.
[1585–95]
use′less•ly, adv.
use′less•ness, n.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Switch to new thesaurus
Adj. 1. useless - having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefullyuseless - having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully; "a kitchen full of useless gadgets"; "she is useless in an emergency"
ineffective, ineffectual, uneffective - not producing an intended effect; "an ineffective teacher"; "ineffective legislation"
unprofitable - producing little or no profit or gain; "deposits abandoned by mining companies as unprofitable"
unserviceable - not ready for service; "unserviceable equipment may be replaced"
useful, utile - being of use or service; "the girl felt motherly and useful"; "a useful job"; "a useful member of society"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

useless

adjective
2. pointless, hopeless, futile, vain, idle, profitless She knew it was useless to protest.
pointless worthwhile, profitable
3. (Informal) inept, no good, hopeless, weak, stupid, pants (slang), incompetent, ineffectual He was useless at any game with a ball.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

useless

adjective
1. Having no useful purpose:
2. Incapable of being used or availed of to advantage:
3. Having no useful result:
Idiom: in vain.
4. Not having the desired effect:
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Translations
Spanish / Español
Select a language:

useless

[ˈjuːslɪs] ADJ
1. (= ineffective) [object] → que no sirve para nada; [person] → inútil
this can opener's uselesseste abrelatas no sirve para nada
compasses are useless in the junglelas brújulas no sirven para or de nada en la selva
she's uselesses una inútil
he's useless as a forwardno vale para delanterono sirve como delantero
I was always useless at mathssiempre fui (un) negado or un inútil para las matemáticas
2. (= unusable) [object, vehicle] → inservible; [limb] → inutilizado, inútil
he's a mine of useless information! (hum) → se sabe todo tipo de datos y chorraditas que no sirven de nada
to render or make sth uselessinutilizar algo
3. (= pointless) → inútil
it's useless to shoutde nada sirve gritar, es inútil gritar
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

use2

(juːs) noun
1. the act of using or state of being used. The use of force to persuade workers to join a strike cannot be justified; This telephone number is for use in emergencies.uso, utilización
2. the/a purpose for which something may be used. This little knife has plenty of uses; I have no further use for these clothes.uso
3. (often in questions or with negatives) value or advantage. Is this coat (of) any use to you?; It's no use offering to help when it's too late.utilidad
4. the power of using. She lost the use of her right arm as a result of the accident.uso
5. permission, or the right, to use. They let us have the use of their car while they were away.uso
ˈuseful adjective
helpful or serving a purpose well. a useful tool/dictionary; She made herself useful by doing the washing for her mother.útil
ˈusefulness noun ˈusefully adverb
in a useful way. He spent the day usefully in repairing the car.útilmente
ˈuseless adjective
having no use or no effect. Why don't you throw away those useless things?; We can't do it – it's useless to try.inútil
be in use, be out of use
to be used or not used. How long has the gymnasium been in use / out of use? en uso/desuso, dar un uso/no darle un uso
come in useful
to become useful. My French came in useful on holiday. resultar útil
have no use for
to despise. I have no use for such silliness / silly people. no querer saber de
it's no use
it's impossible or useless. He tried in vain to do it, then said `It's no use.' es inútil
make (good) use of, put to (good) use
He makes use of his training; He puts his training to good use in that job. sacar partido/provecho de
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

useless

inútil
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009

useless

adj inútil
English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content.

Link to this page:
 
Flashcards & Bookmarks ?
Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. You can also log in with
TheFreeDictionary presents:
References in classic literature ?
"I purposely abstain from troubling you by any useless allusions to myself.
Vanstone has left it, seems like taking a journey for nothing -- and my staying in London appears to be almost equally useless.
The adult might become fitted for sites or habits, in which organs of locomotion or of the senses, &c., would be useless; and in this case the final metamorphosis would be said to be retrograde.
Mordaunt tried for a moment to read in the general's face if this was simply a useless question, or whether he knew everything.
Useless! The air had made the flame attached to the conductor more active; the match, which at rest might have burnt five minutes, was consumed in thirty seconds, and the infernal work exploded.
The attempt proved to be useless, and worse--it seemed to make her suspicious.
But while he was seeking with thimbles and care, A Bandersnatch swiftly drew nigh And grabbed at the Banker, who shrieked in despair, For he knew it was useless to fly.
During the scene of tumult, Andrea had turned his smiling face towards the assembly; then, leaning with one hand on the oaken rail of the dock, in the most graceful attitude possible, he said: "Gentlemen, I assure you I had no idea of insulting the court, or of making a useless disturbance in the presence of this honorable assembly.
"It is useless, mother, to speculate on what might have happened.
I'm glad there's something to give my life for, for it's not simply useless but loathsome to me.
Those who tried to understand the general course of events and to take part in it by self-sacrifice and heroism were the most useless members of society, they saw everything upside down, and all they did for the common good turned out to be useless and foolish- like Pierre's and Mamonov's regiments which looted Russian villages, and the lint the young ladies prepared and that never reached the wounded, and so on.
That is to say, justice is useful when money is useless?
 
Full browser ?
Disclaimer

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

 
 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

AUDUSD CONTINUES TRADING BENEATH 0.7000 LEVEL

AUDUSD Price Analysis – July 9

The AUDUSD pair retreated to level 0.6950 after failing to rise above 0.7000 level earlier in the week. Despite the growing number of confirmed infections with coronavirus in the US, increased optimism about a vaccine allows market sentiment to remain upbeat.

Key Levels
Resistance Levels: 0.7205, 0.7064, 0.7031
Support Levels: 0.6938, 0.6777, 0.5906
AUDUSD-Daily-July-9.pngAUDUSD Long term Trend: Bullish
In the wider context, the medium- to long-term bottom recovery from 0.5506 may be a reversal of the long-term downward trend from 1.1079 (high) level. A further rally on the horizontal resistance now at 0.7310 level may be seen to be high.

This will stay the default case as long as it is now at 0.6777 level above the ascending trend line. Continuous trading underneath the ascending trendline would then shift the emphasis back to a low level of 0.5506.
AUDUSD-4-Hour-July-9-1.pngAUDUSD Short term Trend: Ranging
For the moment, the intraday bias in AUDUSD stays neutral. Price activity from level 0.7064 is interpreted as a pattern of correction. Until the pattern ends, one more fall is predicted. On the downside, for a support level of 0.6777, below 0.6938 minor support level would transform bias to the downside.

A break there targets a retraction of 38.2 percent from 0.5506 to 0.7064 at 0.6462 rates. Nonetheless, a sustained break of 0.7064 level would restore the entire surge from 0.5506 level instead.

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

EUR/GBP IS IN A DOWNWARD MOVE, TARGETS LEVEL 0.8900

Key Resistance Levels: 0.9200, 0.9400, 0.9600
Key Support Levels: 0.8800, 0.8600, 0.8400

EUR/GBP Price Long-term Trend: Bearish
The EUR/GBP pair is presently falling after retesting level 0.9000. The downtrend has been ongoing since June 29. The price has broken below the bullish trend line. This is an indication that the selling pressure may continue on the downside.

EURGBP-Learn2trade-2.png EUR/GBP – Daily Chart

Daily Chart Indicators Reading:
The pair is at level 48 of the Relative Strength index period 14. This implies that the market is in the downtrend zone and below the centerline 50. The 50-day SMA and 21-day SMA are sloping upward. It indicates the present upward move.


EUR/GBP Medium-term Trend: Bullish
On the 4-hour chart, the EUR/GBP pair has been on a downward move. The pair was resisted at level 0.9050 as the market dropped to level 0.8950. The price corrected upward to retest level 0.9000 twice before resuming the downward move. The downtrend is likely to continue.

EURGBP-Learn2trade-4-Hour-2.png EUR/GBP – 4 Hour Chart

4-hour Chart Indicators Reading
The 50-day and 21-day SMAs are sloping downward indicating the downtrend. The pair is below 20% range of the daily stochastic. It indicates that the market is approaching the oversold region. In the oversold region, buyers are likely to emerge to push prices upward.


General Outlook for EUR/GBP
The EUR/GBP pair has fallen and reached level 0.8960. The selling pressure is ongoing as price approaches the oversold region. The market may fall and reach a low of 0.8900.

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
8 hours ago, analyst75 said:

EUR/GBP IS IN A DOWNWARD MOVE, TARGETS LEVEL 0.8900

Key Resistance Levels: 0.9200, 0.9400, 0.9600
Key Support Levels: 0.8800, 0.8600, 0.8400

EUR/GBP Price Long-term Trend: Bearish
The EUR/GBP pair is presently falling after retesting level 0.9000. The downtrend has been ongoing since June 29. The price has broken below the bullish trend line. This is an indication that the selling pressure may continue on the downside.

EURGBP-Learn2trade-2.png EUR/GBP – Daily Chart

Daily Chart Indicators Reading:
The pair is at level 48 of the Relative Strength index period 14. This implies that the market is in the downtrend zone and below the centerline 50. The 50-day SMA and 21-day SMA are sloping upward. It indicates the present upward move.


EUR/GBP Medium-term Trend: Bullish
On the 4-hour chart, the EUR/GBP pair has been on a downward move. The pair was resisted at level 0.9050 as the market dropped to level 0.8950. The price corrected upward to retest level 0.9000 twice before resuming the downward move. The downtrend is likely to continue.

EURGBP-Learn2trade-4-Hour-2.png EUR/GBP – 4 Hour Chart

4-hour Chart Indicators Reading
The 50-day and 21-day SMAs are sloping downward indicating the downtrend. The pair is below 20% range of the daily stochastic. It indicates that the market is approaching the oversold region. In the oversold region, buyers are likely to emerge to push prices upward.


General Outlook for EUR/GBP
The EUR/GBP pair has fallen and reached level 0.8960. The selling pressure is ongoing as price approaches the oversold region. The market may fall and reach a low of 0.8900.

Source: https://learn2.trade 

And now... the weather

(yesterday)

It was fkn raining all day

 

Source:Learn2explainyesterdayscharttopeoplewhocan'ttrade

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
16 hours ago, mitsubishi said:

And now... the weather

(yesterday)

It was fkn raining all day

 

Source:Learn2explainyesterdayscharttopeoplewhocan'ttrade

I missed your unnecessary insults. I'm happy to see covid-19 didn't diminish your unnecessary bad attitude.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Posted (edited)
10 hours ago, landorra said:

I missed your unnecessary insults. I'm happy to see covid-19 didn't diminish your unnecessary bad attitude.

That's because you're a human being Lan

You'll need to define what you mean by 'unnecessary' otherwise I wil be forced to continue alone along the lonely path that dare not speak it's name- TRUTH

 either way, hope you're well...these are very challenging times

Edited by mitsubishi

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

USD/CAD FLUCTUATES BETWEEN LEVELS 1.3500 AND 1.3700, UPTREND UNCERTAIN

Key Resistance Levels: 1.42000, 1.44000, 1.46000
Key Support Levels: 1.34000, 1.32000, 1.30000

USD/CAD Price Long-term Trend: Ranging
The Loonie is in a sideways move in June. The market is fluctuating between levels 1.3500 and 1.3700. The price has risen above the 21-day SMA to move upward. The pair is likely to rise if the 21-day SMA support holds. The USD/CAD will rise and reach  level 1.3700 if the uptrend resumes.

USDCAD-Learn2trade-2.png USD/CAD – Daily Chart

Daily Chart Indicators Reading:
The 50-day SMA and the 21-day SMA are sloping downward indicating the sideways trend. The Loonie has fallen to level 49 of the Relative Strength Index. This indicates that the pair is in the downtrend zone and below the center line 50.

USD/CAD Medium-term Trend: Ranging
On the 4-hour chart, the pair is fluctuating between levels 1.3500 and 1.3700. The current upward move is facing resistance at level 1.3650 as market moves downward. The pair will find support above level 1.3550 if the selling pressure persists.

USDCAD-Learn2trade-4-Hour-2.png USD/CAD – 4 Hour Chart

4-hour Chart Indicators Reading
Presently, the SMAs are sloping horizontally indicating the sideways trend. The Loonie is below 80% range of the daily stochastic. It implies that the market is in a bearish momentum,.


General Outlook for USD/CAD
The USD/CAD pair is in the middle of levels 1.3500 and 1.3700. Presently, the market is in a bearish momentum. However, the price action indicates a bearish signal.

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 
 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

WHAT ARE PENDING ORDERS AND THEIR TYPES?

We just feel like explaining some basics terms of our trading signals to you, for the sake of those who may not understand.

Instant Executions: These are market orders to be executed immediately at the current market price. They are simply “buy” or “sell” orders.

Pending orders: A pending order is an order that is not yet a live trade. It is an order that you place because you do not want to buy or sell before the price of a financial instrument reaches a certain point. The order will be pending until the market reaches your preferred entry level.

A pending order will be in place for as long as the price does not reach your entry level. You can set your pending order to expire on a certain date and time (i.e. if it does not reach your entry price before then), or you can close it manually.

While a pending order remains in place, you can also adjust its stop and/or take profit level(s). Once price reaches your preferred entry level, the order will be triggered even if you’re completely offline, as your order is already in your broker’s server.
download-3-4.pngThere are several types of pending orders but we use 4 most popular for our signals here. They are:

Buy Stop
Sell Stop
Buy Limit
And Sell Limit

Buy Stop: It is an order that enables you to buy at a higher price. For example, assuming Silver (XAGUSD) is currently at 18.685, you can set a Buy Stop order that will trigger a trade once the price reaches 19.000.

Sell Stop: It is an order that enables you to sell at a lower price. Let’s use the same example of Silver, if at 18.685. You can set a Sell Stop order that will trigger a trade once the price reaches 18.215.

Buy Limit: This is an order which makes you to buy at a lower price. If S&P 500 is trading at 3185.75, you may want to enable a Buy Limit order that will trigger a trade for you once that trading instrument plummets towards 3175.05.

Sell Limit: This is an order that allows you to sell at a higher price. Let us say S&P 500 is trading at 3185.75, you can elect to enable a Sell Limit order that will trigger a trade for you once that S&P 500 rallies towards 3200.75.

We hope this short article has thrown some light on your queries. You can message us if there are more questions.

May your trades be green.

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

SILVER PRICE: XAGUSD REBOUNDS FURTHER AROUND PRIOR DAY’S EXIT AT $19.32 LEVEL

XAGUSD Price Analysis – July 20

The white metal rebounded from prior day losses as market activity turned upside. XAGUSD price continued to ascend gradually to the exit of the day before, settling at around $19.32 level, it nevertheless, reflects a lower high.

Key Levels
Resistance Levels: $21.00, $20.50, $19.65
Support Levels: $18.94, $18.37, $18.00
XAGUSD-Daily-July-20.pngXAGUSD Long term Trend: Bullish
XAGUSD trades at a level of $19.33; the instrument rises beyond its horizontal resistance turned support at a level of $19.17, which suggests an upward trend. The markets may suggest that the price could test the upside boundary at a level of $19.65 and then start pushing upwards to a level of $20.50 later in the week.

A recovery from support level might be another indicator for more uptrend. Nevertheless, if the price crosses the downside barrier and fixes beneath $18.94 level the bullish scenario may no longer be the case. The pair may start to decline towards $18.00 level in this situation.
XAGUSD-4-hour-July-20.pngXAGUSD Short term Trend: Bullish
On the shorter time frame bulls persisted and moved the precious metal higher spontaneously after a simple breach of $19.17 barrier, attempting a short-term resistance in the process. Price may re-test the $19.17 level broken short-term barrier as potential support.

Short to mid-term bias is bullish and it is probable that if this broken short-term resistance holds as support another push back up to $19.47 level is imminent. On the other hand, a break and close back beneath the $19.17 level may put $18.94 level back into view.

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Day Trading or Swing Trading, Which is Preferable?

 

Day trading or swing trading? I find that to be a very loaded question.

 

New traders are always curious to know which trading style is preferable. Although both trading styles have their distinct advantages and disadvantages, the important thing to find out is which of the two best suits your personality.

 

In this article, we are going to have a quick look at the trading methods and what they entail.

 

Day Trading:

 

Day trading involves opening and closing multiple trades within a single trading day. In this trading method, traders have to stay glued to their screens for hours on end, monitoring trend developments, and executing multiple trades. Most day traders do nothing else with their time but trade the markets.

 

One downside of this is that it always causes “burnout” in many traders after a few weeks or months. Keeping up with the demands of day trading can be very taxing and this leads to the burnouts seen in many day traders.

 

Day trading also requires traders to have sharp reflexes in dealing with the financial markets. Since day trading involves opening and closing multiple trades in a relatively short period, traders need to be quick at making the most of the little period and grab as many profits as possible. This can only be achieved if the traders have quick market reflexes. An extreme kind of day trading is ‘Scalping’ which involves executing and closing several dozens to hundreds of mini trades within a single day. The precision and speed of these traders in action can be thrilling to watch.

 

That said, older populations (40>) may not be able to keep up with this trading style as many people in that age group have a short attention span and lack quick/witty reflexes. Also, this age group might find it very difficult to sit for long hours glued to their screens.

 

On a brighter note, one of the major benefits of day trading is that you don’t get to be worried about “overnight” occurrences that could stop you from your trade positions since no trade is allowed to stay open beyond a day. This means that risk exposure is greatly diminished.

 

Swing Trading:

 

Swing trading generally involves opening and holding trade positions anywhere from 2 days to a few weeks. Swing traders, unlike day traders, leave trades overnight meaning that there is greater risk exposure. However, this risk exposure opens up the possibility for significantly larger profit opportunities compared to day trading. Seems like a fair trade-off doesn’t it?

 

Also, swing trading allows traders significantly less “screen time” as they can place trades and practically not monitor the progress for days. Many swing traders monitor the markets for as little as 30 minutes a day to determine what their next possible move could be.

 

Furthermore, swing trading lets traders ride profit trends for a longer period.

 

Finally, the preferable trading style depends greatly on your personality. So, spend some time exploring both methods and discover which suits you best.

 

Source: https://learn2.trade 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

BATTLE STYLES IN THE WAR ROOM

Trading is a highly competitive human endeavor, but it is also highly rewarding. The financial markets can adeptly be compared to a battlefield; therefore a trading room can be likened to “a war room,” where you engage the markets. Victorious soldiers of the financial markets are those who make average gains that are bigger than average losses. These are successful traders

Yes, the key is that, we make average profits whose total is more than the total of average losses. That is the ultimate secret – make more money than you lose.

No matter the trading methodology/strategy/system you use, they will fall into any of the 5 categories listed below.

Battle styles – trading styles

SCALPING
This is a trading style that makes you take advantage of small movements in price. Once your position turns into profit, you exit the market immediately. Traders who employ this style usually cut their trades once they gain anything from a few to several pips. They stay in the markets for only a few to several minutes in most cases; and they rarely stay in the market for more than a few hours at most. If a speculator makes 10 USD per clean pip, and they gather around 3 to 5 pips per trade, you can imagine how much they will make if they do 10 trades per day.

INTRADAY TRADING
Intraday means “within the day.” So intraday trading is a style of trading that makes you enter the market and get out within the same day. It is also called DAY TRADIING. Doing this, you open a position and close it within a few hours and 24 hours maximum. As long as you open trades and close them within a day, you’re an intraday trader or a day trader. Intraday trading enables you to possibly catch from tens of pips to hundreds of pips in a day, depending on the condition of the market.
istockphoto-157562003-170667a.jpgSWING TRADING
This is a trading style where a financial instrument is traded within one day to several weeks. A swing trade can remain open for over one day to a few days; or from a few days to several weeks. When you open a trade in a day and you don’t close it within the same day, then you become a swing trader. Capitalizing on the market ‘swings,’ means you want to potentially reap from tens of pips to thousands of pips within days or weeks.

POSITION TRADING
Position trading is a regular trading method in which you open a trade and leave it for a minimum of one month. The trade(s) can remain open for a few to several months or a few years. This kind of stance enables patient market players to make as much gains as possible from a protracted bias, whether bullish or bearish. Transitory noises in the markets are thus disregarded. A position trader that went long on AUDUSD in late March 2020 and held it till the end of July 2020, would have made a clean profit of at least 1,450 pips (roughly 14,500 USD if using standard lots).

INVESTING
It is simply a style where you allocate money to some financial instruments with the hope of returns in future. An investment may last from a few years to decades, even centuries. If you invested in Nasdaq 100 (NDX) in 2003 and held it till now (year 2020), you would have gained approximately 1,000,000 points (yes, one million points), and this seems like the beginning. You know what a gain of a mere 100 points looks like in terms of US dollar, if you use 1.0 lots. The best way to make colossal gains from shares, indices, precious metals, cryptos etc, is to hold them forever, irrespective of noises, bearish corrections and pullbacks along the way. After all, no investment is worthwhile unless it appears in your will (to be acquired eventually by your dependents and/or beneficiaries).

Source: https://learn2.trade 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

GOLD TO END NEXT WEEK WITH A BANG

Gold (XAU/USD) jumped to a fresh all-time high, around the $1,984 level in the early European session, before retreating lower.

Following yesterday’s profit-taking-triggered slide to the $1,940 area, the yellow metal was quick to bounce back and is set to end the week in a grand style. The bull run marked the tenth consecutive bullish session in the past eleven days and was mainly bolstered by the dominant bearish sentiment surrounding the US dollar.

Worries over the dwindling prospects for an economic recovery amid the Coronavirus saga continued to exert strong bearish pressure on the USD. This worry was reignited following the release of the US Q2 GDP report yesterday, which indicated that the economy contracted by a record 32.9% annualized pace. This coupled with the political tussle over the next round of stimulus measures further weakened the USD and bolstered the dollar-denominated commodity.

This comes on the heels of the dovish FOMC comments earlier this week coupled with the prevailing drop in the US Treasury bond yields, which further strengthened gold’s bullishness.

Moving on, market participants will be looking at the US economic docket—which features the Core PCE Price Index, Personal Income/Spending data, Chicago PMI, and Revised Michigan Consumer Sentiment—for clues to trading opportunities today.

IMG_8366.png XAUUSD – Hourly Chart

Gold (XAU) Value Forecast — July 31

XAU/USD Major Bias: Bullish

Supply Levels: $1,983, $1,990, and $2,000

Demand Levels: $1,970, $1,960, and $1,940

Gold has been progressing with our projections so far and is nearing the $2,000 target more and more. Immediate support can be found at the $1,970 level, however, further retrace will be strongly supported by the $1960 region, which happens to be a confluence of a support line and our ascending trendline.

At this level, gold needs a bounce from one of these support lines to send it once again on its journey to the $2,000 level, but first, we need to clear the $1,983 resistance.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use.