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  1. White post on white forum paper $Value: Higher than 75
  2. Gold From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the element. For other uses, see Gold (disambiguation). "Element 79" redirects here. For the anthology, see Element 79 (anthology). Gold, 79Au Gold Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Au) 196.966570(4)[1] Gold in the periodic table Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson Ag ↑ Au ↓ Rg platinum ← gold → mercury Atomic number (Z) 79 Group group 11 Period period 6 Block d-block Element category Transition metal Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 Physical properties Phase at STP solid Melting point 1337.33 K (1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F) Boiling point 3243 K (2970 °C, 5378 °F) Density (near r.t.) 19.30 g/cm3 when liquid (at m.p.) 17.31 g/cm3 Heat of fusion 12.55 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 342 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity 25.418 J/(mol·K) Vapor pressure P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078 Atomic properties Oxidation states −3, −2, −1, 0,[2]+1, +2, +3, +5 (an amphoteric oxide) Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.54 Ionization energies 1st: 890.1 kJ/mol 2nd: 1980 kJ/mol Atomic radius empirical: 144 pm Covalent radius 136±6 pm Van der Waals radius 166 pm Spectral lines of gold Other properties Natural occurrence primordial Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc) Speed of sound thin rod 2030 m/s (at r.t.) Thermal expansion 14.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C) Thermal conductivity 318 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity 22.14 nΩ·m (at 20 °C) Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[3] Magnetic susceptibility −28.0·10−6 cm3/mol (at 296 K)[4] Tensile strength 120 MPa Young's modulus 79 GPa Shear modulus 27 GPa Bulk modulus 180 GPa[5] Poisson ratio 0.4 Mohs hardness 2.5 Vickers hardness 188–216 MPa Brinell hardness 188–245 MPa CAS Number 7440-57-5 History Naming from Latin aurum, meaning gold Discovery In the Middle East (before 6000 BCE) Main isotopes of gold Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct 195Au syn 186.10 d ε 195Pt 196Au syn 6.183 d ε 196Pt β− 196Hg 197Au 100% stable 198Au syn 2.69517 d β− 198Hg 199Au syn 3.169 d β− 199Hg view talk edit | references Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides). Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction. A relatively rare element,[6][7] gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015.[8] The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry.[9] Gold's high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.[10] Contents 1 Characteristics 1.1 Color 1.2 Isotopes 1.2.1 Synthesis 2 Chemistry 2.1 Rare oxidation states 2.2 Medicinal uses 3 Origin 3.1 Gold production in the Universe 3.2 Asteroid origin theories 3.3 Mantle return theories 4 Occurrence 4.1 Seawater 5 History 5.1 Etymology 5.2 Culture 6 Production 6.1 Mining and prospecting 6.2 Extraction and refining 6.3 Consumption 6.4 Pollution 7 Monetary use 7.1 Price 7.2 History 8 Other applications 8.1 Jewelry 8.2 Electronics 8.3 Medicine 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Miscellanea 9 Toxicity 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Characteristics Gold can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks. A gold nugget of 0.5 cm (0.20 in) in size can be hammered into a gold foil of about 0.5 m2 (5.4 sq ft) area. Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, and then stretched about twice before it breaks.[citation needed] Such nanowires distort via formation, reorientation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening.[11] A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red.[12] Such semi-transparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (radiant heat) shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, and in sun-visors for spacesuits.[13] Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3, almost identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3; as such, tungsten has been used in counterfeiting of gold bars, such as by plating a tungsten bar with gold,[14][15][16][17] or taking an existing gold bar, drilling holes, and replacing the removed gold with tungsten rods.[18] By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3.[19] Color Main article: Colored gold Different colors of Ag–Au–Cu alloys Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is slightly reddish-yellow.[20] This color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.[21][22] Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police and other badges. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less commonly, addition of manganese, indium, and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.[23] Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red if the particles are small; larger particles of colloidal gold are blue.[24] Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of gold Gold has only one stable isotope, 197 Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195 Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171 Au, which decays by proton emission with a half-life of 30 µs. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β+ decay. The exceptions are 195 Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196 Au, which decays most often by electron capture (93%) with a minor β− decay path (7%).[25] All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay.[26] At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178 Au, 180 Au, 181 Au, 182 Au, and 188 Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2 Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2 Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1 Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.[26] Synthesis The production of gold from a more common element, such as lead, has long been a subject of human inquiry, and the ancient and medieval discipline of alchemy often focused on it; however, the transmutation of the chemical elements did not become possible until the understanding of nuclear physics in the 20th century. The first synthesis of gold was conducted by Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka, who synthesized gold from mercury in 1924 by neutron bombardment.[27] An American team, working without knowledge of Nagaoka's prior study, conducted the same experiment in 1941, achieving the same result and showing that the isotopes of gold produced by it were all radioactive.[28] Gold can currently be manufactured in a nuclear reactor by irradiation either of platinum or mercury. Only the mercury isotope 196Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0.15% in natural mercury, can be converted to gold by neutron capture, and following electron capture-decay into 197Au with slow neutrons. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes which beta decay into thallium. Using fast neutrons, the mercury isotope 198Hg, which composes 9.97% of natural mercury, can be converted by splitting off a neutron and becoming 197Hg, which then disintegrates to stable gold. This reaction, however, possesses a smaller activation cross-section and is feasible only with un-moderated reactors. It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form 197Hg. However, such high-energy neutrons can be produced only by particle accelerators.[clarification needed] Chemistry Gold(III) chloride solution in water Although gold is the most noble of the noble metals,[29][30] it still forms many diverse compounds. The oxidation state of gold in its compounds ranges from −1 to +5, but Au(I) and Au(III) dominate its chemistry. Au(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. Au(I) compounds are typically linear. A good example is Au(CN)2−, which is the soluble form of gold encountered in mining. The binary gold halides, such as AuCl, form zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. Most drugs based on gold are Au(I) derivatives.[31] Au(III) (referred to as the auric) is a common oxidation state, and is illustrated by gold(III) chloride, Au2Cl6. The gold atom centers in Au(III) complexes, like other d8 compounds, are typically square planar, with chemical bonds that have both covalent and ionic character. Gold does not react with oxygen at any temperature[32] and, up to 100 °C, is resistant to attack from ozone.[33] Some free halogens react with gold.[34] Gold is strongly attacked by fluorine at dull-red heat[35] to form gold(III) fluoride. Powdered gold reacts with chlorine at 180 °C to form AuCl3.[36] Gold reacts with bromine at 140 °C to form gold(III) bromide, but reacts only very slowly with iodine to form the monoiodide. Gold does not react with sulfur directly,[37] but gold(III) sulfide can be made by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold(III) chloride or chlorauric acid. Gold readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to form an amalgam, and forms alloys with many other metals at higher temperatures. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors.[23] Gold is unaffected by most acids. It does not react with hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, sulfuric, or nitric acid. It does react with selenic acid, and is dissolved by aqua regia, a 1:3 mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Nitric acid oxidizes the metal to +3 ions, but only in minute amounts, typically undetectable in the pure acid because of the chemical equilibrium of the reaction. However, the ions are removed from the equilibrium by hydrochloric acid, forming AuCl4− ions, or chloroauric acid, thereby enabling further oxidation. Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases. It does not react with aqueous, solid, or molten sodium or potassium hydroxide. It does however, react with sodium or potassium cyanide under alkaline conditions when oxygen is present to form soluble complexes.[37] Common oxidation states of gold include +1 (gold(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 (gold(III) or auric compounds). Gold ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated as metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent. The added metal is oxidized and dissolves, allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate. Rare oxidation states Less common oxidation states of gold include −1, +2, and +5. The −1 oxidation state occurs in aurides, compounds containing the Au−anion. Caesium auride (CsAu), for example, crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif;[38] rubidium, potassium, and tetramethylammonium aurides are also known.[39] Gold has the highest electron affinity of any metal, at 222.8 kJ/mol, making Au− a stable species.[40] Gold(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au–Au bonds such as [Au(CH2)2P(C6H5)2]2Cl2. The evaporation of a solution of Au(OH) 3 in concentrated H 2SO 4 produces red crystals of gold(II) sulfate, Au2(SO4)2. Originally thought to be a mixed-valence compound, it has been shown to contain Au4+ 2 cations, analogous to the better-known mercury(I) ion, Hg2+ 2 .[41][42] A gold(II) complex, the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, which contains xenon as a ligand, occurs in [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2.[43] Gold pentafluoride, along with its derivative anion, AuF− 6, and its difluorine complex, gold heptafluoride, is the sole example of gold(V), the highest verified oxidation state.[44] Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au–Au bond but shorter than van der Waals bonding. The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond. Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous.[39] In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state. A representative example is the octahedral species {Au(P(C6H5)3)}62+. Gold chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III). Medicinal uses Medicinal applications of gold and its complexes have a long history dating back thousands of years.[45] Several gold complexes have been applied to treat rheumatoid arthritis, the most frequently used being aurothiomalate, aurothioglucose, and auranofin. Both gold(I) and gold(III) compounds have been investigated as possible anti-cancer drugs. For gold(III) complexes, reduction to gold(0/I) under physiological conditions has to be considered. Stable complexes can be generated using different types of bi-, tri-, and tetradentate ligand systems, and their efficacy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.[46] Origin Gold production in the Universe Schematic of a NE (left) to SW (right) cross-section through the 2.020 billion year old Vredefort impact crater in South Africa and how it distorted the contemporary geological structures. The present erosion level is shown. Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin (the yellow layer) is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left. Not to scale. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, and from the collision of neutron stars,[47] and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.[48] Traditionally, gold in the universe is thought to have formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernova nucleosynthesis,[49] but more recently it has been suggested that gold and other elements heavier than iron may also be produced in quantity by the r-process in the collision of neutron stars.[50] In both cases, satellite spectrometers at first only indirectly detected the resulting gold.[51] However, in August 2017, the spectrascopic signatures of heavy elements, including gold, were observed by electromagnetic observatories in the GW170817 neutron star merger event, after gravitational wave detectors confirmed the event as a neutron star merger.[52] Current astrophysical models suggest that this single neutron star merger event generated between 3 and 13 Earth masses of gold. This amount, along with estimations of the rate of occurrence of these neutron start merger events, suggests that such mergers may produce enough gold to account for most of the abundance of this element in the universe.[53] Asteroid origin theories Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the gold present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Therefore, most of the gold that is in the Earth's crust and mantle has in one model thought to have been delivered to Earth later, by asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment, about 4 billion years ago.[54][55] Gold which is reachable by humans has, in one case, been associated with a particular asteroid impact. The asteroid that formed Vredefort crater 2.020 billion years ago is often credited with seeding the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa with the richest gold deposits on earth.[56][57][58][59] However, this scenario is now questioned. The gold-bearing Witwatersrand rocks were laid down between 700 and 950 million years before the Vredefort impact.[60][61] These gold-bearing rocks had furthermore been covered by a thick layer of Ventersdorp lavas and the Transvaal Supergroup of rocks before the meteor struck, and thus the gold did not actually arrive in the asteroid/meteorite. What the Vredefort impact achieved, however, was to distort the Witwatersrand basin in such a way that the gold-bearing rocks were brought to the present erosion surface in Johannesburg, on the Witwatersrand, just inside the rim of the original 300 km diameter crater caused by the meteor strike. The discovery of the deposit in 1886 launched the Witwatersrand Gold Rush. Some 22% of all the gold that is ascertained to exist today on Earth has been extracted from these Witwatersrand rocks.[61] Mantle return theories Notwithstanding the impact above, much of the rest of the gold on Earth is thought to have been incorporated into the planet since its very beginning, as planetesimals formed the planet's mantle, early in Earth's creation. In 2017, an international group of scientists, established that gold "came to the Earth's surface from the deepest regions of our planet",[62] the mantle, evidenced by their findings at Deseado Massif in the Argentinian Patagonia.[63][clarification needed] Occurrence On Earth, gold is found in ores in rock formed from the Precambrian time onward.[64] It most often occurs as a native metal, typically in a metal solid solution with silver (i.e. as a gold silver alloy). Such alloys usually have a silver content of 8–10%. Electrum is elemental gold with more than 20% silver. Electrum's color runs from golden-silvery to silvery, dependent upon the silver content. The more silver, the lower the specific gravity. Native gold occurs as very small to microscopic particles embedded in rock, often together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as "Fool's Gold", which is a pyrite.[65] These are called lode deposits. The metal in a native state is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets[64] that have been eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial deposits called placer deposits. Such free gold is always richer at the surface of gold-bearing veins[clarification needed] owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering, and washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets. Gold sometimes occurs combined with tellurium as the minerals calaverite, krennerite, nagyagite, petzite and sylvanite (see telluride minerals), and as the rare bismuthide maldonite (Au2Bi) and antimonide aurostibite (AuSb2). Gold also occurs in rare alloys with copper, lead, and mercury: the minerals auricupride (Cu3Au), novodneprite (AuPb3) and weishanite ((Au, Ag)3Hg2). Recent research suggests that microbes can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.[66] Another recent study has claimed water in faults vaporizes during an earthquake, depositing gold. When an earthquake strikes, it moves along a fault. Water often lubricates faults, filling in fractures and jogs. About 6 miles (10 kilometers) below the surface, under incredible temperatures and pressures, the water carries high concentrations of carbon dioxide, silica, and gold. During an earthquake, the fault jog suddenly opens wider. The water inside the void instantly vaporizes, flashing to steam and forcing silica, which forms the mineral quartz, and gold out of the fluids and onto nearby surfaces.[67] Seawater The world's oceans contain gold. Measured concentrations of gold in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific are 50–150 femtomol/L or 10–30 parts per quadrillion (about 10–30 g/km3). In general, gold concentrations for south Atlantic and central Pacific samples are the same (~50 femtomol/L) but less certain. Mediterranean deep waters contain slightly higher concentrations of gold (100–150 femtomol/L) attributed to wind-blown dust and/or rivers. At 10 parts per quadrillion the Earth's oceans would hold 15,000 tonnes of gold.[68] These figures are three orders of magnitude less than reported in the literature prior to 1988, indicating contamination problems with the earlier data. A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover gold from sea water, but they were either mistaken or acted in an intentional deception. Prescott Jernegan ran a gold-from-seawater swindle in the United States in the 1890s, as did an English fraudster in the early 1900s.[69]Fritz Haber did research on the extraction of gold from sea water in an effort to help pay Germany's reparations following World War I.[70] Based on the published values of 2 to 64 ppb of gold in seawater a commercially successful extraction seemed possible. After analysis of 4,000 water samples yielding an average of 0.004 ppb it became clear that extraction would not be possible and he stopped the project.[71] History An Indian tribute-bearer at Apadana, from the Achaemenid satrapy of Hindush, carrying gold on a yoke, circa 500 BC.[72] Muisca raft, between circa 600-1600 AD. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. The zipa used to cover his body in gold dust, and from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the legend of El Dorado. This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia. The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold, which can be found free or "native". Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. 40,000 BC.[73] Gold artifacts made their first appearance at the very beginning of the pre-dynastic period in Egypt, at the end of the fifth millennium BC and the start of the fourth, and smelting was developed during the course of the 4th millennium; gold artifacts appear in the archeology of Lower Mesopotamia during the early 4th millennium.[74] Gold artifacts in the Balkans appear from the 4th millennium BC, such as those found in the Varna Necropolis near Lake Varna in Bulgaria, thought by one source (La Niece 2009) to be the earliest "well-dated" find of gold artifacts.[64] As of 1990, gold artifacts found at the Nahal Qana cave cemetery of the 4th millennium BC in West Bank (Occupied PAlestinian Territories) were the earliest from the Levant.[75] Gold artifacts such as the golden hats and the Nebra disk appeared in Central Europe from the 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age. The oldest known map of a gold mine was drawn in the 19th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (1320–1200 BC), whereas the first written reference to gold was recorded in the 12th Dynasty around 1900 BC.[76]Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which King Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.[77] Egypt and especially Nubia had the resources to make them major gold-producing areas for much of history. One of the earliest known maps, known as the Turin Papyrus Map, shows the plan of a gold mine in Nubia together with indications of the local geology. The primitive working methods are described by both Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, and included fire-setting. Large mines were also present across the Red Sea in what is now Saudi Arabia. Ancient golden Kritonios Crown, funerary or marriage material, 370–360 BC. From a grave in Armento, Campania Gold is mentioned in the Amarna letters numbered 19[78] and 26[79] from around the 14th century BC.[80][81] Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah), the story of the golden calf, and many parts of the temple including the Menorah and the golden altar. In the New Testament, it is included with the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of Matthew. The Book of Revelation 21:21 describes the city of New Jerusalem as having streets "made of pure gold, clear as crystal". Exploitation of gold in the south-east corner of the Black Sea is said to date from the time of Midas, and this gold was important in the establishment of what is probably the world's earliest coinage in Lydia around 610 BC.[82] The legend of the golden fleece dating from eighth century BCE may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient world. From the 6th or 5th century BC, the Chu (state) circulated the Ying Yuan, one kind of square gold coin. In Roman metallurgy, new methods for extracting gold on a large scale were developed by introducing hydraulic mining methods, especially in Hispania from 25 BC onwards and in Dacia from 106 AD onwards. One of their largest mines was at Las Medulas in León, where seven long aqueducts enabled them to sluice most of a large alluvial deposit. The mines at Roşia Montană in Transylvania were also very large, and until very recently, still mined by opencast methods. They also exploited smaller deposits in Britain, such as placer and hard-rock deposits at Dolaucothi. The various methods they used are well described by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia written towards the end of the first century AD. During Mansa Musa's (ruler of the Mali Empire from 1312 to 1337) hajj to Mecca in 1324, he passed through Cairo in July 1324, and was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels where he gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade, causing high inflation.[83] A contemporary Arab historian remarked: Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there [...]. — Chihab Al-Umari, Kingdom of Mali[84] Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum. This is the largest known gold coin minted in antiquity (169,20 g; 58 mm).[85] The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Mesoamerica, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. The Aztecs regarded gold as the product of the gods, calling it literally "god excrement" (teocuitlatl in Nahuatl), and after Moctezuma II was killed, most of this gold was shipped to Spain.[86] However, for the indigenous peoples of North America gold was considered useless and they saw much greater value in other minerals which were directly related to their utility, such as obsidian, flint, and slate.[87]El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins. The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of a legendary lost city. El Dorado, was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people in Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita. The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, and then finally to an empire. Gold played a role in western culture, as a cause for desire and of corruption, as told in children's fables such as Rumpelstiltskin—where Rumpelstiltskin turns hay into gold for the peasant's daughter in return for her child when she becomes a princess—and the stealing of the hen that lays golden eggs in Jack and the Beanstalk. The top prize at the Olympic Games and many other sports competitions is the gold medal. 75% of the presently accounted for gold has been extracted since 1910. It has been estimated that the currently known amount of gold internationally would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) on a side (equivalent to 8,000 m3).[88] One main goal of the alchemists was to produce gold from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone. Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists did promote an interest in systematically finding out what can be done with substances, and this laid the foundation for today's chemistry. Their symbol for gold was the circle with a point at its center (☉), which was also the astrological symbol and the ancient Chinese character for the Sun. The Dome of the Rock is covered with an ultra-thin golden glassier. The Sikh Golden temple, the Harmandir Sahib, is a building covered with gold. Similarly the Wat Phra Kaew emerald Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand has ornamental gold-leafed statues and roofs. Some European king and queen's crowns were made of gold, and gold was used for the bridal crown since antiquity. An ancient Talmudic text circa 100 AD describes Rachel, wife of Rabbi Akiva, receiving a "Jerusalem of Gold" (diadem). A Greek burial crown made of gold was found in a grave circa 370 BC. Etymology An early mention of gold in the Beowulf "Gold" is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- ("to shine, to gleam; to be yellow or green").[89][90] The symbol Au is from the Latin: aurum, the Latin word for "gold".[91] The Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning "glow". This word is derived from the same root (Proto-Indo-European *h₂u̯es- "to dawn") as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora, "dawn".[92] This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant "shining dawn".[93] Culture This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Outside chemistry, gold is mentioned in a variety of expressions, most often associated with intrinsic worth.[40] Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, gold trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal. Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards). Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now known as the golden mean. Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule. Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. A person's most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a golden age. In some forms of Christianity and Judaism, gold has been associated both with holiness and evil. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry, while in the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Byzantine iconography the halos of Christ, Mary and the Christian saints are often golden. According to Christopher Columbus, those who had something of gold were in possession of something of great value on Earth and a substance to even help souls to paradise.[94] Wedding rings are typically made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and the perfection the marriage signifies. In Orthodox Christian wedding ceremonies, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown (though some opt for wreaths, instead) during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites. Production Main article: List of countries by gold production Time trend of gold production The World Gold Council states that as of the end of 2017, "there were 187,200 tonnes of stocks in existence above ground". This can be represented by a cube with an edge length of about 21 meters.[95] At $1,349 per troy ounce, 187,200 metric tonnes of gold would have a value of $8.9 trillion. According to the United States Geological Survey in 2016, about 5,726,000,000 troy ounces (178,100 t) of gold has been produced since the beginning of civilization, of which 85% remains in use.[96] In 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes. The second-largest producer, Australia, mined 300 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 255 tonnes.[10] Mining and prospecting Main articles: Gold mining and Gold prospecting A miner underground at Pumsaint gold mine, Wales; c. 1938. Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source of a large proportion of the world's gold supply, and about 22% of the gold presently accounted is from South Africa. Production in 1970 accounted for 79% of the world supply, about 1,480 tonnes. In 2007 China (with 276 tonnes) overtook South Africa as the world's largest gold producer, the first time since 1905 that South Africa has not been the largest.[97] As of 2017, China was the world's leading gold-mining country, followed in order by Australia, Russia, the United States, Canada, and Peru. South Africa, which had dominated world gold production for most of the 20th century, had declined to sixth place.[10] Other major producers are the Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. Relative sizes of an 860 kg block of gold ore and the 30 g of gold that can be extracted from it, Toi gold mine, Japan. In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina. Today about one-quarter of the world gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining.[98] The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest natural gold deposits in recorded history. The gold fields are confined to the northern and north-western edges of the Witwatersrand basin, which is a 5–7 km thick layer of archean rocks located, in most places, deep under the Free State, Gauteng and surrounding provinces.[99] These Witwatersrand rocks are exposed at the surface on the Witwatersrand, in and around Johannesburg, but also in isolated patches to the south-east and south-west of Johannesburg, as well as in an arc around the Vredefort Dome which lies close to the center of the Witwatersrand basin.[60][99] From these surface exposures the basin dips extensively, requiring some of the mining to occur at depths of nearly 4000 m, making them, especially the Savuka and TauTona mines to the south-west of Johannesburg, the deepest mines on earth. The gold is found only in six areas where archean rivers from the north and north-west formed extensive pebbly Braided river deltas before draining into the "Witwatersrand sea" where the rest of the Witwatersrand sediments were deposited.[99] The Second Boer War of 1899–1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa. During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered. The first documented discovery of gold in the United States was at the Reed Gold Mine near Georgeville, North Carolina in 1803.[100] The first major gold strike in the United States occurred in a small north Georgia town called Dahlonega.[101] Further gold rushes occurred in California, Colorado, the Black Hills, Otago in New Zealand, Australia, Witwatersrand in South Africa, and the Klondike in Canada. Extraction and refining Main article: Gold extraction Gold jewelry consumption by country in tonnes[102][103][104] Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 India 442.37 745.70 986.3 864 974 China 376.96 428.00 921.5 817.5 1120.1 United States 150.28 128.61 199.5 161 190 Turkey 75.16 74.07 143 118 175.2 Saudi Arabia 77.75 72.95 69.1 58.5 72.2 Russia 60.12 67.50 76.7 81.9 73.3 United Arab Emirates 67.60 63.37 60.9 58.1 77.1 Egypt 56.68 53.43 36 47.8 57.3 Indonesia 41.00 32.75 55 52.3 68 United Kingdom 31.75 27.35 22.6 21.1 23.4 Other Persian Gulf Countries 24.10 21.97 22 19.9 24.6 Japan 21.85 18.50 −30.1 7.6 21.3 South Korea 18.83 15.87 15.5 12.1 17.5 Vietnam 15.08 14.36 100.8 77 92.2 Thailand 7.33 6.28 107.4 80.9 140.1 Total 1466.86 1770.71 2786.12 2477.7 3126.1 Other Countries 251.6 254.0 390.4 393.5 450.7 World Total 1718.46 2024.71 3176.52 2871.2 3576.8 Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits. Ore grades as little as 0.5 parts per million (ppm) can be economical. Typical ore grades in open-pit mines are 1–5 ppm; ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 ppm. Because ore grades of 30 ppm are usually needed before gold is visible to the naked eye, in most gold mines the gold is invisible. The average gold mining and extraction costs were about $317 per troy ounce in 2007, but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality; global mine production amounted to 2,471.1 tonnes.[105] After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller process, that is chlorination in the melt. The Wohlwill process results in higher purity, but is more complex and is only applied in small-scale installations.[106][107] Other methods of assaying and purifying smaller amounts of gold include parting and inquartation as well as cupellation, or refining methods based on the dissolution of gold in aqua regia.[108] Consumption The consumption of gold produced in the world is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry.[9][109] According to World Gold Council, China is the world's largest single consumer of gold in 2013 and toppled India for the first time with Chinese consumption increasing by 32 percent in a year, while that of India only rose by 13 percent and world consumption rose by 21 percent. Unlike India where gold is mainly used for jewelry, China uses gold for manufacturing and retail.[110] Pollution Further information: Mercury cycle and International Cyanide Management Code Gold production is associated with contribution to hazardous pollution.[111][112] Low-grade gold ore may contain less than one ppm gold metal; such ore is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide to dissolve the gold. Cyanide is a highly poisonous chemical, which can kill living creatures when exposed in minute quantities. Many cyanide spills[113] from gold mines have occurred in both developed and developing countries which killed aquatic life in long stretches of affected rivers. Environmentalists consider these events major environmental disasters.[114][115] Thirty tons of used ore is dumped as waste for producing one troy ounce of gold.[116] Gold ore dumps are the source of many heavy elements such as cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury. When sulfide-bearing minerals in these ore dumps are exposed to air and water, the sulfide transforms into sulfuric acid which in turn dissolves these heavy metals facilitating their passage into surface water and ground water. This process is called acid mine drainage. These gold ore dumps are long term, highly hazardous wastes second only to nuclear waste dumps.[116] It was once common to use mercury to recover gold from ore, but today the use of mercury is largely limited to small-scale individual miners.[117] Minute quantities of mercury compounds can reach water bodies, causing heavy metal contamination. Mercury can then enter into the human food chain in the form of methylmercury. Mercury poisoning in humans causes incurable brain function damage and severe retardation. Gold extraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, extracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large quantity of ore for further chemical extraction requires nearly 25 kWh of electricity per gram of gold produced.[118] Monetary use Two golden 20 kr coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard. The coin to the left is Swedish and the right one is Danish. Gold has been widely used throughout the world as money,[119] for efficient indirect exchange (versus barter), and to store wealth in hoards. For exchange purposes, mints produce standardized gold bullion coins, bars and other units of fixed weight and purity. The first known coins containing gold were struck in Lydia, Asia Minor, around 600 BC.[82] The talent coin of gold in use during the periods of Grecian history both before and during the time of the life of Homer weighed between 8.42 and 8.75 grams.[120] From an earlier preference in using silver, European economies re-established the minting of gold as coinage during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.[121] Bills (that mature into gold coin) and gold certificates (convertible into gold coin at the issuing bank) added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most 19th century industrial economies. In preparation for World War I the warring nations moved to fractional gold standards, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. Post-war, the victorious countries, most notably Britain, gradually restored gold-convertibility, but international flows of gold via bills of exchange remained embargoed; international shipments were made exclusively for bilateral trades or to pay war reparations. After World War II gold was replaced by a system of nominally convertible currencies related by fixed exchange rates following the Bretton Woods system. Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, led in 1971 by the United States' refusal to redeem its dollars in gold. Fiat currency now fills most monetary roles. Switzerland was the last country to tie its currency to gold; it backed 40% of its value until the Swiss joined the International Monetary Fund in 1999.[122] Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and metals exchanges such as the London Bullion Market Association still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts. Today, gold mining output is declining.[123] With the sharp growth of economies in the 20th century, and increasing foreign exchange, the world's gold reserves and their trading market have become a small fraction of all markets and fixed exchange rates of currencies to gold have been replaced by floating prices for gold and gold future contract. Though the gold stock grows by only 1 or 2% per year, very little metal is irretrievably consumed. Inventory above ground would satisfy many decades of industrial and even artisan uses at current prices. The gold proportion (fineness) of alloys is measured by karat (k). Pure gold (commercially termed fine gold) is designated as 24 karat, abbreviated 24k. English gold coins intended for circulation from 1526 into the 1930s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold,[124] for hardness (American gold coins for circulation after 1837 contain an alloy of 0.900 fine gold, or 21.6 kt).[125] Although the prices of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies. Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was ridiculed by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware, and lavatory seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party. The ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU.[126] Many holders of gold store it in form of bullion coins or bars as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions, though its efficacy as such has been questioned; historically, it has not proven itself reliable as a hedging instrument.[127] Modern bullion coins for investment or collector purposes do not require good mechanical wear properties; they are typically fine gold at 24k, although the American Gold Eagle and the British gold sovereign continue to be minted in 22k (0.92) metal in historical tradition, and the South African Krugerrand, first released in 1967, is also 22k (0.92).[128] The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin, at 99.999% or 0.99999, while the popular issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin has a purity of 99.99%. In 2006, the United States Mint began producing the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of 99.99%. The Australian Gold Kangaroos were first coined in 1986 as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the reverse design in 1989. Other modern coins include the Austrian Vienna Philharmonic bullion coin and the Chinese Gold Panda. Price Further information: Gold as an investment Gold price history in 1960–2011 As of September 2017, gold is valued at around $42 per gram ($1,300 per troy ounce). Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. The proportion of gold in the alloy is measured by karat (k), with 24 karat (24k) being pure gold, and lower karat numbers proportionally less. The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness, such as 0.995 being nearly pure. The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark price to the industry. The afternoon fixing was introduced in 1968 to provide a price when US markets are open.[129] History Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion. In a monetary system known as the gold standard, a certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. For a long period, the United States government set the value of the US dollar so that one troy ounce was equal to $20.67 ($0.665 per gram), but in 1934 the dollar was devalued to $35.00 per troy ounce ($0.889/g). By 1961, it was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand.[130] On 17 March 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a two-tiered pricing scheme was established whereby gold was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00 per troy ounce ($1.13/g) but the price of gold on the private market was allowed to fluctuate; this two-tiered pricing system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of gold was left to find its free-market level.[citation needed]Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining.[citation needed] The largest gold depository in the world is that of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank in New York, which holds about 3%[131] of the gold known to exist and accounted for today, as does the similarly laden U.S. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox. In 2005 the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3,859 tonnes and demand to be 3,754 tonnes, giving a surplus of 105 tonnes.[132] After 15 August 1971 Nixon shock, the price began to greatly increase,[133] and between 1968 and 2000 the price of gold ranged widely, from a high of $850 per troy ounce ($27.33/g) on 21 January 1980, to a low of $252.90 per troy ounce ($8.13/g) on 21 June 1999 (London Gold Fixing).[134] Prices increased rapidly from 2001, but the 1980 high was not exceeded until 3 January 2008, when a new maximum of $865.35 per troy ounce was set.[135] Another record price was set on 17 March 2008, at $1023.50 per troy ounce ($32.91/g).[135] In late 2009, gold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar.[citation needed] On 2 December 2009, gold reached a new high closing at $1,217.23.[136] Gold further rallied hitting new highs in May 2010 after the European Union debt crisis prompted further purchase of gold as a safe asset.[137][138] On 1 March 2011, gold hit a new all-time high of $1432.57, based on investor concerns regarding ongoing unrest in North Africa as well as in the Middle East.[139] From April 2001 to August 2011, spot gold prices more than quintupled in value against the US dollar, hitting a new all-time high of $1,913.50 on 23 August 2011,[140] prompting speculation that the long secular bear market had ended and a bull market had returned.[141] However, the price then began a slow decline towards $1200 per troy ounce in late 2014 and 2015. Other applications Jewelry Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru. Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower karat rating, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy.[23] Nickel is toxic, and its release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe.[23] Palladium-gold alloys are more expensive than those using nickel.[142] High-karat white gold alloys are more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver. The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects. By 2014, the gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices. Demand in the first quarter of 2014 pushed turnover to $23.7 billion according to a World Gold Council report. Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, the gold solder alloy must match the fineness (purity) of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured to color-match yellow and white gold. Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints. Gold can also be made into thread and used in embroidery. Electronics Only 10% of the world consumption of new gold produced goes to industry,[9] but by far the most important industrial use for new gold is in fabrication of corrosion-free electrical connectors in computers and other electrical devices. For example, according to the World Gold Council, a typical cell phone may contain 50 mg of gold, worth about 50 cents. But since nearly one billion cell phones are produced each year, a gold value of 50 cents in each phone adds to $500 million in gold from just this application.[143] Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin-layer coating on electrical connectors, thereby ensuring good connection. For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables. The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications has been debated; gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost (certain computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines) remains very common.[144] Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity.[145] Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts. Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding. The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.91×1022 cm−3.[146] Gold is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high-energy applications (only silver and copper are more conductive per volume, but gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance). For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project's atomic experiments, but large high-current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project. It is estimated that 16% of the world's gold and 22% of the world's silver is contained in electronic technology in Japan.[147] Medicine Metallic and gold compounds have long been used for medicinal purposes. Gold, usually as the metal, is perhaps the most anciently administered medicine (apparently by shamanic practitioners)[148] and known to Dioscorides.[149][150] In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something so rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power. In the 19th century gold had a reputation as a "nervine", a therapy for nervous disorders. Depression, epilepsy, migraine, and glandular problems such as amenorrhea and impotence were treated, and most notably alcoholism (Keeley, 1897).[151] The apparent paradox of the actual toxicology of the substance suggests the possibility of serious gaps in the understanding of the action of gold in physiology.[152] Only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, since elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body (i.e., ingested gold cannot be attacked by stomach acid). Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and at present two are still used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions in the US (sodium aurothiomalate and auranofin). These drugs have been explored as a means to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis, and also (historically) against tuberculosis and some parasites.[153] Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges. The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others. Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions. Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces. Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells.[154] In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immunogold labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen.[155] Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.[156] The isotope gold-198 (half-life 2.7 days) is used in nuclear medicine, in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.[157][158] Cuisine Cake with gold decoration served at the Amstel Hotel, Amsterdam Gold can be used in food and has the E number 175.[159] In 2016, the European Food Safety Authority published an opinion on the re-evaluation of gold as a food additive. Concerns included the possible presence of minute amounts of gold nanoparticles in the food additive, and that gold nanoparticles have been shown to be genotoxic in mammalian cells in vitro.[160] Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.[161] Gold flake was used by the nobility in medieval Europe as a decoration in food and drinks,[162] in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health.[citation needed] Danziger Goldwasser (German: Gold water of Danzig) or Goldwasser (English: Goldwater) is a traditional German herbal liqueur[163] produced in what is today Gdańsk, Poland, and Schwabach, Germany, and contains flakes of gold leaf. There are also some expensive (c. $1000) cocktails which contain flakes of gold leaf. However, since metallic gold is inert to all body chemistry, it has no taste, it provides no nutrition, and it leaves the body unaltered.[164] Vark is a foil composed of a pure metal that is sometimes gold,[165] and is used for garnishing sweets in South Asian cuisine. Miscellanea Mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope coated in gold to reflect infrared light Gold produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in cranberry glass. In photography, gold toners are used to shift the color of silver bromide black-and-white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability. Used on sepia-toned prints, gold toners produce red tones. Kodak published formulas for several types of gold toners, which use gold as the chloride.[166] Gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light, as well as radio waves. It is used for the protective coatings on many artificial satellites, in infrared protective faceplates in thermal-protection suits and astronauts' helmets, and in electronic warfare planes such as the EA-6B Prowler. Gold is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs. Automobiles may use gold for heat shielding. McLaren uses gold foil in the engine compartment of its F1 model.[167] Gold can be manufactured so thin that it appears semi-transparent. It is used in some aircraft cockpit windows for de-icing or anti-icing by passing electricity through it. The heat produced by the resistance of the gold is enough to prevent ice from forming.[168] Gold is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, to form the salt gold cyanide—a technique that has been used in extracting metallic gold from ores in the cyanide process. Gold cyanide is the electrolyte used in commercial electroplating of gold onto base metals and electroforming. Gold chloride (chloroauric acid) solutions are used to make colloidal gold by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions. Gold chloride and gold oxide are used to make cranberry or red-colored glass, which, like colloidal gold suspensions, contains evenly sized spherical gold nanoparticles.[169] Gold, when dispersed in nanoparticles, can act as a heterogeneous catalyst of chemical reactions. Toxicity Pure metallic (elemental) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested[170] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.[171] Metallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser. Metallic gold is approved as a food additive in the EU (E175 in the Codex Alimentarius). Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body. Soluble compounds (gold salts) such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating, are toxic by virtue of both their cyanide and gold content. There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide.[172][173] Gold toxicity can be ameliorated with chelation therapy with an agent such as dimercaprol. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in 2001 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society; gold contact allergies affect mostly women.[174] Despite this, gold is a relatively non-potent contact allergen, in comparison with metals like nickel.[175] A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper iron and zinc. The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides.[176] See also Iron pyrite or "fool's gold" Bulk leach extractable gold Chrysiasis (dermatological condition) Commodity fetishism (Marxist economic theory) Digital gold currency GFMS consultancy Gold fingerprinting Gold phosphine complex Gold Prospectors Association of America List of countries by gold production Mining in Roman Britain Prospecting Tumbaga Iron pyrite References Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". 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Clinical Toxicology. 39 (7): 739–743. doi:10.1081/CLT-100108516. PMID 11778673. Tsuruta, Kyoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Suzuki, Rie; Akita, Hirotaka; Washimi, Yasuko; Tomitaka, Akiko; Ueda, Hiroshi (2001). "Female predominance of gold allergy". Contact Dermatitis. 44 (1): 48–49. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.440107-22.x. PMID 11156030. Brunk, Doug (15 February 2008). "Ubiquitous nickel wins skin contact allergy award for 2008". Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Singh, Harbhajan (2006). Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. p. 509. ISBN 978-0-470-05058-3. External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Gold Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gold. Look up gold in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Hart, Matthew, Gold: The Race for the World's Most Seductive Metal Gold : the race for the world's most seductive metal"], New York : Simon & Schuster, 2013. ISBN 9781451650020 "Gold" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). 1911. "Gold" . The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Gold www.rsc.org Gold at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) Getting Gold 1898 book, www.lateralscience.co.uk Technical Document on Extraction and Mining of Gold at the Wayback Machine (archived 7 March 2008), www.epa.g
  3. DISCUSS Discus throw From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Discus) Jump to navigation Jump to search "Discus thrower" and "Discus" redirect here. For the statue, see Discobolus. For other uses, see Discus (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Discus throw" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Athletics Discus throw German 2012 Olympic champion Robert Harting. Men's records World Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (1986) Olympic Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (2004) Women's records World Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (1988) Olympic Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (1988) The discus throw (pronunciation), also known as disc throw, is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-BC Myron statue Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC,[1] and is part of the modern decathlon.
  4. Dow? INVENTED TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OR RATHER, Invented the invention of technical Analysis It wasn't until much later that others came along with the really useless shite that you guys love so much Dow Breweries From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Dow Breweries was a brewery based in the province of Quebec, Canada. The company was founded by William Dow (1800–1868).[1] The Dow Brewery eventually came under the control of National Breweries of Quebec in the 1920s, which itself was bought out in 1952 by Canadian Breweries. After Canadian Breweries became Carling O'Keefe and merged with Molson Breweries, its brands were discontinued in 1997. Contents 1 History 2 See also 3 References 3.1 Bibliography History Dow had started as an apprentice at the Montreal brewery of Thomas Dunn, established in La Prairie in 1790. Dow eventually became a partner in Dunn's brewery and took over the company upon Dunn's death, establishing William Dow & Co., later known as Dow Breweries.[2] Dow Breweries was purchased in the 1920s by National Breweries of Quebec, which itself was acquired by Canadian Breweries (CBL) in 1952.[3] Under CBL ownership, it took over the Quebec City brewery of the Boswell Brewery (1843–1952).[4] CBL was one of the "Big Three" of Canadian brewing and Dow became a national brand. The Quebec City brewery stopped its activities on March 31, 1966, [5] and production of the Dow brands moved to other plants. At the urging of Board chair and academic Pierre Gendron, Dow Breweries supported the construction of the Montreal Planetarium, originally calling it "Dow Planetarium". It was completed in 1966 as one of many projects for the Canadian Centennial. In August 1965, a patient presented to a hospital in Quebec City with symptoms suggestive of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Over the next eight months, 50 more cases with similar findings appeared in the same area with 20 of these being fatal. It was noted that all patients were heavy drinkers who mostly drank beer and preferred the Dow brand, 30 out of those consuming more than six litres (12 pints) of beer per day.[6] Epidemiological studies found that Dow had been adding cobalt sulfate to the beer for foam stability since July 1965 and that the concentration added in the Quebec city brewery was 10 times that of the same beer brewed in Montreal where there were no reported cases.[7][8] Although Dow denied any responsibility, the Dow Brewery in Quebec City temporarily shut down and the remaining beer was dumped into the Saint Lawrence River. At the time of the incident, Dow Ale was the number one selling beer in Quebec; however, as a result of the "tainted beer scandal" sales of the brand soon dropped dramatically never to recover.[9] Canadian Breweries became Carling O'Keefe in 1973, which eventually merged with the Molson Brewery in 1989. The Dow brands were discontinued in the spring of 1997. Brands brewed by Dow included Dow Ale, Kingsbeer Lager and Black Horse Ale. The Molson Black Horse Ale sold today in Newfoundland is a different product. See also William Dow List of microbreweries References Daniel Coulombe; Sara Richard. "Le Mythe de la bière Dow". BièreMag Online (in French). Coutts 2010, p. 22. Heron 2003, p. 305. "The History of Beer in Quebec City". L'Inox Maîtres Brasseurs. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2009-10-22. Closing of activities of Dow Breweries, March 1966 (French) Y. L. Morin; A. R. Foley; G. Martineau; J. Roussel (1967). "Quebec beer-drinkers' cardiomyopathy: forty-eight cases". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 97: 881–883. PMC 1923396. PMID 6051256. Morin Y, Tětu A, Mercier G (1969). "Quebec beer-drinkers' cardiomyopathy: Clinical and hemodynamic aspects]". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 156: 566–576. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1969.tb16751.x. PMID 5291148. "How Quebec beer and TV's Dr. House solved a medical mystery". CBC News. February 6, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014. Sneath 2001. Bibliography Coutts, Ian (2010). Brew North: How Canadians Made Beer and Beer Made Canada. Vancouver: Greystone Books. ISBN 9781553654674. Heron, Craig (2003). Booze: a distilled history. Between The Lines. ISBN 9781896357836. Sneath, Allen Winn (2001). Brewed in Canada: The Untold Story of Canada's 350-Year-Old Brewing Industry. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 1550023640. Categories: Defunct breweries of Canada Companies based in Montreal Cuisine of Quebec
  5. Livermore? One of the greatwst traders of all time Liver From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Liver (disambiguation). Liver The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen Location of human liver (in red) Details Precursor Foregut System Digestive system Artery Hepatic artery Vein Hepatic vein and hepatic portal vein Nerve Celiac ganglia and vagus nerve[1] Identifiers Latin Jecur, iecur Greek Hepar (ἧπαρ) root hepat- (ἡπατ-) MeSH D008099 TA A05.8.01.001 FMA 7197 Anatomical terminology [edit on Wikidata] The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, a fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, and an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids. The gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver which is afterwards moved to the small intestine to complete digestion.[5] The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions.[6] Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks generally cite it being around 500.[7] Terminology related to the liver often starts in hepat- from ἡπατο-, from the Greek word for liver.[8] It is not yet known how to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers are yet to be developed to promote long-term replacement in the absence of the liver. As of 2018,[9]liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure. Contents 1 Structure 1.1 Gross anatomy 1.1.1 Lobes 1.1.2 Surfaces 1.1.3 Impressions 1.2 Microscopic anatomy 1.3 Functional anatomy 1.4 Couinaud classification system 1.5 Gene and protein expression 2 Development 2.1 Fetal blood supply 3 Functions 3.1 Blood supply 3.2 Biliary flow 3.3 Synthesis 3.4 Breakdown 3.5 Blood reservoir 3.6 Lymph production 3.7 Other 3.8 With aging 4 Clinical significance 4.1 Disease 4.2 Symptoms 4.3 Diagnosis 4.4 Liver regeneration 4.5 Liver transplantation 5 Society and culture 5.1 Food 5.2 Possible Psychoactivity of Giraffe Liver 5.3 Arrow / Bullet Poison 6 Other animals 7 References 7.1 Works cited 8 External links Structure The liver is a reddish-brown, wedge-shaped organ with four lobes of unequal size and shape. A human liver normally weighs approximately 1.5 kg (3.3 lb),[10] and has a width of about 15 cm (6 in).[11] There is also considerable size variation between individuals, with the standard reference range for men being 970–1,860 g (2.14–4.10 lb)[12] and for women 600–1,770 g (1.32–3.90 lb).[13] It is both the heaviest internal organ and the largest gland in the human body. Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm, to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder.[5] The liver is connected to two large blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein and common hepatic duct. The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta via the celiac plexus, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and also from the spleen and pancreas.[9] These blood vessels subdivide into small capillaries known as liver sinusoids, which then lead to lobules. Lobules are the functional units of the liver. Each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells (hepatocytes), which are the basic metabolic cells. The lobules are held together by a fine, dense, irregular, fibroelastic connective tissue layer extending from the fibrous capsule covering the entire liver known as Glisson's capsule.[4] This extends into the structure of the liver, by accompanying the blood vessels (veins and arteries), ducts, and nerves at the hepatic hilum. The whole surface of the liver except for the bare area, is covered in a serous coat derived from the peritoneum, and this firmly adheres to the inner Glisson's capsule. Gross anatomy Lobes Further information: Lobes of liver The liver, viewed from above, showing the left and right lobes separated by the falciform ligament The liver, viewed from below, surface showing four lobes and the impressions The liver is grossly divided into two parts when viewed from above – a right and a left lobe - and four parts when viewed from below (left, right, caudate, and quadrate lobes).[14] The falciform ligament divides the liver into a left and right lobe. From below, the two additional lobes are located between the right and left lobes, one in front of the other. A line can be imagined running from the left of the vena cava and all the way forward to divide the liver and gallbladder into two halves.[15] This line is called "Cantlie's line".[16] Other anatomical landmarks include the ligamentum venosum and the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres), which further divide the left side of the liver in two sections. An important anatomical landmark, the porta hepatis, divides this left portion into four segments, which can be numbered starting at the caudate lobe as I in an anticlockwise manner. From this parietal view, seven segments can be seen, because the eighth segment is only visible in the visceral view.[17] Surfaces On the diaphragmatic surface, apart from a triangular bare area where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered by a thin, double-layered membrane, the peritoneum, that helps to reduce friction against other organs.[18] This surface covers the convex shape of the two lobes where it accommodates the shape of the diaphragm. The peritoneum folds back on itself to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments.[19] These peritoneal ligaments are not related to the anatomic ligaments in joints, and the right and left triangular ligaments have no known functional importance, though they serve as surface landmarks.[19] The falciform ligament functions to attach the liver to the posterior portion of the anterior body wall. The visceral surface or inferior surface is uneven and concave. It is covered in peritoneum apart from where it attaches the gallbladder and the porta hepatis.[18] The fossa of gall bladder lies to the right of the quadrate lobe, occupied by the gallbladder with its cystic duct close to the right end of porta hepatis. Impressions Impressions of the liver Several impressions on the surface of the liver accommodate the various adjacent structures and organs. Underneath the right lobe and to the right of the gallbladder fossa are two impressions, one behind the other and separated by a ridge. The one in front is a shallow colic impression, formed by the hepatic flexure and the one behind is a deeper renal impression accommodating part of the right kidney and part of the suprarenal gland.[20] The suprarenal impression is a small, triangular, depressed area on the liver. It is located close to the right of the fossa, between the bare area and the caudate lobe, and immediately above the renal impression. The greater part of the suprarenal impression is devoid of peritoneum and it lodges the right suprarenal gland.[21] Medial to the renal impression is a third and slightly marked impression, lying between it and the neck of the gall bladder. This is caused by the descending portion of the duodenum, and is known as the duodenal impression.[21] The inferior surface of the left lobe of the liver presents behind and to the left of the gastric impression.[21] This is moulded over the upper front surface of the stomach, and to the right of this is a rounded eminence, the tuber omentale, which fits into the concavity of the lesser curvature of the stomach and lies in front of the anterior layer of the lesser omentum. Microscopic anatomy Cells, ducts, and blood vessels Microscopic anatomy of the liver Types of capillaries–sinusoid on right Microscopically, each liver lobe is seen to be made up of hepatic lobules. The lobules are roughly hexagonal and consist of plates of hepatocytes radiating from a central vein.[22][page needed]The central vein joins to the hepatic vein to carry blood out from the liver. A distinctive component of a lobule is the portal triad, which can be found running along each of the lobule's corners. The portal triad, misleadingly named, consists of five structures: a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a bile duct, as well as lymphatic vessels and a branch of the vagus nerve.[23] Between the hepatocyte plates are liver sinusoids, which are enlarged capillaries through which blood from the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery enters via the portal triads, then drains to the central vein.[22][page needed] Histology, the study of microscopic anatomy, shows two major types of liver cell: parenchymal cells and nonparenchymal cells. About 70–85% of the liver volume is occupied by parenchymal hepatocytes. Nonparenchymal cells constitute 40% of the total number of liver cells but only 6.5% of its volume.[24] The liver sinusoids are lined with two types of cell, sinusoidal endothelial cells, and phagocytic Kupffer cells.[25]Hepatic stellate cells are nonparenchymal cells found in the perisinusoidal space, between a sinusoid and a hepatocyte.[24] Additionally, intrahepatic lymphocytes are often present in the sinusoidal lumen.[24] Functional anatomy Hilum of the liver, circled in yellow The central area or hepatic hilum, includes the opening known as the porta hepatis which carries the common bile duct and common hepatic artery, and the opening for the portal vein. The duct, vein, and artery divide into left and right branches and the areas of the liver supplied by these branches constitute the functional left and right lobes. The functional lobes are separated by the imaginary plane, Cantlie's line, joining the gallbladder fossa to the inferior vena cava. The plane separates the liver into the true right and left lobes. The middle hepatic vein also demarcates the true right and left lobes. The right lobe is further divided into an anterior and posterior segment by the right hepatic vein. The left lobe is divided into the medial and lateral segments by the left hepatic vein. The hilum of the liver is described in terms of three plates that contain the bile ducts and blood vessels. The contents of the whole plate system are surrounded by a sheath.[26] The three plates are the hilar plate, the cystic plate and the umbilical plate and the plate system is the site of the many anatomical variations to be found in the liver.[26] Couinaud classification system Main article: Liver segment Shape of human liver in animation, with eight Couinaud segments labelled In the widely used Couinaud system, the functional lobes are further divided into a total of eight subsegments based on a transverse plane through the bifurcation of the main portal vein.[27] The caudate lobe is a separate structure that receives blood flow from both the right- and left-sided vascular branches.[28][29] The Couinaud classification of liver anatomy divides the liver into eight functionally independent liver segments. Each segment has its own vascular inflow, outflow and biliary drainage. In the centre of each segment are branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct. In the periphery of each segment is vascular outflow through the hepatic veins.[30] The classification system uses the vascular supply in the liver to separate the functional units (numbered I to VIII) with unit 1, the caudate lobe, receiving its supply from both the right and the left branches of the portal vein. It contains one or more hepatic veins which drain directly into the inferior vena cava.[27] The remainder of the units (II to VIII) are numbered in a clockwise fashion:[30] Gene and protein expression Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 60% of these genes are expressed in a normal, adult liver.[31][32] Over 400 genes are more specifically expressed in the liver, with some 150 genes highly specific for liver tissue. A large fraction of the corresponding liver specific proteins are mainly expressed in hepatocytes and secreted into the blood and constitute plasma proteins. Other liver specific proteins are certain liver enzymes such as HAO1 and RDH16, proteins involved in bile synthesis such as BAAT and SLC27A5, and transporter proteins involved in the metabolism of drugs, such as ABCB11 and SLC2A2. Examples of highly liver-specific proteins include apolipoprotein A II, coagulation factors F2 and F9, complement factor related proteins, and the fibrinogen beta chain protein.[33] Development Organogenesis, the development of the organs takes place from the third to the eighth week during embryogenesis. The origins of the liver lie in both the ventral portion of the foregut endoderm (endoderm being one of the three embryonic germ layers) and the constituents of the adjacent septum transversum mesenchyme. In the human embryo, the hepatic diverticulum is the tube of endoderm that extends out from the foregut into the surrounding mesenchyme. The mesenchyme of septum transversum induces this endoderm to proliferate, to branch, and to form the glandular epithelium of the liver. A portion of the hepatic diverticulum (that region closest to the digestive tube) continues to function as the drainage duct of the liver, and a branch from this duct produces the gallbladder.[34] Besides signals from the septum transversum mesenchyme, fibroblast growth factor from the developing heart also contributes to hepatic competence, along with retinoic acid emanating from the lateral plate mesoderm. The hepatic endodermal cells undergo a morphological transition from columnar to pseudostratified resulting in thickening into the early liver bud. Their expansion forms a population of the bipotential hepatoblasts.[35]Hepatic stellate cells are derived from mesenchyme.[36] After migration of hepatoblasts into the septum transversum mesenchyme, the hepatic architecture begins to be established, with liver sinusoids and bile canaliculi appearing. The liver bud separates into the lobes. The left umbilical vein becomes the ductus venosus and the right vitelline vein becomes the portal vein. The expanding liver bud is colonized by hematopoietic cells. The bipotential hepatoblasts begin differentiating into biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The biliary epithelial cells differentiate from hepatoblasts around portal veins, first producing a monolayer, and then a bilayer of cuboidal cells. In ductal plate, focal dilations emerge at points in the bilayer, become surrounded by portal mesenchyme, and undergo tubulogenesis into intrahepatic bile ducts. Hepatoblasts not adjacent to portal veins instead differentiate into hepatocytes and arrange into cords lined by sinudoidal epithelial cells and bile canaliculi. Once hepatoblasts are specified into hepatocytes and undergo further expansion, they begin acquiring the functions of a mature hepatocyte, and eventually mature hepatocytes appear as highly polarized epithelial cells with abundant glycogen accumulation. In the adult liver, hepatocytes are not equivalent, with position along the portocentrovenular axis within a liver lobule dictating expression of metabolic genes involved in drug metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, ammonia detoxification, and bile production and secretion. WNT/β-catenin has now been identified to be playing a key role in this phenomenon.[35] At birth, the liver comprises roughly 4% of body weight and weighs on average about 120 g (4 oz). Over the course of further development, it will increase to 1.4–1.6 kg (3.1–3.5 lb) but will only take up 2.5–3.5% of body weight.[37] Fetal blood supply In the growing fetus, a major source of blood to the liver is the umbilical vein, which supplies nutrients to the growing fetus. The umbilical vein enters the abdomen at the umbilicus and passes upward along the free margin of the falciform ligament of the liver to the inferior surface of the liver. There, it joins with the left branch of the portal vein. The ductus venosus carries blood from the left portal vein to the left hepatic vein and then to the inferior vena cava, allowing placental blood to bypass the liver. In the fetus, the liver does not perform the normal digestive processes and filtration of the infant liver because nutrients are received directly from the mother via the placenta. The fetal liver releases some blood stem cells that migrate to the fetal thymus, creating the T-cells or T-lymphocytes. After birth, the formation of blood stem cells shifts to the red bone marrow. After 2–5 days, the umbilical vein and ductus venosus are completely obliterated; the former becomes the round ligament of liver and the latter becomes the ligamentum venosum. In the disorders of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, the umbilical vein can open up again. Functions The various functions of the liver are carried out by the liver cells or hepatocytes. The liver is thought to be responsible for up to 500 separate functions, usually in combination with other systems and organs. Currently, no artificial organ or device is capable of reproducing all the functions of the liver. Some functions can be carried out by liver dialysis, an experimental treatment for liver failure. The liver also accounts for about 20% of resting total body oxygen consumption. Blood supply Liver veins The liver receives a dual blood supply from the hepatic portal vein and hepatic arteries. The hepatic portal vein delivers around 75% of the liver's blood supply and carries venous blood drained from the spleen, gastrointestinal tract, and its associated organs. The hepatic arteries supply arterial blood to the liver, accounting for the remaining quarter of its blood flow. Oxygen is provided from both sources; about half of the liver's oxygen demand is met by the hepatic portal vein, and half is met by the hepatic arteries.[38] The hepatic artery also has both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors; therefore, flow through the artery is controlled, in part, by the splanchnic nerves of the autonomic nervous system. Blood flows through the liver sinusoids and empties into the central vein of each lobule. The central veins coalesce into hepatic veins, which leave the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava.[23] Biliary flow Main article: Enterohepatic circulation Biliary tract The biliary tract is derived from the branches of the bile ducts. The biliary tract, also known as the biliary tree, is the path by which bile is secreted by the liver then transported to the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, small grooves between the faces of adjacent hepatocytes. The canaliculi radiate to the edge of the liver lobule, where they merge to form bile ducts. Within the liver, these ducts are termed intrahepatic bile ducts, and once they exit the liver, they are considered extrahepatic. The intrahepatic ducts eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which exit the liver at the transverse fissure, and merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.[23] The biliary system and connective tissue is supplied by the hepatic artery alone Bile either drains directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct, or is temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the second part of the duodenum together at the hepatopancreatic ampulla, also known as the ampulla of Vater. Synthesis Further information: Proteins produced and secreted by the liver The liver plays a major role in carbohydrate, protein, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism: The liver synthesizes and stores around 100 g of glycogen via glycogenesis, the formation of glycogen from glucose. When needed, the liver releases glucose into the blood by performing glycogenolysis, the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.[39] The liver is also responsible for gluconeogenesis, which is the synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids, lactate, or glycerol. Adipose and liver cells produce glycerol by breakdown of fat, which the liver uses for gluconeogenesis.[39] The liver is responsible for the mainstay of protein metabolism, synthesis as well as degradation. It is also responsible for a large part of amino acid synthesis. The liver plays a role in the production of clotting factors, as well as red blood cell production. Some of the proteins synthesized by the liver include coagulation factors I (fibrinogen), II (prothrombin), V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, as well as protein C, protein S and antithrombin. In the first trimester fetus, the liver is the main site of red blood cell production. By the 32nd week of gestation, the bone marrow has almost completely taken over that task. The liver is a major site of production for thrombopoietin, a glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets by the bone marrow.[40] The liver plays several roles in lipid metabolism: it performs cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and the production of triglycerides, and a bulk of the body's lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. The liver plays a key role in digestion, as it produces and excretes bile (a yellowish liquid) required for emulsifying fats and help the absorption of vitamin K from the diet. Some of the bile drains directly into the duodenum, and some are stored in the gallbladder. The liver also produces insulin-like growth factor 1, a polypeptide protein hormone that plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. Breakdown The liver is responsible for the breakdown of insulin and other hormones. The liver breaks down bilirubin via glucuronidation, facilitating its excretion into bile. The liver is responsible for the breakdown and excretion of many waste products. It plays a key role in breaking down or modifying toxic substances (e.g., methylation) and most medicinal products in a process called drug metabolism. This sometimes results in toxication, when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor. Preferably, the toxins are conjugated to avail excretion in bile or urine. The liver converts ammonia into urea as part of the urea cycle, and the urea is excreted in the urine.[22] Blood reservoir This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Liver" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Because the liver is an expandable organ, large quantities of blood can be stored in its blood vessels. Its normal blood volume, including both that in the hepatic veins and that in the hepatic sinuses, is about 450 millilitres, or almost 10 per cent of the body’s total blood volume. When high pressure in the right atrium causes back pressure in the liver, the liver expands, and 0.5 to 1 litres of extra blood is occasionally stored in the hepatic veins and sinuses. This occurs especially in cardiac failure with peripheral congestion. Thus, in effect, the liver is a large, expandable, venous organ capable of acting as a valuable blood reservoir in times of excess blood volume and capable of supplying extra blood in times of diminished blood volume Lymph production Because the pores in the hepatic sinusoids are very permeable and allow ready passage of both fluid and proteins into the spaces of Disse, the lymph draining from the liver usually has a protein concentration of about 6 g/dl, which is only slightly less than the protein concentration of plasma. Also, the high permeability of the liver sinusoid epithelium allows large quantities of lymph to form. Therefore, about half of all the lymph formed in the body under resting conditions arises in the liver. Other The liver stores a multitude of substances, including glucose (in the form of glycogen), vitamin A (1–2 years' supply), vitamin D (1–4 months' supply)[citation needed], vitamin B12 (3–5 years' supply),[41]vitamin K, iron, and copper. The liver is responsible for immunological effects – the mononuclear phagocyte system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells, acting as a 'sieve' for antigens carried to it via the portal system. The liver produces albumin, the most abundant protein in blood serum. It is essential in the maintenance of oncotic pressure, and acts as a transport for fatty acids and steroid hormones. The liver synthesizes angiotensinogen, a hormone that is responsible for raising the blood pressure when activated by renin, an enzyme that is released when the kidney senses low blood pressure. The liver produces the enzyme catalase in order to break down hydrogen peroxide, a very toxic substance due to it being a powerful oxidising agent, into water and oxygen. With aging The oxidative capacity of the liver decreases with ageing and therefore any medications that require oxidation (for instance, benzodiazepines) are more likely to accumulate to toxic levels. However, medications with shorter half-lives, such as lorazepam and oxazepam, are preferred in most cases when benzodiazepines are required in regard to geriatric medicine. Clinical significance Disease Main article: Liver disease Left lobe liver tumor The liver is a vital organ and supports almost every other organ in the body. Because of its strategic location and multidimensional functions, the liver is also prone to many diseases.[42] The bare area of the liver is a site that is vulnerable to the passing of infection from the abdominal cavity to the thoracic cavity. Hepatitis is a common condition of inflammation of the liver. The most usual cause of this is viral, and the most common of these infections are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Some of these infections are sexually transmitted. Inflammation can also be caused by other viruses in the family Herpesviridae such as the herpes simplex virus. Chronic (rather than acute) infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the main cause of liver cancer.[43] Globally, about 248 million individuals are chronically infected with HBV (with 843,724 in the U.S.)[44] and 142 million are chronically infected with HCV[45] (with 2.7 million in the U.S.[46]). Globally there are about 114 million and 20 million cases of hepatitis A[45] and hepatitis E[47] respectively, but these generally resolve, and do not become chronic. Hepatitis D virus is a "satellite" of hepatitis B virus (can only infect in the presence of hepatitis B), and co-infects nearly 20 million people with hepatitis B, globally.[48] Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by an accumulation of toxins in the bloodstream that are normally removed by the liver. This condition can result in coma and can prove fatal. Other disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption are grouped under alcoholic liver diseases and these include alcoholic hepatitis, fatty liver, and cirrhosis. Factors contributing to the development of alcoholic liver diseases are not only the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, but can also include gender, genetics, and liver insult. Liver damage can also be caused by drugs, particularly paracetamol and drugs used to treat cancer. A rupture of the liver can be caused by a liver shot used in combat sports. Budd–Chiari syndrome is a condition caused by blockage of the hepatic veins (including thrombosis) that drain the liver. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and liver enlargement.[49] Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune disease of the liver.[50][51] It is marked by slow progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts (Canals of Hering) affected early in the disease.[52] When these ducts are damaged, bile and other toxins build up in the liver (cholestasis) and over time damages the liver tissue in combination with ongoing immune related damage. This can lead to scarring (fibrosis) and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis increases the resistance to blood flow in the liver, and can result in portal hypertension. Congested anastomoses between the portal venous system and the systemic circulation, can be a subsequent condition. Many diseases of the liver are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the haemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile. There are also many pediatric liver diseases, including biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, alagille syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and hepatic hemangioma a benign tumour the most common type of liver tumour, thought to be congenital. A genetic disorder causing multiple cysts to form in the liver tissue, usually in later life, and usually asymptomatic, is polycystic liver disease. Diseases that interfere with liver function will lead to derangement of these processes. However, the liver has a great capacity to regenerate and has a large reserve capacity. In most cases, the liver only produces symptoms after extensive damage. Hepatomegaly refers to an enlarged liver and can be due to many causes. It can be palpated in a liver span measurement. Liver diseases may be diagnosed by liver function tests–blood tests that can identify various markers. For example, acute-phase reactants are produced by the liver in response to injury or inflammation. Symptoms The classic symptoms of liver damage include the following: Pale stools occur when stercobilin, a brown pigment, is absent from the stool. Stercobilin is derived from bilirubin metabolites produced in the liver. Dark urine occurs when bilirubin mixes with urine Jaundice (yellow skin and/or whites of the eyes) This is where bilirubin deposits in skin, causing an intense itch. Itching is the most common complaint by people who have liver failure. Often this itch cannot be relieved by drugs. Swelling of the abdomen, and swelling of the ankles and feet occurs because the liver fails to make albumin. Excessive fatigue occurs from a generalized loss of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Bruising and easy bleeding are other features of liver disease. The liver makes clotting factors, substances which help prevent bleeding. When liver damage occurs, these factors are no longer present and severe bleeding can occur.[53] Pain in the upper right quadrant can result from the stretching of Glisson's capsule in conditions of hepatitis and pre-eclampsia. Diagnosis The diagnosis of liver disease is made by liver function tests, groups of blood tests, that can readily show the extent of liver damage. If infection is suspected, then other serological tests will be carried out. A physical examination of the liver can only reveal its size and any tenderness, and some form of imaging such as an ultrasound or CT scan may also be needed.[54] Sometimes a liver biopsy will be necessary, and a tissue sample is taken through a needle inserted into the skin just below the rib cage. This procedure may be helped by a sonographer providing ultrasound guidance to an interventional radiologist.[55] Axial CT image showing anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the subcapsular anterior surface of the liver.[56] Maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT image as viewed anteriorly showing the anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the anterior surface of the liver Lateral MIP view in the same patient A CT scan in which the liver and portal vein are shown. Liver regeneration Main article: Liver regeneration The liver is the only human internal organ capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue; as little as 25% of a liver can regenerate into a whole liver.[57] This is, however, not true regeneration but rather compensatory growth in mammals.[58] The lobes that are removed do not regrow and the growth of the liver is a restoration of function, not original form. This contrasts with true regeneration where both original function and form are restored. In some other species, such as zebrafish, the liver undergoes true regeneration by restoring both shape and size of the organ.[59] In the liver, large areas of the tissues are formed but for the formation of new cells there must be sufficient amount of material so the circulation of the blood becomes more active.[60] This is predominantly due to the hepatocytes re-entering the cell cycle. That is, the hepatocytes go from the quiescent G0 phase to the G1 phase and undergo mitosis. This process is activated by the p75 receptors.[61] There is also some evidence of bipotential stem cells, called hepatic oval cells or ovalocytes (not to be confused with oval red blood cells of ovalocytosis), which are thought to reside in the canals of Hering. These cells can differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Cholangiocytes are the epithelial lining cells of the bile ducts.[62] They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts. Research is being carried out on the use of stem cells for the generation of an artificial liver. Scientific and medical works about liver regeneration often refer to the Greek Titan Prometheus who was chained to a rock in the Caucasus where, each day, his liver was devoured by an eagle, only to grow back each night. The myth suggests the ancient Greeks may have known about the liver’s remarkable capacity for self-repair.[63] Liver transplantation Main article: Liver transplantation Human liver transplants were first performed by Thomas Starzl in the United States and Roy Calne in Cambridge, England in 1963 and 1967, respectively. After resection of left lobe liver tumor Liver transplantation is the only option for those with irreversible liver failure. Most transplants are done for chronic liver diseases leading to cirrhosis, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholism, and autoimmune hepatitis. Less commonly, liver transplantation is done for fulminant hepatic failure, in which liver failure occurs over days to weeks. Liver allografts for transplant usually come from donors who have died from fatal brain injury. Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed (hepatectomy) and used to replace the entire liver of the recipient. This was first performed in 1989 for pediatric liver transplantation. Only 20 percent of an adult's liver (Couinaud segments 2 and 3) is needed to serve as a liver allograft for an infant or small child. More recently,[when?] adult-to-adult liver transplantation has been done using the donor's right hepatic lobe, which amounts to 60 percent of the liver. Due to the ability of the liver to regenerate, both the donor and recipient end up with normal liver function if all goes well. This procedure is more controversial, as it entails performing a much larger operation on the donor, and indeed there were at least two donor deaths out of the first several hundred cases. A 2006 publication addressed the problem of donor mortality and found at least fourteen cases.[64] The risk of postoperative complications (and death) is far greater in right-sided operations than that in left-sided operations. With the recent advances of noninvasive imaging, living liver donors usually have to undergo imaging examinations for liver anatomy to decide if the anatomy is feasible for donation. The evaluation is usually performed by multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MDCT is good in vascular anatomy and volumetry. MRI is used for biliary tree anatomy. Donors with very unusual vascular anatomy, which makes them unsuitable for donation, could be screened out to avoid unnecessary operations. MDCT image. Arterial anatomy contraindicated for liver donation MDCT image. Portal venous anatomy contraindicated for liver donation MDCT image. 3D image created by MDCT can clearly visualize the liver, measure the liver volume, and plan the dissection plane to facilitate the liver transplantation procedure. Phase contrast CT image. Contrast is perfusing the right liver but not the left due to a left portal vein thrombus. Society and culture Some cultures regard the liver as the seat of the soul.[65] In Greek mythology, the gods punished Prometheus for revealing fire to humans by chaining him to a rock where a vulture (or an eagle) would peck out his liver, which would regenerate overnight. (The liver is the only human internal organ that actually can regenerate itself to a significant extent.) Many ancient peoples of the Near East and Mediterranean areas practisced a type of divination called haruspicy or hepatomancy, where they tried to obtain information by examining the livers of sheep and other animals. In Plato, and in later physiology, the liver was thought to be the seat of the darkest emotions (specifically wrath, jealousy and greed) which drive men to action.[66] The Talmud (tractate Berakhot 61b) refers to the liver as the seat of anger, with the gallbladder counteracting this. The Persian, Urdu, and Hindi languages (جگر or जिगर or jigar) refer to the liver figurative speech to indicate courage and strong feelings, or "their best"; e.g., "This Mecca has thrown to you the pieces of its liver!".[67] The term jan e jigar, literally "the strength (power) of my liver", is a term of endearment in Urdu. In Persian slang, jigar is used as an adjective for any object which is desirable, especially women. In the Zulu language, the word for liver (isibindi) is the same as the word for courage. Food Main article: Liver (food) Humans commonly eat the livers of mammals, fowl, and fish as food. Domestic pig, ox, lamb, calf, chicken, and goose livers are widely available from butchers and supermarkets. In the Romance languages, the anatomical word for "liver" (French foie, Spanish hígado, etc.) derives not from the Latin anatomical term, jecur, but from the culinary term ficatum, literally "stuffed with figs," referring to the livers of geese that had been fattened on figs.[68] Liver can be baked, boiled, broiled, fried, stir-fried, or eaten raw (asbeh nayeh or sawda naye in Lebanese cuisine, or liver sashimi in Japanese cuisine). In many preparations, pieces of liver are combined with pieces of meat or kidneys, as in the various forms of Middle Eastern mixed grill (e.g. meurav Yerushalmi). Well-known examples include liver pâté, foie gras, chopped liver, and leverpastej. Liver sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst are also a valued meal. Liver sausages may also be used as spreads. A traditional South African delicacy, skilpadjies, is made of minced lamb's liver wrapped in netvet (caul fat), and grilled over an open fire. Animal livers are rich in iron, vitamin A and vitamin B12; and cod liver oil is commonly used as a dietary supplement. Traditionally, some fish livers were valued as food, especially the stingray liver. It was used to prepare delicacies, such as poached skate liver on toast in England, as well as the beignets de foie de raie and foie de raie en croute in French cuisine.[69] Possible Psychoactivity of Giraffe Liver 19th century drinking scene in Kordofan, home to the Humr tribe, imbibers of a drink prepared from giraffe liver. Plate from Le Désert et le Soudan by Stanislas d'Escayrac de Lauture The Humr, one of the tribes in the Baggara ethnic grouping, native to southwestern Kordofan in Sudan and speakers of Shuwa or Chadian Arabic, prepare a ( non-alcoholic ) drink from the liver and bone marrow of the giraffe which they call umm nyolokh, and which they claim is intoxicating ( Arabic سكران sakran ), causing dreams and even waking hallucinations.[70] Anthropologist Ian Cunnison, who accompanied the Humr on one of their giraffe-hunting expeditions in the late 1950s, notes that: It is said that a person, once he has drunk umm nyolokh, will return to giraffe again and again. Humr, being Mahdists, are strict abstainers [ from alcohol ] and a Humrawi is never drunk ( sakran ) on liquor or beer. But he uses this word to describe the effects which umm nyolokh has upon him.[71] Cunnison's remarkable account of an apparently psychoactive mammal found its way from a somewhat obscure scientific paper into more mainstream literature through a conversation between Dr. Wendy James of the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Oxford and specialist on the use of hallucinogens and intoxicants in society Richard Rudgley, who considered its implications in his popular work The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances. Rudgley hypothesises that the presence of the hallucinogenic compound DMT might account for the putative intoxicating properties of umm nyolokh.[70] Cunnison himself, on the other hand, had found it hard fully to believe in the literal truth of the Humr's assertion that their drink was intoxicating: I can only assume that there is no intoxicating substance in the drink and that the effect it produces is simply a matter of convention, although it may be brought about subconsciously.[71] The study of entheogens in general - including entheogens of animal origin ( e.g. hallucinogenic fish and toad venom ) - has, however, made considerable progress in the sixty-odd years since Cunnison's report and the idea that some intoxicating principle might reside in giraffe liver no longer seems as far-fetched as it was in Cunnison's day, although conclusive proof ( or disproof ) will have to await detailed analyses of the animal organ in question and the drink prepared therefrom.[70] Arrow / Bullet Poison S. M. Shirokogoroff, who, in 1935, noted the use of a liver-based arrow poison by the Tungusic Kumarčen people. Certain Tungusic peoples formerly prepared a type of arrow poison from rotting animal livers, which was, in later times, also applied to bullets. Russian anthropologist Sergei Mikhailovich Shirokogorov, revered as one of the greatest scholars of Tungusic studies,[citation needed] notes that : Formerly the using of poisoned arrows was common. For instance, among the Kumarčen, [ a subgroup of the Oroqen ] even in recent times a poison was used which was prepared from decaying liver. * ( Note ) This has been confirmed by the Kumarčen. I am not competent to judge as to the chemical conditions of production of poison which is not destroyed by the heat of explosion. However, the Tungus themselves compare this method [ of poisoning ammunition ] with the poisoning of arrows.[72] Other animals Sheep's liver The liver is found in all vertebrates, and is typically the largest visceral (internal) organ. Its form varies considerably in different species, and is largely determined by the shape and arrangement of the surrounding organs. Nonetheless, in most species it is divided into right and left lobes; exceptions to this general rule include snakes, where the shape of the body necessitates a simple cigar-like form. The internal structure of the liver is broadly similar in all vertebrates.[73] An organ sometimes referred to as a liver is found associated with the digestive tract of the primitive chordate Amphioxus. 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"The myth of Prometheus and the liver". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 87 (12): 754–755. PMC 1294986. PMID 7853302. Counterarguments are provided by Tiniakos, D.G.; Kandilis, A.; Geller, S.A. (2010). "Tityus: A forgotten myth of liver regeneration". Journal of Hepatology. 53 (2): 357–361. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.02.032. PMID 20472318. and by Power, C.; Rasko, J.E. (2008). "Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration". Annals of Internal Medicine. 149 (6): 421–426. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.689.8218. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-149-6-200809160-00009. PMID 18794562. Bramstedt K (2006). "Living liver donor mortality: where do we stand?". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101 (4): 755–759. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00421.x. PMID 16494593. Spence, Lewis (1916). "10: The Magic and Demonology of Babylonia and Assyria". Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria. Cosimo Classics. New York: Cosimo, Inc. (published 2010). p. 281. Retrieved 2018-09-16. Now among people in a primitive state of culture the soul is almost invariably supposed to reside in the liver instead of in the heart or brain. Krishna, Gopi; Hillman, James (1970). Kundalini – the evolutionary energy in man. London: Stuart & Watkins. p. 77. ISBN 978-1570622809. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. The Great Battle Of Badar (Yaum-E-Furqan) Archived 2014-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. Shawuniversitymosque.org (2006-07-08). Retrieved 2013-03-19. "Foie". Larousse.fr. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2019-04-16. Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable Cuisine. University of Virginia Press. pp. 313–. ISBN 978-0-8139-1162-5. Archived from the original on 2015-10-26. Retrieved 2015-06-27. Rudgley, Richard The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances , pub. Abacus 1998 ISBN 0 349 11127 8 pps. 20-21. Cunnison, Ian 1958 Giraffe Hunting among the Humr Tribe, SNR 39, pps. 49-60. Shirokogoroff S.M., Psychomental Complex of the Tungus, pub. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 1935 p. 89. Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 354–355. ISBN 978-0-03-910284-5. Yuan, Shaochun; Ruan, Jie; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong (2015). "Amphioxus as a model for investigating evolution of the vertebrate immune system" (PDF). Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 48 (2): 297–305. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2014.05.004. PMID 24877655. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-22. Yu, Jr-Kai Sky; Lecroisey, Claire; Le Pétillon, Yann; Escriva, Hector; Lammert, Eckhard; Laudet, Vincent (2015). "Identification, Evolution and Expression of an Insulin-Like Peptide in the Cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum". PLoS ONE. 10 (3): e0119461. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119461. PMC 4361685. PMID 25774519. Escriva, Hector; Chao, Yeqing; Fan, Chunxin; Liang, Yujun; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Shicui (2012). "A Novel Serpin with Antithrombin-Like Activity in Branchiostoma japonicum: Implications for the Presence of a Primitive Coagulation System". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e32392. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032392. PMC 3299649. PMID 22427833. Guo, Bin; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Shaohui; Liang, Yujun (2009). "Expression, mitogenic activity and regulation by growth hormone of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor in Branchiostoma belcheri". Cell and Tissue Research. 338 (1): 67–77. doi:10.1007/s00441-009-0824-8. PMID 19657677. Works cited
  6. WYKOFF WAS ONE OF THE PIONEERS OF Technical analysis https://wyckoffcomfort.com/who-we-are/our-history/
  7. Copyright Please read before posting From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the legal right. For the symbol, see Copyright symbol. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia:Copyright. Not to be confused with Copywriting. Intellectual property Authors' rights Copyright Database right Geographical indication Indigenous intellectual property Industrial design right Integrated circuit layout design protection Intellectual rights Moral rights Patent Plant breeders' rights Related rights Supplementary protection certificate Trade dress Trade secret Trademark Utility model Related topics Abandonware Copyright troll Criticism of copyright Bioprospecting Cultural appropriation Idea–expression distinction Limitations and exceptions to copyright Fair dealing Fair use Paraphrasing Right to quote Orphan work Patent troll Public domain Outline of intellectual property Outline of patents Higher category: Property and Property law v t e Copyright is the exclusive right given to the creator of a creative work to reproduce the work, usually for a limited time.[1][2][3][4][5] The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself.[6][7][8] A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States. Some jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders.[citation needed][9][10][11][12] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution.[13] Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights". This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works "cross" national borders or national rights are inconsistent.[14] Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities[5] to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Contents 1 History 1.1 Background 1.2 Conception 1.3 National copyrights 1.4 International copyright treaties 2 Obtaining protection 2.1 Ownership 2.2 Eligible works 2.3 Originality 2.4 Registration 2.5 Fixing 2.6 Copyright notice 3 Enforcement 3.1 Copyright infringement 4 Rights granted 4.1 Economic rights 4.2 Moral rights 4.3 Duration 5 Limitations and exceptions 5.1 Idea–expression dichotomy and the merger doctrine 5.2 The first-sale doctrine and exhaustion of rights 5.3 Fair use and fair dealing 5.4 Accessible copies 6 Transfer, assignment and licensing 6.1 Free licenses 7 Criticism 8 Public domain 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links History Main article: History of copyright European output of books before the advent of copyright, 500s to 1700s. Blue shows printed books. Log-lin plot; a straight line therefore shows an exponential increase. Background The concept of copyright developed after the printing press came into use in Europe[15] in the 1400s and 1500s.[citation needed] The printing press made it much cheaper to produce works, but as there was initially no copyright law, anyone could buy or rent a press and print any text. Popular new works were immediately re-set and re-published by competitors, so printers needed a constant stream of new material. Fees paid to authors for new works were high, and significantly supplemented the incomes of many academics.[16] Printing brought profound social changes. The rise in literacy across Europe led to a dramatic increase in the demand for reading matter.[15] Prices of reprints were low, so publications could be bought by poorer people, creating a mass audience.[16] In German-speaking areas, most publications were academic papers, and most were scientific and technical publications, often autodidactic practical instruction manuals on topics such as dike construction.[16] After copyright law became established (in 1710 in England and Scotland, and in the 1840s in German-speaking areas) the low-price mass market vanished, and fewer, more expensive editions were published.[16][17] Conception The concept of copyright first developed in England. In reaction to the printing of "scandalous books and pamphlets", the English Parliament passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662,[15] which required all intended publications to be registered with the government-approved Stationers' Company, giving the Stationers the right to regulate what material could be printed.[18] The Statute of Anne, enacted in 1710 in England and Scotland provided the first legislation to protect copyrights (but not authors' rights). The Copyright Act of 1814 extended more rights for authors but did not protect British from reprinting in the US. The Berne International Copyright Convention of 1886 finally provided protection for authors among the countries who signed the agreement, although the US did not join the Berne Convention until 1989.[19] In the US, the Constitution protects the rights of authors, and the legislature, Congress, can create national copyright laws but must exercise their power within the scope of the Constitution. Modeled on the Statute of Anne, Congress enacted the Copyright Act of 1790. While the national law protected authors’ published works, authority was granted to the states to protect authors’ unpublished works. These two protections exist today: protection by the state for unpublished work, subsequent protection by federal law for published work.[19] Congress enacted an updated law in 1909, which was later determined to be flawed and was subsequently replaced by the 1976 Copyright Act. This act expanded the items that were eligible for protection, including literary, music, dramatic, pictorial/sculptural works, motion pictures, sound recordings, and choreographic works. This act also extended the copyright protection to life plus 50 years. One final change was that it “codified a fair use exception to copyright”. With these changes in place, the US was in a better position to join the Berne Convention, extending copyright protections internationally.[19] Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was generally a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society. The latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights. The most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified. This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se.[20] Copyright has developed into a concept that has a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, including not just literary work, but also forms of creative work such as sound recordings, films, photographs, software, and architecture. National copyrights See also: Statute of Anne and History of copyright law of the United States The Statute of Anne (the Copyright Act 1709) came into force in 1710. Often seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired.[21] The act also alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers, Booksellers, and other Persons, have of late frequently taken the Liberty of Printing ... Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors ... to their very great Detriment, and too often to the Ruin of them and their Families:".[22] A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, and court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved. An irrevocable right to be recognized as the work's creator appears in some countries' copyright laws. The Copyright Clause of the United States, Constitution (1787) authorized copyright legislation: "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries." That is, by guaranteeing them a period of time in which they alone could profit from their works, they would be enabled and encouraged to invest the time required to create them, and this would be good for society as a whole. A right to profit from the work has been the philosophical underpinning for much legislation extending the duration of copyright, to the life of the creator and beyond, to their heirs. The original length of copyright in the United States was 14 years, and it had to be explicitly applied for. If the author wished, they could apply for a second 14‑year monopoly grant, but after that the work entered the public domain, so it could be used and built upon by others. Copyright law was enacted rather late in German states, and the historian Eckhard Höffner argues that the absence of copyright laws in the early 19th century encouraged publishing, was profitable for authors, led to a proliferation of books, enhanced knowledge, and was ultimately an important factor in the ascendency of Germany as a power during that century.[23] International copyright treaties See also: International copyright agreements and List of parties to international copyright agreements The Pirate Publisher—An International Burlesque that has the Longest Run on Record, from Puck, 1886, satirizes the then-existing situation where a publisher could profit by simply stealing newly published works from one country, and publishing them in another, and vice versa. The 1886 Berne Convention first established recognition of copyrights among sovereign nations, rather than merely bilaterally. Under the Berne Convention, copyrights for creative works do not have to be asserted or declared, as they are automatically in force at creation: an author need not "register" or "apply for" a copyright in countries adhering to the Berne Convention.[24] As soon as a work is "fixed", that is, written or recorded on some physical medium, its author is automatically entitled to all copyrights in the work, and to any derivative works unless and until the author explicitly disclaims them, or until the copyright expires. The Berne Convention also resulted in foreign authors being treated equivalently to domestic authors, in any country signed onto the Convention. The UK signed the Berne Convention in 1887 but did not implement large parts of it until 100 years later with the passage of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Specially, for educational and scientific research purposes, the Berne Convention provides the developing countries issue compulsory licenses for the translation or reproduction of copyrighted works within the limits prescribed by the Convention. This was a special provision that had been added at the time of 1971 revision of the Convention, because of the strong demands of the developing countries. The United States did not sign the Berne Convention until 1989.[25] The United States and most Latin American countries instead entered into the Buenos Aires Convention in 1910, which required a copyright notice on the work (such as all rights reserved), and permitted signatory nations to limit the duration of copyrights to shorter and renewable terms.[26][27][28] The Universal Copyright Convention was drafted in 1952 as another less demanding alternative to the Berne Convention, and ratified by nations such as the Soviet Union and developing nations. The regulations of the Berne Convention are incorporated into the World Trade Organization's TRIPS agreement (1995), thus giving the Berne Convention effectively near-global application.[29] In 1961, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property signed the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations. In 1996, this organization was succeeded by the founding of the World Intellectual Property Organization, which launched the 1996 WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty and the 2002 WIPO Copyright Treaty, which enacted greater restrictions on the use of technology to copy works in the nations that ratified it. The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes intellectual Property Provisions relating to copyright. Copyright laws are standardized somewhat through these international conventions such as the Berne Convention and Universal Copyright Convention. These multilateral treaties have been ratified by nearly all countries, and international organizations such as the European Union or World Trade Organization require their member states to comply with them. Obtaining protection Ownership The original holder of the copyright may be the employer of the author rather than the author himself if the work is a "work for hire".[30] For example, in English law the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 provides that if a copyrighted work is made by an employee in the course of that employment, the copyright is automatically owned by the employer which would be a "Work for Hire". Typically, the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author.[31][31] But when more than one person creates the work, then a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. Eligible works Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or "works". Specifics vary by jurisdiction, but these can include poems, theses, fictional characters, plays and other literary works, motion pictures, choreography, musical compositions, sound recordings, paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, computer software, radio and television broadcasts, and industrial designs. Graphic designs and industrial designs may have separate or overlapping laws applied to them in some jurisdictions.[32][33] Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed.[34] For example, the copyright to a Mickey Mouse cartoon restricts others from making copies of the cartoon or creating derivative works based on Disney's particular anthropomorphic mouse, but does not prohibit the creation of other works about anthropomorphic mice in general, so long as they are different enough to not be judged copies of Disney's.[34] Note additionally that Mickey Mouse is not copyrighted because characters cannot be copyrighted; rather, Steamboat Willie is copyrighted and Mickey Mouse, as a character in that copyrighted work, is afforded protection. Originality Main article: Threshold of originality Typically, a work must meet minimal standards of originality in order to qualify for copyright, and the copyright expires after a set period of time (some jurisdictions may allow this to be extended). Different countries impose different tests, although generally the requirements are low; in the United Kingdom there has to be some "skill, labour, and judgment" that has gone into it.[35] In Australia and the United Kingdom it has been held that a single word is insufficient to comprise a copyright work. However, single words or a short string of words can sometimes be registered as a trademark instead. Copyright law recognizes the right of an author based on whether the work actually is an original creation, rather than based on whether it is unique; two authors may own copyright on two substantially identical works, if it is determined that the duplication was coincidental, and neither was copied from the other. Registration Main article: Copyright registration In all countries where the Berne Convention standards apply, copyright is automatic, and need not be obtained through official registration with any government office. Once an idea has been reduced to tangible form, for example by securing it in a fixed medium (such as a drawing, sheet music, photograph, a videotape, or a computer file), the copyright holder is entitled to enforce his or her exclusive rights.[24] However, while registration isn't needed to exercise copyright, in jurisdictions where the laws provide for registration, it serves as prima facie evidence of a valid copyright and enables the copyright holder to seek statutory damages and attorney's fees.[36] (In the US, registering after an infringement only enables one to receive actual damages and lost profits.) A widely circulated strategy to avoid the cost of copyright registration is referred to as the poor man's copyright. It proposes that the creator send the work to himself in a sealed envelope by registered mail, using the postmark to establish the date. This technique has not been recognized in any published opinions of the United States courts. The United States Copyright Office says the technique is not a substitute for actual registration.[37] The United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office discusses the technique and notes that the technique (as well as commercial registries) does not constitute dispositive proof that the work is original or establish who created the work.[38][39] Fixing The Berne Convention allows member countries to decide whether creative works must be "fixed" to enjoy copyright. Article 2, Section 2 of the Berne Convention states: "It shall be a matter for legislation in the countries of the Union to prescribe that works in general or any specified categories of works shall not be protected unless they have been fixed in some material form." Some countries do not require that a work be produced in a particular form to obtain copyright protection. For instance, Spain, France, and Australia do not require fixation for copyright protection. The United States and Canada, on the other hand, require that most works must be "fixed in a tangible medium of expression" to obtain copyright protection.[40] U.S. law requires that the fixation be stable and permanent enough to be "perceived, reproduced or communicated for a period of more than transitory duration". Similarly, Canadian courts consider fixation to require that the work be "expressed to some extent at least in some material form, capable of identification and having a more or less permanent endurance".[40] Copyright notice Main article: Copyright notice A copyright symbol used in copyright notice Before 1989, United States law required the use of a copyright notice, consisting of the copyright symbol (©, the letter C inside a circle), the abbreviation "Copr.", or the word "Copyright", followed by the year of the first publication of the work and the name of the copyright holder.[41][42] Several years may be noted if the work has gone through substantial revisions. The proper copyright notice for sound recordings of musical or other audio works is a sound recording copyright symbol (℗, the letter P inside a circle), which indicates a sound recording copyright, with the letter P indicating a "phonorecord". In addition, the phrase All rights reserved was once required to assert copyright, but that phrase is now legally obsolete. Almost everything on the Internet has some sort of copyright attached to it. Whether these things are watermarked, signed, or have any other sort of indication of the copyright is a different story however.[43] In 1989 the United States enacted the Berne Convention Implementation Act, amending the 1976 Copyright Act to conform to most of the provisions of the Berne Convention. As a result, the use of copyright notices has become optional to claim copyright, because the Berne Convention makes copyright automatic.[44] However, the lack of notice of copyright using these marks may have consequences in terms of reduced damages in an infringement lawsuit – using notices of this form may reduce the likelihood of a defense of "innocent infringement" being successful.[45] Enforcement Copyrights are generally enforced by the holder in a civil law court, but there are also criminal infringement statutes in some jurisdictions. While central registries are kept in some countries which aid in proving claims of ownership, registering does not necessarily prove ownership, nor does the fact of copying (even without permission) necessarily prove that copyright was infringed. Criminal sanctions are generally aimed at serious counterfeiting activity, but are now becoming more commonplace as copyright collectives such as the RIAA are increasingly targeting the file sharing home Internet user. Thus far, however, most such cases against file sharers have been settled out of court. (See: Legal aspects of file sharing) In most jurisdictions the copyright holder must bear the cost of enforcing copyright. This will usually involve engaging legal representation, administrative or court costs. In light of this, many copyright disputes are settled by a direct approach to the infringing party in order to settle the dispute out of court. "...by 1978, the scope was expanded to apply to any 'expression' that has been 'fixed' in any medium, this protection granted automatically whether the maker wants it or not, no registration required."[46] Copyright infringement Main article: Copyright infringement For a work to be considered to infringe upon copyright, its use must have occurred in a nation that has domestic copyright laws or adheres to a bilateral treaty or established international convention such as the Berne Convention or WIPO Copyright Treaty. Improper use of materials outside of legislation is deemed "unauthorized edition", not copyright infringement.[47] Statistics regarding the effects of copyright infringement are difficult to determine. Studies have attempted to determine whether there is a monetary loss for industries affected by copyright infringement by predicting what portion of pirated works would have been formally purchased if they had not been freely available.[48] Other reports indicate that copyright infringement does not have an adverse effect on the entertainment industry, and can have a positive effect.[49] In particular, a 2014 university study concluded that free music content, accessed on YouTube, does not necessarily hurt sales, instead has the potential to increase sales.[50] Rights granted According to World Intellectual Property Organisation, copyright protects two types of rights. Economic rights allow right owners to derive financial reward from the use of their works by others. Moral rights allow authors and creators to take certain actions to preserve and protect their link with their work. The author or creator may be the owner of the economic rights or those rights may be transferred to one or more copyright owners. Many countries do not allow the transfer of moral rights. Where Economic rights allow right owners to derive financial reward from the use of their works by others, the Moral rights allow authors and creators to take certain actions to preserve and protect their link with their work.[51] Economic rights With any kind of property, its owner may decide how it is to be used, and others can use it lawfully only if they have the owner's permission, often through a license. The owner's use of the property must, however, respect the legally recognised rights and interests of other members of society. So the owner of a copyright-protected work may decide how to use the work, and may prevent others from using it without permission. National laws usually grant copyright owners exclusive rights to allow third parties to use their works, subject to the legally recognised rights and interests of others.[51] Most copyright laws state that authors or other right owners have the right to authorise or prevent certain acts in relation to a work. Right owners can authorise or prohibit: reproduction of the work in various forms, such as printed publications or sound recordings; distribution of copies of the work; public performance of the work; broadcasting or other communication of the work to the public; translation of the work into other languages; and adaptation of the work, such as turning a novel into a screenplay. Moral rights Moral rights are concerned with the non-economic rights of a creator. They protect the creator's connection with a work as well as the integrity of the work. Moral rights are only accorded to individual authors and in many national laws they remain with the authors even after the authors have transferred their economic rights. In some EU countries, such as France, moral rights last indefinitely. In the UK, however, moral rights are finite. That is, the right of attribution and the right of integrity last only as long as the work is in copyright. When the copyright term comes to an end, so too do the moral rights in that work. This is just one reason why the moral rights regime within the UK is often regarded as weaker or inferior to the protection of moral rights in continental Europe and elsewhere in the world.[52] The Berne Convention, in Article 6bis, requires its members to grant authors the following rights: the right to claim authorship of a work (sometimes called the right of paternity or the right of attribution); and the right to object to any distortion or modification of a work, or other derogatory action in relation to a work, which would be prejudicial to the author's honour or reputation (sometimes called the right of integrity). These and other similar rights granted in national laws are generally known as the moral rights of authors. The Berne Convention requires these rights to be independent of authors’ economic rights. Moral rights are only accorded to individual authors and in many national laws they remain with the authors even after the authors have transferred their economic rights. This means that even where, for example, a film producer or publisher owns the economic rights in a work, in many jurisdictions the individual author continues to have moral rights.[51] Recently, as a part of the debates being held at the U.S. Copyright Office on the question of inclusion of Moral Rights as a part of the framework of the Copyright Law in United States, the Copyright Office concluded that many diverse aspects of the current moral rights patchwork—including copyright law's derivative work right, state moral rights statutes, and contract law—are generally working well and should not be changed. Further, the Office concludes that there is no need for the creation of a blanket moral rights statute at this time. However, there are aspects of the U.S. moral rights patchwork that could be improved to the benefit of individual authors and the copyright system as a whole.[53] The Copyright Law in the United States, several exclusive rights are granted to the holder of a copyright, as are listed below: protection of the work to determine and decide how, and under what conditions, the work may be marketed, publicly displayed, reproduced, distributed etc. to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies) to import or export the work to create derivative works (works that adapt the original work) to perform or display the work publicly to sell or cede these rights to others to transmit or display by radio, video or internet.[54] The basic right when a work is protected by copyright is that the holder may determine and decide how and under what conditions the protected work may be used by others. This includes the right to decide to distribute the work for free. This part of copyright is often overseen. The phrase "exclusive right" means that only the copyright holder is free to exercise those rights, and others are prohibited from using the work without the holder's permission. Copyright is sometimes called a "negative right", as it serves to prohibit certain people (e.g., readers, viewers, or listeners, and primarily publishers and would be publishers) from doing something they would otherwise be able to do, rather than permitting people (e.g., authors) to do something they would otherwise be unable to do. In this way it is similar to the unregistered design right in English law and European law. The rights of the copyright holder also permit him/her to not use or exploit their copyright, for some or all of the term. There is, however, a critique which rejects this assertion as being based on a philosophical interpretation of copyright law that is not universally shared. There is also debate on whether copyright should be considered a property right or a moral right.[55] UK copyright law gives creators both economic rights and moral rights. While ‘copying’ someone else's work without permission may constitute an infringement of their economic rights, that is, the reproduction right or the right of communication to the public, whereas, ‘mutilating’ it might infringe the creator's moral rights. In the UK, moral rights include the right to be identified as the author of the work, which is generally identified as the right of attribution, and the right not to have your work subjected to ‘derogatory treatment’, that is the right of integrity.[52] Indian copyright law is at parity with the international standards as contained in TRIPS. The Indian Copyright Act, 1957, pursuant to the amendments in 1999, 2002 and 2012, fully reflects the Berne Convention for Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886 and the Universal Copyrights Convention, to which India is a party. India is also a party to the Geneva Convention for the Protection of Rights of Producers of Phonograms and is an active member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Indian system provides both the economic and moral rights under different provisions of its Indian Copyright Act of 1957.[56] Duration Main articles: Copyright term and List of countries' copyright length Expansion of U.S. copyright law (currently based on the date of creation or publication). Copyright subsists for a variety of lengths in different jurisdictions. The length of the term can depend on several factors, including the type of work (e.g. musical composition, novel), whether the work has been published, and whether the work was created by an individual or a corporation. In most of the world, the default length of copyright is the life of the author plus either 50 or 70 years. In the United States, the term for most existing works is a fixed number of years after the date of creation or publication. Under most countries' laws (for example, the United States[57] and the United Kingdom[58]), copyrights expire at the end of the calendar year in which they would otherwise expire. The length and requirements for copyright duration are subject to change by legislation, and since the early 20th century there have been a number of adjustments made in various countries, which can make determining the duration of a given copyright somewhat difficult. For example, the United States used to require copyrights to be renewed after 28 years to stay in force, and formerly required a copyright notice upon first publication to gain coverage. In Italy and France, there were post-wartime extensions that could increase the term by approximately 6 years in Italy and up to about 14 in France. Many countries have extended the length of their copyright terms (sometimes retroactively). International treaties establish minimum terms for copyrights, but individual countries may enforce longer terms than those.[59] In the United States, all books and other works published before 1923 have expired copyrights and are in the public domain.[60] In addition, works published before 1964 that did not have their copyrights renewed 28 years after first publication year also are in the public domain. Hirtle points out that the great majority of these works (including 93% of the books) were not renewed after 28 years and are in the public domain.[61] Books originally published outside the US by non-Americans are exempt from this renewal requirement, if they are still under copyright in their home country. But if the intended exploitation of the work includes publication (or distribution of derivative work, such as a film based on a book protected by copyright) outside the U.S., the terms of copyright around the world must be considered. If the author has been dead more than 70 years, the work is in the public domain in most, but not all, countries. In 1998, the length of a copyright in the United States was increased by 20 years under the Copyright Term Extension Act. This legislation was strongly promoted by corporations which had valuable copyrights which otherwise would have expired, and has been the subject of substantial criticism on this point.[62] Limitations and exceptions Main article: Limitations and exceptions to copyright In many jurisdictions, copyright law makes exceptions to these restrictions when the work is copied for the purpose of commentary or other related uses. US copyright does NOT cover names, title, short phrases or Listings (such as ingredients, recipes, labels, or formulas).[63] However, there are protections available for those areas copyright does not cover – such as trademarks and patents. There are some exceptions to what copyright will protect. Copyright will not protect: Names of products Names of businesses, organizations, or groups Pseudonyms of individuals Titles of works Catchwords, catchphrases, mottoes, slogans, or short advertising expressions Listings of ingredients in recipes, labels, and formulas, though the directions can be copyrighted Idea–expression dichotomy and the merger doctrine Main article: Idea–expression divide The idea–expression divide differentiates between ideas and expression, and states that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the ideas themselves. This principle, first clarified in the 1879 case of Baker v. Selden, has since been codified by the Copyright Act of 1976 at 17 U.S.C. § 102(b). The first-sale doctrine and exhaustion of rights Main articles: First-sale doctrine and Exhaustion of rights Copyright law does not restrict the owner of a copy from reselling legitimately obtained copies of copyrighted works, provided that those copies were originally produced by or with the permission of the copyright holder. It is therefore legal, for example, to resell a copyrighted book or CD. In the United States this is known as the first-sale doctrine, and was established by the courts to clarify the legality of reselling books in second-hand bookstores. Some countries may have parallel importation restrictions that allow the copyright holder to control the aftermarket. This may mean for example that a copy of a book that does not infringe copyright in the country where it was printed does infringe copyright in a country into which it is imported for retailing. The first-sale doctrine is known as exhaustion of rights in other countries and is a principle which also applies, though somewhat differently, to patent and trademark rights. It is important to note that the first-sale doctrine permits the transfer of the particular legitimate copy involved. It does not permit making or distributing additional copies. In Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,[64] in 2013, the United States Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the first-sale doctrine applies to goods manufactured abroad with the copyright owner's permission and then imported into the US without such permission. The case involved a plaintiff who imported Asian editions of textbooks that had been manufactured abroad with the publisher-plaintiff's permission. The defendant, without permission from the publisher, imported the textbooks and resold on eBay. The Supreme Court's holding severely limits the ability of copyright holders to prevent such importation. In addition, copyright, in most cases, does not prohibit one from acts such as modifying, defacing, or destroying his or her own legitimately obtained copy of a copyrighted work, so long as duplication is not involved. However, in countries that implement moral rights, a copyright holder can in some cases successfully prevent the mutilation or destruction of a work that is publicly visible. Fair use and fair dealing Main articles: Fair use and Fair dealing Copyright does not prohibit all copying or replication. In the United States, the fair use doctrine, codified by the Copyright Act of 1976 as 17 U.S.C. Section 107, permits some copying and distribution without permission of the copyright holder or payment to same. The statute does not clearly define fair use, but instead gives four non-exclusive factors to consider in a fair use analysis. Those factors are: the purpose and character of one's use the nature of the copyrighted work what amount and proportion of the whole work was taken, and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.[65] In the United Kingdom and many other Commonwealth countries, a similar notion of fair dealing was established by the courts or through legislation. The concept is sometimes not well defined; however in Canada, private copying for personal use has been expressly permitted by statute since 1999. In Alberta (Education) v. Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright), 2012 SCC 37, the Supreme Court of Canada concluded that limited copying for educational purposes could also be justified under the fair dealing exemption. In Australia, the fair dealing exceptions under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) are a limited set of circumstances under which copyrighted material can be legally copied or adapted without the copyright holder's consent. Fair dealing uses are research and study; review and critique; news reportage and the giving of professional advice (i.e. legal advice). Under current Australian law, although it is still a breach of copyright to copy, reproduce or adapt copyright material for personal or private use without permission from the copyright owner, owners of a legitimate copy are permitted to "format shift" that work from one medium to another for personal, private use, or to "time shift" a broadcast work for later, once and only once, viewing or listening. Other technical exemptions from infringement may also apply, such as the temporary reproduction of a work in machine readable form for a computer. In the United States the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act Codified in Section 10, 1992) prohibits action against consumers making noncommercial recordings of music, in return for royalties on both media and devices plus mandatory copy-control mechanisms on recorders. Section 1008. Prohibition on certain infringement actions No action may be brought under this title alleging infringement of copyright based on the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a digital audio recording device, a digital audio recording medium, an analog recording device, or an analog recording medium, or based on the noncommercial use by a consumer of such a device or medium for making digital musical recordings or analog musical recordings. Later acts amended US Copyright law so that for certain purposes making 10 copies or more is construed to be commercial, but there is no general rule permitting such copying. Indeed, making one complete copy of a work, or in many cases using a portion of it, for commercial purposes will not be considered fair use. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act prohibits the manufacture, importation, or distribution of devices whose intended use, or only significant commercial use, is to bypass an access or copy control put in place by a copyright owner.[32] An appellate court has held that fair use is not a defense to engaging in such distribution. EU copyright laws recognise the right of EU member states to implement some national exceptions to copyright. Examples of those exceptions are: photographic reproductions on paper or any similar medium of works (excluding sheet music) provided that the rightholders receives fair compensation, reproduction made by libraries, educational establishments, museums or archives, which are non-commercial archival reproductions of broadcasts, uses for the benefit of people with a disability, for demonstration or repair of equipment, for non-commercial research or private study when used in parody Accessible copies It is legal in several countries including the United Kingdom and the United States to produce alternative versions (for example, in large print or braille) of a copyrighted work to provide improved access to a work for blind and visually impaired persons without permission from the copyright holder.[66][67] Transfer, assignment and licensing See also: Collective rights management, Extended collective licensing, Compulsory license, and Copyright transfer agreement DVD: All Rights Reserved. A copyright, or aspects of it (e.g. reproduction alone, all but moral rights), may be assigned or transferred from one party to another.[68] For example, a musician who records an album will often sign an agreement with a record company in which the musician agrees to transfer all copyright in the recordings in exchange for royalties and other considerations. The creator (and original copyright holder) benefits, or expects to, from production and marketing capabilities far beyond those of the author. In the digital age of music, music may be copied and distributed at minimal cost through the Internet; however, the record industry attempts to provide promotion and marketing for the artist and their work so it can reach a much larger audience. A copyright holder need not transfer all rights completely, though many publishers will insist. Some of the rights may be transferred, or else the copyright holder may grant another party a non-exclusive license to copy or distribute the work in a particular region or for a specified period of time. A transfer or licence may have to meet particular formal requirements in order to be effective,[69] for example under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 the copyright itself must be expressly transferred in writing. Under the U.S. Copyright Act, a transfer of ownership in copyright must be memorialized in a writing signed by the transferor. For that purpose, ownership in copyright includes exclusive licenses of rights. Thus exclusive licenses, to be effective, must be granted in a written instrument signed by the grantor. No special form of transfer or grant is required. A simple document that identifies the work involved and the rights being granted is sufficient. Non-exclusive grants (often called non-exclusive licenses) need not be in writing under U.S. law. They can be oral or even implied by the behavior of the parties. Transfers of copyright ownership, including exclusive licenses, may and should be recorded in the U.S. Copyright Office. (Information on recording transfers is available on the Office's web site.) While recording is not required to make the grant effective, it offers important benefits, much like those obtained by recording a deed in a real estate transaction. Copyright may also be licensed.[68] Some jurisdictions may provide that certain classes of copyrighted works be made available under a prescribed statutory license (e.g. musical works in the United States used for radio broadcast or performance). This is also called a compulsory license, because under this scheme, anyone who wishes to copy a covered work does not need the permission of the copyright holder, but instead merely files the proper notice and pays a set fee established by statute (or by an agency decision under statutory guidance) for every copy made.[70] Failure to follow the proper procedures would place the copier at risk of an infringement suit. Because of the difficulty of following every individual work, copyright collectives or collecting societies and performing rights organizations (such as ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC) have been formed to collect royalties for hundreds (thousands and more) works at once. Though this market solution bypasses the statutory license, the availability of the statutory fee still helps dictate the price per work collective rights organizations charge, driving it down to what avoidance of procedural hassle would justify. Free licenses Copyright licenses known as open or free licenses seek to grant several rights to licensees, either for a fee or not. Free in this context is not as much of a reference to price as it is to freedom. What constitutes free licensing has been characterised in a number of similar definitions, including by order of longevity the Free Software Definition, the Debian Free Software Guidelines, the Open Source Definition and the Definition of Free Cultural Works. Further refinements to these definitions have resulted in categories such as copyleft and permissive. Common examples of free licences are the GNU General Public License, BSD licenses and some Creative Commons licenses. Founded in 2001 by James Boyle, Lawrence Lessig, and Hal Abelson, the Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization[71] which aims to facilitate the legal sharing of creative works. To this end, the organization provides a number of generic copyright license options to the public, gratis. These licenses allow copyright holders to define conditions under which others may use a work and to specify what types of use are acceptable.[71] Terms of use have traditionally been negotiated on an individual basis between copyright holder and potential licensee. Therefore, a general CC license outlining which rights the copyright holder is willing to waive enables the general public to use such works more freely. Six general types of CC licenses are available (although some of them are not properly free per the above definitions and per Creative Commons' own advice). These are based upon copyright-holder stipulations such as whether he or she is willing to allow modifications to the work, whether he or she permits the creation of derivative works and whether he or she is willing to permit commercial use of the work.[72] As of 2009 approximately 130 million individuals had received such licenses.[72] Criticism Main article: Criticism of copyright Some sources are critical of particular aspects of the copyright system. This is known as a debate over copynorms. Particularly to the background of uploading content to internet platforms and the digital exchange of original work, there is discussion about the copyright aspects of downloading and streaming, the copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing. Concerns are often couched in the language of digital rights, digital freedom, database rights, open data or censorship.[73] Discussions include Free Culture, a 2004 book by Lawrence Lessig. Lessig coined the term permission culture to describe a worst-case system. Good Copy Bad Copy (documentary) and RiP!: A Remix Manifesto, discuss copyright. Some suggest an alternative compensation system. In Europe consumers are acting up against the raising costs of music, film and books, and as a result Pirate Parties have been created. Some groups reject copyright altogether, taking an anti-copyright stance. The perceived inability to enforce copyright online leads some to advocate ignoring legal statutes when on the web. Public domain Main article: Public domain Copyright, like other intellectual property rights, is subject to a statutorily determined term. Once the term of a copyright has expired, the formerly copyrighted work enters the public domain and may be used or exploited by anyone without obtaining permission, and normally without payment. However, in paying public domain regimes the user may still have to pay royalties to the state or to an authors' association. Courts in common law countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have rejected the doctrine of a common law copyright. Public domain works should not be confused with works that are publicly available. Works posted in the internet, for example, are publicly available, but are not generally in the public domain. Copying such works may therefore violate the author's copyright. See also Law portal Adelphi Charter Artificial scarcity Authors' rights and related rights, roughly equivalent concepts in civil law countries Conflict of laws Copyleft Copyright Alliance Copyright in architecture in the United States Copyright on the content of patents and in the context of patent prosecution Copyright for Creativity Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (European Union) Copyright infringement Copyright on religious works Copyright Remedy Clarification Act (CRCA) Creative Barcode Digital rights management Digital watermarking Entertainment law Freedom of panorama Intellectual property protection of typefaces List of Copyright Acts List of copyright case law Literary property Model release Criticism of copyright Paracopyright Photography and the law Pirate Party Printing patent, a precursor to copyright Private copying levy Production music Rent-seeking Reproduction fees Samizdat Software copyright Threshold pledge system References "Definition of copyright". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "Definition of Copyright". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 20 December 2018. Nimmer on Copyright, vol. 2, § 8.01. "Intellectual property", Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. (2014). "Understanding Copyright and Related Rights" (PDF). www.wipo.int. p. 4. Retrieved 6 December 2018. Stim, Rich (27 March 2013). "Copyright Basics FAQ". The Center for Internet and Society Fair Use Project. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 July 2019. Daniel A. Tysver. "Works Unprotected by Copyright Law". Bitlaw. Lee A. Hollaar. "Legal Protection of Digital Information". p. Chapter 1: An Overview of Copyright, Section II.E. Ideas Versus Expression. Copyright, University of California, 2014, retrieved 15 December 2014 "Journal Conventions – Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law". www.jetlaw.org. Blackshaw, Ian S. (20 October 2011). Sports Marketing Agreements: Legal, Fiscal and Practical Aspects. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789067047937 – via Google Books. Kaufman, Roy (16 July 2008). Publishing Forms and Contracts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190451264 – via Google Books. "Copyright Basics" (PDF). www.copyright.gov. U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved 20 February 2019. "International Copyright Law Survey". Mincov Law Corporation. Copyright in Historical Perspective, p. 136-137, Patterson, 1968, Vanderbilt Univ. Press Thadeusz, Frank (18 August 2010). "No Copyright Law: The Real Reason for Germany's Industrial Expansion?". Spiegel Online. Lasar, Matthew (23 August 2010). "Did Weak Copyright Laws Help Germany Outpace The British Empire?". Wired. Nipps, Karen (2014). "Cum privilegio: Licensing of the Press Act of 1662" (PDF). The Library Quarterly. 84 (4): 494–500. doi:10.1086/677787. Day O'Connor, Sandra (2002). "Copyright Law from an American Perspective". Irish Jurist. 37: 16–22. JSTOR 44027015. Bettig, Ronald V. (1996). Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property. Westview Press. p. 9–17. ISBN 0-8133-1385-6. Ronan, Deazley (2006). Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84542-282-0 – via Google Books. "Statute of Anne". Copyrighthistory.com. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Frank Thadeusz (18 August 2010). "No Copyright Law: The Real Reason for Germany's Industrial Expansion?". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 April 2015. "Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works Article 5". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 18 November 2011. Garfinkle, Ann M; Fries, Janet; Lopez, Daniel; Possessky, Laura (1997). "Art conservation and the legal obligation to preserve artistic intent". JAIC 36 (2): 165–179. "International Copyright Relations of the United States", U.S. Copyright Office Circular No. 38a, August 2003. Parties to the Geneva Act of the Universal Copyright Convention Archived 25 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine as of 1 January 2000: the dates given in the document are dates of ratification, not dates of coming into force. The Geneva Act came into force on 16 September 1955, for the first twelve to have ratified (which included four non-members of the Berne Union as required by Art. 9.1), or three months after ratification for other countries. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2007. 165 Parties to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine as of May 2012. MacQueen, Hector L; Charlotte Waelde; Graeme T Laurie (2007). Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-926339-4 – via Google Books. 17 U.S.C. § 201(b); Cmty. for Creative Non-Violence v. Reid, 490 U.S. 730 (1989) Stim, Rich (27 March 2013). "Copyright Ownership: Who Owns What?". The Center for Internet and Society Fair Use Project. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 July 2019. Peter K, Yu (2007). Intellectual Property and Information Wealth: Copyright and related rights. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-275-98883-8. World Intellectual Property Organization. "Understanding Copyright and Related Rights" (PDF). WIPO. p. 8. Retrieved 1 December 2017. Simon, Stokes (2001). Art and copyright. Hart Publishing. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-84113-225-9 – via Google Books. Express Newspaper Plc v News (UK) Plc, F.S.R. 36 (1991) "Subject Matter and Scope of Copyright" (PDF). copyright.gov. Retrieved 4 June 2015. "Copyright in General (FAQ)". U.S Copyright Office. Retrieved 11 August 2016. "Copyright Registers" Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office "Automatic right", United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office See Harvard Law School, Module 3: The Scope of Copyright Law. See also Tyler T. Ochoa, Copyright, Derivative Works and Fixation: Is Galoob a Mirage, or Does the Form(GEN) of the Alleged Derivative Work Matter?, 20 Santa Clara High Tech. L.J. 991, 999–1002 (2003) ("Thus, both the text of the Act and its legislative history demonstrate that Congress intended that a derivative work does not need to be fixed in order to infringe."). The legislative history of the 1976 Copyright Act says this difference was intended to address transitory works such as ballets, pantomimes, improvised performances, dumb shows, mime performances, and dancing. Copyright Act of 1976, Pub.L. -553 94 –553 , 90 Stat. 2541, § 401(a) (19 October 1976) The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 (BCIA), Pub.L. -568 100 –568 , 102 Stat. 2853, 2857. One of the changes introduced by the BCIA was to section 401, which governs copyright notices on published copies, specifying that notices "may be placed on" such copies; prior to the BCIA, the statute read that notices "shall be placed on all" such copies. An analogous change was made in section 402, dealing with copyright notices on phonorecords. Taylor, Astra (2014). The People's Platform:Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age. New York City, New York, USA: Picador. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-1-250-06259-8. "U.S. Copyright Office – Information Circular" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2012. 17 U.S.C.§ 401(d) Taylor, Astra (2014). The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age. New York, New York: Picador. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-250-06259-8. Owen, L. (2001). "Piracy". Learned Publishing. 14: 67–70. doi:10.1087/09531510125100313. Butler, S. Piracy Losses "Billboard" 199(36) "Urheberrechtsverletzungen im Internet: Der bestehende rechtliche Rahmen genügt". Ejpd.admin.ch. Tobias Kretschmer & Christian Peukert (2014). "Video Killed the Radio Star? Online Music Videos and Digital Music Sales". Social Science Electronic Publishing. ISSN 2042-2695. SSRN 2425386. "World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)" (PDF). 20 April 2019. "THE MUTILATED WORK" (PDF). Copyright User. "authors, attribution, and integrity: examining moral rights in the united states" (PDF). U.S. Copyright Office. April 2019. Peter K, Yu (2007). Intellectual Property and Information Wealth: Copyright and related rights. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-275-98883-8. Tom G. Palmer, "Are Patents and Copyrights Morally Justified?" Accessed 5 February 2013. Dalmia, Vijay Pal (14 December 2017). "Copyright Law In India". Mondaq. 17 U.S.C. § 305 The Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995, part II, Amendments of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 Nimmer, David (2003). Copyright: Sacred Text, Technology, and the DMCA. Kluwer Law International. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-411-8876-2. OCLC 50606064 – via Google Books. "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States.", Cornell University. See Peter B. Hirtle, "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States 1 January 2015" online at footnote 8 Archived 26 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Lawrence Lessig, Copyright's First Amendment, 48 UCLA L. Rev. 1057, 1065 (2001) (2012) Copyright Protection Not Available for Names, Titles, or Short Phrases U.S. Copyright Office "John Wiley & Sons Inc. v. Kirtsaeng" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2017. "US CODE: Title 17,107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use". .law.cornell.edu. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009. "Chapter 1 – Circular 92 – U.S. Copyright Office". www.copyright.gov. "Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 comes into force". Royal National Institute of Blind People. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2016. WIPO Guide on the Licensing of Copyright and Related Rights. World Intellectual Property Organization. 2004. p. 15. ISBN 978-92-805-1271-7. WIPO Guide on the Licensing of Copyright and Related Rights. World Intellectual Property Organization. 2004. p. 8. ISBN 978-92-805-1271-7. WIPO Guide on the Licensing of Copyright and Related Rights. World Intellectual Property Organization. 2004. p. 16. ISBN 978-92-805-1271-7. "Creative Commons Website". creativecommons.org. Retrieved 24 October 2011. Rubin, R. E. (2010) 'Foundations of Library and Information Science: Third Edition', Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., New York, p. 341 "MEPs ignore expert advice and vote for mass internet censorship". European Digital Rights. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018. Further reading Dowd, Raymond J. (2006). Copyright Litigation Handbook (1st ed.). Thomson West. ISBN 0-314-96279-4. Ellis, Sara R. Copyrighting Couture: An Examination of Fashion Design Protection and Why the DPPA and IDPPPA are a Step Towards the Solution to Counterfeit Chic, 78 Tenn. L. Rev. 163 (2010), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1735745. Ghosemajumder, Shuman. Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002. Lehman, Bruce: Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure (Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, 1995) Lindsey, Marc: Copyright Law on Campus. Washington State University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87422-264-7. Mazzone, Jason. Copyfraud. SSRN McDonagh, Luke. Is Creative use of Musical Works without a licence acceptable under Copyright? International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC) 4 (2012) 401–426, available at SSRN Nimmer, Melville; David Nimmer (1997). Nimmer on Copyright. Matthew Bender. ISBN 0-8205-1465-9. Patterson, Lyman Ray (1968). Copyright in Historical Perspective. Online Version. Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0-8265-1373-5. Rife, by Martine Courant. Convention, Copyright, and Digital Writing (Southern Illinois University Press; 2013) 222 pages; Examines legal, pedagogical, and other aspects of online authorship. Rosen, Ronald (2008). Music and Copyright. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533836-2. Shipley, David E. Thin But Not Anorexic: Copyright Protection for Compilations and Other Fact Works UGA Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-001; Journal of Intellectual Property Law, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2007. Silverthorne, Sean. Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers?. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004. Sorce Keller, Marcello. "Originality, Authenticity and Copyright", Sonus, VII(2007), no. 2, pp. 77–85. Steinberg, S.H.; Trevitt, John (1996). Five Hundred Years of Printing (4th ed.). London and New Castle: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 1-884718-19-1. Story, Alan; Darch, Colin; Halbert, Deborah, eds. (2006). The Copy/South Dossier: Issues in the Economics, Politics and Ideology of Copyright in the Global South (PDF). Copy/South Research Group. ISBN 978-0-9553140-1-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2013. Ransom, Harry Huntt (1956). The First Copyright Statute. Austin: University of Texas. Rose, M. (1993), Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright, London: Harvard University Press Loewenstein, J. (2002), The Author's Due: Printing and the Prehistory of Copyright, London: University of Chicago Press. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copyright . Wikiquote has quotations related to: Copyright Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Copyright . Wikisource has original text related to this article: Copyright law Library resources about Copyright Resources in your library Resources in other libraries Copyright at Curlie WIPOLex from WIPO; global database of treaties and statutes relating to intellectual property Copyright Berne Convention: Country List List of the 164 members of the Berne Convention for the protection of literary and artistic works Education https://copyrightcortex.org/ A Bibliography on the Origins of Copyright and Droit d'Auteur MIT OpenCourseWare 6.912 Introduction to Copyright Law Free self-study course with video lectures as offered during the January 2006, Independent Activities Period (IAP) USA Copyright Law of the United States Documents, US Government Compendium of Copyright Practices (3rd ed.) United States Copyright Office Copyright from UCB Libraries GovPubs Early Copyright Records From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress UK About Copyright at the UK Intellectual Property Office UK Copyright Law fact sheet (April 2000) a concise introduction to UK Copyright legislation IPR Toolkit – An Overview, Key Issues and Toolkit Elements (September 2009) by
  8. List of United States pay television channels- part 2 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from List of United States cable and satellite television networks) Jump to navigation Jump to search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "List of United States pay television channels" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The following is a list of pay television networks broadcasting or receivable in the United States, organized by broadcast area and genre. Some television providers use one or more channel slots for east/west feeds, high definition services and access to video on demand. This list may be incomplete and uses limited sources relative to the 2,675[1] TV providers in the United States.[2][3][4][5][6] Contents 1 National 2 Regional 3 Local 4 Spanish 5 International 6 Radio 7 Former Channels 7.1 Defunct networks 7.2 Network rebrands 8 See also 9 References National The following channels are all broadcast primarily in English. Genre Name Year of launch Owner (Subsidary) East / West Feed HD Feed SAP Feed Notes Variety A&E 1984 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Arts & Entertainment Network and A&E Network ABC 1948 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish National feed available on over-the-top providers Aspire 2012 Magic Johnson Enterprises Yes AWE 2004 Herring Broadcasting Yes Formerly Wealth TV AXS TV 2001 Anthem Sports & Entertainment [majority stake] + 2929 Entertainment + AEG (AXS TV, LLC) Yes Spanish Formerly HDNet BBC America 1998 AMC Networks (49.99%) / BBC Studios (50.01%) Yes Yes BET 1980 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Also known as "Black Entertainment Television" Bravo 1980 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish CBS 1929 ViacomCBS Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., and CBS, Inc.; National feed available on over-the-top providers Cleo TV 2019 Urban One Yes CMT 1983 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Originally Country Music Television, formerly CMTV Discovery Channel 1985 Discovery Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Discovery Channel E! 1987 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Movie Time ES.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes FOX 1986 Fox Corporation (Fox Entertainment Media) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly FBC; National feed available on over-the-top providers Fuse 1994 Fuse Media, LLC. Yes Merged with NuvoTV in 2015 Game Show Network 1994 Sony Pictures Television Yes Yes Also referred to as GSN Ion Plus 2007 Ion Media Formerly Ion Life Ion Television 1998 Ion Media Yes Yes Formerly Pax TV and i: Independent Television; national feed available in markets without an Ion Television affiliate MTV 1981 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Originally Music Television MTV2 1996 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly M2 / The Box MyNetworkTV 2006 Fox Corporation (Fox Entertainment Media) Yes Yes Originally as a broadcast television network from 2006 to 2009; National feed available on over-the-top providers NBC 1939 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish National feed available on over-the-top providers Ovation 1996 Hubbard Broadcasting Yes Called Ovation TV from 2007-2010 Oxygen 2000 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Pop 1981 2015 as Pop ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Electronic Program Guide, Prevue Guide, Prevue Channel, TV Guide Channel, TV Guide Network and TVGN RFD-TV 2000 Rural Media Group Yes TBS 1967 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly WJRJ-TV, WTCG-TV, SuperStation WTBS and TBS Superstation The CW 2006 AT&T (WarnerMedia) [50%] / ViacomCBS [50%] Yes Yes Spanish Replaced UPN and The WB; national feed available on over-the-top providers truTV 1991 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Court TV from 1991 to December 31, 2007 TV One 2004 Urban One Yes Spanish USA Network 1977 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Madison Square Garden Sports Network VH1 1985 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly VH-1/VH-1: Video Hits One and VH1: Music First WGN America 1978 Nexstar Broadcasting(Nexstar Media Group) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly WGN, WGN Superstation and Superstation WGN Lifestyle Beauty Channel 2012 United Global Media Group, Inc. Yes Formerly Salon TV Cooking Channel 2010 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Replaced Fine Living Network; Create 2006 American Public Television Destination America 2012 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Formerly Discovery Travel and Living, Discovery Home and Leisure, Discovery Home and Planet Green Discovery Life 2011 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Replaced FitTV on February 1, 2011; a product of the merger of Discovery Health and FitTV. Formerly known as Discovery Fit & Health DIY Network 1999 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Do-It-Yourself Network; To be rebranded as Magnolia Network in Summer 2020 Food Network 1993 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Television Food Network FYI 1999 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The Biography Channel HGTV 1994 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly known as Home & Garden Television Lifetime 1984 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Lifetime Real Women 2001 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Spanish LMN 1998 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Lifetime Movie Network and LMN Logo TV 2005 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes MyDestination.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Oprah Winfrey Network 2011 Discovery, Inc. [70%] / Harpo Productions [Minority] Yes Yes Pets.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Recipe.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes TLC 1972 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Appalachian Community Service Network and The Learning Channel Travel Channel 1987 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Travel Channel We TV 1997 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Romance Classics and WE: Women's Entertainment Z Living 2007 Essel Group Yes Formerly Veria Living Factual American Heroes Channel 1998 Discovery Inc. Yes Spanish Formerly Discovery Wings and Military Channel Animal Planet 1996 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish & French Crime & Investigation 2005 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Spanish History 1995 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The History Channel Investigation Discovery 1996 Discovery Inc. Yes Yes Formerly Discovery Civilization Network: The World History and Geography Channel, Discovery Civilization Channel and Discovery Times Military History 2005 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Formerly Military History Channel NASA TV 1982 NASA Yes Nat Geo Wild 2010 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) [73%] / National Geographic Society [27%] Yes National Geographic 2001 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) [73%] / National Geographic Society [27%] Yes Yes Formerly National Geographic Channel Science Channel 1996 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Formerly Discovery Science, Discovery Science Channel, The Science Channel and Science Smithsonian Channel 2007 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) [50%] / Smithsonian Institution [50%] Yes Yes Vice on TV 2016 The Walt Disney Company [25%] & Hearst Communications [25%] (through A&E Networks) / Vice Media [50%] Yes Yes Formerly History International, H2 and Viceland Scripted Adult Swim 2001 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Late-night adult-oriented block to target 18+; Aired on the same channel as Cartoon Network AMC 1984 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly American Movie Classics Comedy Central 1991 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly CTV: The Comedy Network; A product of the merger of Viacom's HA! TV Comedy Network and The Comedy Channel Comedy.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Freeform 1977 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes formerly CBN Satellite Service, CBN Cable Network, The CBN Family Channel, The Family Channel, Fox Family Channel, and ABC Family FX 1994 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly fX FXX 2013 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Hallmark Channel 2001 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly VISN/ACTS, Faith and Values, and Odyssey Hallmark Drama 2017 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Hallmark Movies & Mysteries 2004 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Formerly known as Hallmark Movie Channel IFC 1994 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Independent Film Channel Paramount Network 1983 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The Nashville Network, The National Network, and Spike Reelz 2006 Hubbard Broadcasting Yes Spanish Formerly ReelzChannel Syfy 1992 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Sci-Fi Channel and Sci Fi TNT 1988 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Turner Network Television. Shows mostly drama TOKU 2005 Olympusat, Inc. Yes Formerly FUNimation Channel; Asian-Pacific programming. Anime, movies and series. Movies Audience 1999 AT&T (DirecTV) Yes Formerly Freeview, The 101 Network and Audience Network; Closes down February 2020. Cinémoi 2009 Cinemoi North America Launched on September 17, 2012; airs French movies; DirecTV ceased transmission July 1, 2013. Airs on Verizon FiOS. FX Movie Channel 1994 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Spanish Formerly fXM – Movies from Fox; rebranded as Fox Movie Channel in 2000 and FXM on January 1, 2012. HDNet Movies 2003 AXS TV, LLC (Anthem Sports & Entertainment [majority stake] & 2929 Entertainment & AEG) Yes Spanish MGM HD 2007 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Yes ShortsHD 2010 AMC Networks International (25%) / Shorts International (75%) Yes Sony Movie Channel 2010 Sony Pictures Television Yes Sundance TV 1996 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Sundance Channel Turner Classic Movies 1994 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Also referred to as TCM. Music BET Gospel 2002 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) BET Her 1996 Yes Spanish Formerly BET on Jazz, BET Jazz, BET J, and Centric. BET Hip-Hop 2005 BET Jams 2002 Formerly MTVX and MTV Jams BET Soul 1998 Formerly VH1 Soul CMT Music 1998 Formerly VH1 Country and CMT Pure Country FM 2015 Fuse Media, LLC. Yes Great American Country 1995 Discovery, Inc. Yes MTV Classic 1998 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Formerly VH1 Smooth, VH1 Classic Rock and VH1 Classic MTV Live 2006 Yes Formerly MHD and Palladia MTVU 2000 Formerly College Television Network Revolt 2013 Revolt Media & TV Yes Features live concerts, documentaries, music videos and hip-hop themed feature films. Stingray iConcerts 2003 Stingray Digital Video-on-demand channel Kids 3ABN Kids Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Formerly SonBeam Channel BabyFirst 2006 First Media Yes BabyTV 2003 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Boomerang 2000 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Spanish Cartoon Network 1992 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Broadcasts daily from 6:00 am to 9:00 p.m. Eastern/Pacific Time; (Adult Swim shares channel space daily from 9:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.) Discovery Family 1996 Discovery, Inc. [60%] / Hasbro [40%] Yes Formerly Discovery Kids Channel, Discovery Channel Kids, Discovery Kids, The Hub and Hub Network Disney Channel 1983 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Disney Channel Disney Junior 2012 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Programming and branding also included in morning preschool block aired on Disney Channel; Disney XD 1998 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Toon Disney / Jetix until February 13, 2009 INSP 1978 The Inspiration Networks Yes Formerly known as PTL Network, PTL Satellite Network, PTL – The Inspirational Network and The Inspiration Network. Nick at Nite 1985 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish The primary nighttime programming block. Nick Jr. 1999 Yes Yes Became a 24-hour channel on December 31, 2007; formerly Noggin Nickelodeon 1977 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Pinwheel NickMusic 2002 Formerly MTV Hits Nicktoons 2002 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Nicktoons TV and Nicktoons Network. PBS Kids 1996 PBS Yes Primo TV 2017 V-me Media Yes Qubo 2006 Ion Media Yes TeenNick 2007 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Became a 24-hour channel on December 31, 2007, after Nick GAS was shut down; formerly The N from April 2002 to September 2009; Network carries vintage programming block Nick Rewind nightly from 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. Universal Kids 2005 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Formerly PBS Kids Sprout and Sprout. Up 2004 InterMedia Partners Yes Uplifting, family-friendly entertainment; formerly Gospel Music Channel and GMC TV Vme Kids 2010 V-Me Media inc. Yes News AccuWeather Network 2015 AccuWeather Yes Bloomberg TV 1994 Bloomberg L.P. Yes Spanish formerly Bloomberg Information TV C-SPAN 1979 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers the United States House of Representatives C-SPAN 2 1986 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers the United States Senate and airs Book TV on weekends C-SPAN 3 2001 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers other live events and airs archived historical programming CNBC 1989 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes formerly Consumer News and Business Channel CNBC World 2001 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) CNN 1980 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes National news and opinion CNN Airport 1991 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Available only in airports CNN International 1985 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Court TV 1990 Katz Broadcasting, LLC(E.W. Scripps Company) Fox Business Network 2007 Fox Corporation (Fox News Media) Yes Fox News Channel 1996 Fox Corporation (Fox News Media) Yes National news and opinion Free Speech TV 1995 Public Communicators Inc. Public, non-profit channel Fusion TV 2013 Univision Communications (Fusion Media Group) Yes formerly ABC News Now HLN 1982 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes formerly CNN2, Headline News, CNN Headline News and HLN: Headline News. i24NEWS 2017 Altice USA Yes United States cut in channel of i24NEWS; an International news channel based in New York City. Justice Central 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Link TV 1999 Public Media Group of Southern California formerly World Link TV Local Now 2016 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Local news and weather, national news and sports (available through 207 localized feeds; localized content varies depending on market); distributed via over-the-top MVPD services MHz Worldview 2005 MHz Networks MSNBC 1996 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes National news and opinion MSNBC World 1996 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes Newsmax TV 2014 Newsmax Media Yes Newsy 2008 E.W. Scripps Company Yes One America News Network 2013 Herring Broadcasting Yes In cooperation with The Washington Times. RT America 2010 (ANO) TV-Novosti Yes United States cut in channel of RT; an international news channel based in Washington, D.C. The Weather Channel 1982 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Spanish IntelliStar 2 WeatherNation TV 2011 WeatherNation TV Inc. Yes Weather network Weatherscan 1999 Entertainment Studios Networks Local and regional weather forecasts; national feed available on Dish Network Sports beIN Sports beIN Media Group Yes Cars.TV Entertainment Studios Networks Yes CBS Sports Network ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Spanish formerly National College Sports Network, CSTV and CBS College Sports Network Eleven Sports Network Eleven Sports Network Yes replaced ONE World Sports ESPN The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPN Classic The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Spanish formerly Classic Sports Network, plans to become a Video on Demand channel ESPN College Extra The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPN2 The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPNews The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes ESPNU The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish Fox College Sports Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Fox College Sports (Atlantic) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Atlantic Fox College Sports (Central) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Central Fox College Sports (Pacific) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Pacific Fox Soccer Plus Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes formerly Fox Sports Digital Networks, Replaced Setanta Sports USA on March 1, 2010. FS1 Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes Spanish Fox Sports 24-hour sports network. Replaced Speed FS2 Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes Spanish Fox Sports 24-hour sports network. Formerly Fuel TV Game In Demand Yes Spanish outlet for MLB Extra Innings, and NHL Center Ice Golf Channel Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes Spanish formerly The Golf Channel MAVTV Lucas Oil Yes Spanish formerly Maverick Television MLB Extra Innings Major League Baseball Yes Spanish MLB Network Major League Baseball Yes Spanish MLS Direct Kick Major League Soccer Yes Motor Trend Discovery, Inc. / Source Interlink (Motor Trend Group) Yes Formerly Discovery HD Theater, HD Theater, and Velocity NBA League Pass National Basketball Association Yes Spanish NBA TV National Basketball Association Yes formerly NBA.com TV; Turner Sports operates the channel in association with the NBA. NBCSN Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes Spanish formerly Outdoor Life Network, Versus, and NBC Sports Network NFL Network National Football League Yes Spanish NFL RedZone National Football League Yes NFL Football (airs 1-8PM Sundays only) NFL Network Version of red zone NFL Sunday Ticket National Football League Yes Exclusive to DirecTV NFL Sunday Ticket RedZone National Football League Yes Exclusive DirecTV version of RedZone NHL Center Ice National Hockey League Yes Spanish NHL Network National Hockey League (84.4%) / NBCUniversal (15.6%) Yes Spanish Olympic Channel Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes formerly Bravo HD+ and Universal HD Outdoor Channel Kroenke Sports & Entertainment Yes Spanish formerly The Outdoor Channel Outside TV Mariah Media Yes formerly RSN Television Pursuit Channel Anthem Media Group Yes Hunting and fishing adventure programming Ride TV Ride Television Network, Inc. Yes Equestrian programming Sportsman Channel Kroenke Sports & Entertainment (Outdoor Sportsman Group) Yes Spanish Team In Demand Yes Spanish outlet for NBA League Pass, and MLS Direct Kick Tennis Channel Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish The Cowboy Channel Rural Media Group Yes formerly National Christian Network and FamilyNet The Ski Channel Steve Bellamy, Jonny Moseley, Bob Bryan, Mike Bryan Yes Spanish Video-on-demand channel TVG Betfair Yes Spanish The Interactive Horse Racing Network TVG2 Betfair Yes Formerly HRTV Untamed Sports TV Olympusat, Inc. World Fishing Network Keywest Marketing (80.1%) / Altitude Sports and Entertainment (19.9%) Yes Spanish Faith 3ABN Praise Him Music Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network 3ABN Proclaim! Three Angels Broadcasting Network Believer's Voice of Victory Network Kenneth Copeland Ministries BYUtv Brigham Young University Yes Latter-day Saint audience. Catholic Faith Network Roman Catholic Diocese of Rockville Centre Formerly known as Telecare CatholicTV CatholicTV.com 24/7 faith-based entertainment Christian Television Network Christian Television Network Available on DirecTV. Dare to Dream Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Daystar Word of God Fellowship Yes EWTN Eternal Word Television Network Spanish FETV LeSEA Broadcasting GEB America Oral Roberts University Yes Available on DirecTV. God TV The Angel Foundation worldwide Broadcast Licence is held by Angel Christian Television Trust Inc. God's Learning Channel Prime Time Christian Broadcasting Hillsong Channel Trinity Broadcasting Network formerly The Church Channel (2002–16) Hope Channel Seventh-day Adventist Church Jewish Life Television Jewish Life Television JUCE TV Trinity Broadcasting Network formerly JCTV LeSEA LeSEA Broadcasting Yes Also known as World Harvest Television NRB Network National Religious Broadcasters Available on DirecTV. Smile Trinity Broadcasting Network 24/7 religious-based children's television network formerly Smile of a Child TV SonLife Broadcasting Network Jimmy Swaggart Ministries Yes The Word Network Adell Broadcasting The Worship Network Christian Network, Inc. Three Angels Broadcasting Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Tri-State Christian Television TCT Ministries Available on DirecTV. Trinity Broadcasting Network Trinity Broadcasting Network Yes Upliftv Olympusat, Inc. Available on DirecTV. Shopping Gem Shopping Network Gem Shopping Network Home Shopping Network 1977 Qurate Retail Group formerly Home Shopping Club HSN2 1982 Qurate Retail Group Jewelry Television 1993 Multimedia Commerce Group formerly America's Collectibles Network QVC 1986 Qurate Retail Group QVC2 2013 Qurate Retail Group formerly QVC Plus QVC3 2016 Qurate Retail Group Shop LC 2007 Vaibhav Global formerly The Jewelry Channel and Liquidation Channel ShopHQ 1991 Evine Inc. formerly ValueVision, ShopNBC, Evine and Evine Live Premium Epix 2009 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix 2 2010 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix Drive-in 2011 Yes No Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix Hits 2012 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Showtime 1976 ViacomCBS (Showtime Networks) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Showtime 2 1991 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Beyond 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Extreme 1998 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Family Zone 2001 Yes No Spanish Showtime Next 2001 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Showcase 2001 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Women 2001 Yes Yes Spanish The Movie Channel 1973 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Warner Star Chanel and Star Channel On Demand channel also available. The Movie Channel Xtra 1997 Yes Yes Spanish Flix 1992 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Starz 1994 Lionsgate (Starz Inc.) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Starz Cinema 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Comedy 2005 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Edge 1996 Yes Yes Spanish Starz in Black 1997 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Kids & Family 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore 1991 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Encore On Demand channel also available. Starz Encore Action 1994 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Black 2005 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Classic 2013 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Español 2013 Yes No No Starz Encore Family 1994 Yes No Spanish Starz Encore Suspense 1994 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Westerns 1994 Yes No Spanish MoviePlex 1997 Yes Yes No Formely Plex IndiePlex 2006 Yes Yes No RetroPlex 2006 Yes Yes No HBO 1972 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. HBO2 1991 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Comedy 1999 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Family 1996 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Latino 2000 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Signature 1991 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Zone 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Cinemax 1980 Yes Yes Spanish MoreMax 1991 Yes Yes Spanish 5StarMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish ActionMax 1995 Yes Yes Spanish MovieMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish OuterMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish ThrillerMax 1998 Yes Yes Spanish Cinemáx 2001 Yes Yes No Adult Playboy TV 1982 Playboy Enterprises Yes aka Playboy Channel Spice Networks 1994 Playboy Enterprises Yes 6 Multiplex channels; Club Jenna, Fresh!, SKiN TV, Spice Wild, Spice:Xcess, Shorteez Climax 2007 Playboy Enterprises Yes 3 Multiplex channels Hot Choice 1988 In Demand Yes PPV, available on most cable systems. Hustler TV 1995 Pramer International Group Yes PPV Service Peephole TV Media House Enterprises Yes 7 Multiplex channels; Peephole.TV (East/West feed), Peephole Color, Peephole Gay World, Peephole Big Ass & Tits, Peephole Teen & Milf, Peephole Gang Bang & Gonzo. The Erotic Network 2007 New Frontier Media Yes 6 Multiplex channels; Juicy, Real, SexSee, TEN, Vavoom, Xtsy. Regional The following channels are only available in certain regions as noted; they are all primarily broadcast in English; Genre Name Location Owner (Subsidary) HD Notes News News 12 Long Island New York metropolitan area Altice USA (News 12 Networks) News 12 New Jersey News 12 Westchester News 12 Connecticut News 12 The Bronx News 12 Brooklyn News 12 Hudson Valley Arizona Capitol Television Phoenix, Arizona Arizona State Legislature Also called ACP Cable 11 Northern Lancaster County Eastern Pennsylvania Blue Ridge Communications TV 13 The Poconos Eastern Pennsylvania Bay News 9 Tampa, Florida Charter Communications News 13 Orlando, Florida formerly Central Florida News 13 NY1 New York City Spectrum News Austin Austin, Texas Formerly known as News 8 Austin, YNN Austin, and Time Warner Cable News Austin Spectrum News Buffalo Buffalo, New York Formerly known as YNN Buffalo and Time Warner Cable News Buffalo Spectrum News Capital Region Upstate New York Formerly known as Capital News 9, YNN Capital Region, and Time Warner Cable News Capital Region Spectrum News Central New York Syracuse, New York Formerly known as News 10 Now, YNN Central New York, and Time Warner Cable News Central New York Spectrum News North Carolina Raleigh–Durham Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point and Charlotte, North Carolina Formerly known as News 14 Carolina and Time Warner Cable News North Carolina Spectrum News Rochester Rochester, New York Original station of the Spectrum News system; formerly known as WGRC-TV, GRC9News, R News, YNN Rochester, and Time Warner Cable News Rochester WSNN-LD Sarasota, Florida Citadel Communications (managed by LDB Media, LLC) branded as Suncoast News Network (SNN) Formerly branded as SNN Local News, SNN Local News 6, SNN News 6, and Six News Now Pittsburgh Cable News Channel Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Cox Communications Also called PCNC; Uses resources from co-owned WPXI News Channel Nebraska Norfolk, South Sioux City, Columbus, Grand Island, Lincoln, Omaha and Beatrice, Nebraska Flood Communications, LLC News 9 NowNews on 6 Now Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma Cox Communications / Griffin Communications New England Cable News New England NBCUniversal also called NECN WJLA 24/7 News Washington, D.C. regional, Virginia and Maryland Sinclair Broadcast Group Formerly known as NewsChannel 8 and TBD TV Arizona NewsChannel Phoenix, Arizona Tegna Idaho's Very Own 24/7 Boise, Idaho NewsWatch 15 New Orleans, Louisiana Tegna / Cox Communications Sports Mid-Atlantic Sports Network Baltimore Orioles / Washington Nationals Yes English and Spanish audio feed Big Ten Network Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) / Big Ten Conference Yes Big Ten Conference sports English and Spanish audio feed New England Sports Network Boston Red Sox / Boston Bruins Yes Oc 16 Charter Communications Yes University of Hawaii Athletic programs Spectrum Sports (Florida) Yes formerly Catch 47 and Bright House Sports Network Spectrum Sports (Kansas City) Yes formerly Metro Sports and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum Sports (Ohio) Yes formerly TWTV (Cincinnati and Dayton), Time Warner Cable Connections, Time Warner NE Ohio Network (NEON) (Cleveland, Akron and Canton), Central Ohio Sport! TV (Columbus) and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum Sports (Wisconsin) Yes formerly Time Warner Sports Milwaukee, Time Warner Cable Sports 32, and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum SportsNet Yes formerly TWC SportsNet Spectrum SportsNet LA Yes Cox Sports Television Cox Communications Yes ACC Network ESPN Inc. Yes SEC Network Yes Altitude Sports and Entertainment Kroenke Sports & Entertainment Yes Sports channel covering Denver sports teams MSG MSG Networks Yes Formerly UA-Columbia/MSG and Madison Square Garden Network English and Spanish audio feed MSG Plus Yes formerly Cablevision Sports 3, SportsChannel New York and FSN New York English and Spanish audio feed MSG Western New York Yes subfeed of MSG, programmed by Pegula Sports and Entertainment, formerly MSG Zone 3 or MSG Sabres English and Spanish audio feed NBC Sports Bay Area Comcast (NBC Sports Regional Networks, NBC Sports Group, NBCUniversal) Yes formerly Pacific Sports Network, SportsChannel Bay Area, SportsChannel Pacific, FSN Bay Area and CSN Bay Area, sister channel of NBC Sports California NBC Sports Chicago formerly CSN Chicago NBC Sports Washington formerly HTS: Home Team Sports and CSN Mid-Atlantic NBC Sports Boston formerly PRISM New England, SportsChannel New England, FSN New England and CSN New England NBC Sports Northwest formerly CSN Northwest NBC Sports Philadelphia formerly PRISM and CSN Philadelphia NBC Sports California formerly CSN West, sister channel of NBC Sports Bay Area SportsNet New York New York Mets / Charter Communications / NBCUniversal Yes English and Spanish audio feed Pac-12 Network Pac-12 Conference Yes Pac-12 Conference sports, consists of a national feed plus 6 regional feeds Fox Sports Arizona Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes formerly Prime Sports Arizona Fox Sports Detroit Fox Sports Florida formerly SportsChannel Florida – sister channel of Fox Sports Sun Fox Sports Midwest (formerly Prime Sports Midwest) – sister channel of Fox Sports Kansas City and Fox Sports Indiana Fox Sports Indiana sister channel of Fox Sports Indiana and Fox Sports Kansas City Fox Sports Kansas City sister channel of Fox Sports Midwest and Fox Sports Indiana. Fox Sports North formerly WCCO II and Midwest Sports Channel – MSC) – Sister channel of Fox Sports Wisconsin Fox Sports Wisconsin Formerly Wisconsin Sports Network, MSC WI feed and Fox Sports North WI feed) sister channel of Fox Sports North Fox Sports Ohio (Cleveland feed) formerly SportsChannel Ohio Fox Sports Ohio (Cincinnati feed) formerly SportsChannel Cincinnati Prime Ticket formerly FSN West 2) – sister channel of Fox Sports West Fox Sports South formerly the first SportSouth) – sister channel of current Fox Sports Southeast, formerly the second SportSouth. Fox Sports Southwest (originally Home Sports Entertainment – HSE, then Prime Sports Southwest) Fox Sports Houston – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports Oklahoma – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports New Orleans – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports West originally Prime Ticket, then Prime Sports West) – sister channel of Prime Ticket Fox Sports San Diego Fox Sports San Diego – subfeed of Fox Prime Ticket Fox Sports Southeast formerly Turner South and SportsSouth and sister channel of FSN South English and Spanish audio feed Fox Sports Sun formerly Sunshine Network and Sun Sports; Sister channel of FSN Florida English and Spanish audio feed SportsTime Ohio English and Spanish audio feed Longhorn Network University of Texas at Austin / ESPN Inc. / IMG College Yes AT&T SportsNet Southwest AT&T Inc. (WarnerMedia) Yes formerly CSN Houston and Root Sports Southwest AT&T SportsNet Pittsburgh formerly Pirates Cable Network, KBL Entertainment Network, Prime Sports KBL, FSN Pittsburgh and Root Sports Pittsburgh AT&T SportsNet Rocky Mountain formerly Prime Sports Network, Prime Sports Rocky Mountain, FSN Rocky Mountain and Root Sports Rocky Mountain Root Sports Northwest formerly Northwest Cable Sports, Pirme Sports Northwest and FSN Northwest YES Network Yankee Global Enterprises / Amazon / Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes English and Spanish audio feed Local The following channels are Distant Locals, sold out-of-market to areas without a relevant affiliate: Call Sign Location Owner (Parent company) Notes WPIX New York City E. W. Scripps Company(E. W. Scripps Company) Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate KTLA Los Angeles Nexstar Broadcasting(Nexstar Media Group) Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate WGN-TV Chicago Superstation feed for markets without an independent station KWGN-TV Denver Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate WSBK-TV Boston CBS Television Stations(ViacomCBS) Superstation feed of MyNetworkTV for markets without a MyNetworkTV affiliate WPCH-TV Atlanta Meredith Corporation Superstation feed; formerly WTBS, rebranded as PeachtreeTV WWOR-TV Secaucus, New Jersey(New York City) Fox Television Stations(Fox Corporation) Superstation MyNetworkTV feed for markets without a MyNetworkTV affiliate WABC-TV New York City ABC Owned Television Stations(The Walt Disney Company) National ABC feed for markets without an ABC affiliate KABC-TV Los Angeles WCVB-TV Boston Hearst Television(Hearst Communications) WXYZ-TV Detroit E.W. Scripps Company WLS-TV Chicago ABC Owned Television Stations (The Walt Disney Company) WPVI-TV Philadelphia KSTP-TV Minneapolis–St. Paul Hubbard Broadcasting KGO-TV San Francisco ABC Owned Television Stations(The Walt Disney Company) WHTM-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Nexstar Media Group KMGH-TV Denver E. W. Scripps Company WCBS-TV New York City CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) National CBS feed for markets without a CBS affiliate KCBS-TV Los Angeles WBZ-TV Boston KYW-TV Philadelphia KTVT Dallas KPIX-TV San Francisco WWJ-TV Detroit WBBM-TV Chicago WCCO-TV Minneapolis–St. Paul KCNC-TV Denver WHP-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Sinclair Broadcast Group WNBC New York City NBC Owned Television Stations(NBCUniversal) National NBC feed for markets without an NBC affiliate KNBC Los Angeles KNTV San Francisco KXAS-TV Dallas WCAU Philadelphia WDIV-TV Detroit Graham Media Group KFOR-TV Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WMAQ-TV Chicago NBC Owned Television Stations (NBCUniversal) KARE Minneapolis–St. Paul Tegna KUSA Denver WNYW New York Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) National Fox feed for markets without a Fox affiliate KTTV Los Angeles KTVU San Francisco KMSP-TV Minneapolis-St. Paul WTXF-TV Philadelphia WPWR-TV Chicago WFXT Boston Cox Media Group WLNY-TV New York City CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) WMYD Detroit E. W. Scripps Company KCOP-TV Los Angeles Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) KCAL-TV Los Angeles CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) WFMZ-TV Allentown, Pennsylvania Maranatha Broadcasting Company, Inc. WNYE-TV New York City NYC Media New York City Department of Information Technology & Telecommunications WPSG Philadelphia CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) KBCW San Francisco WKBD-TV Detroit WDPN-TV Philadelphia Maranatha Broadcasting Company Inc. WUHF Rochester, New York Sinclair Broadcast Group WMCN-TV Princeton, New Jersey KICU-TV San Francisco Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) WPHL-TV Philadelphia Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WRNN-TV Kingston, New York WRNN-TV Associates (WRNN License Company, LLC) KRON-TV San Francisco Nexstar Media Group WADL (TV) Detroit WFLD Chicago Fox Television Stations KOFY-TV San Francisco CNZ Communications INC. WCIU-TV Chicago Weigel Broadcasting WJBK Detroit Fox Television Stations KDVR Denver Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WNET New York City WNET.org WLIW Long Island, New York NJTV New Jersey WTTW Chicago KCET Los Angeles Public Media Group of Southern California Superstation feed; Non-commercial educational independent station WHYY-TV Wilmington, Delaware WHYY, Inc. WLVT-TV Allentown, Pennsylvania Lehigh Valley Public Telecommunications Corporation KOCE-TV Los Angeles WITF-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania WITF Inc. KQED (TV) San Francisco WTVS Detroit KQEH San Jose WKAQ-TV San Juan, Puerto Rico Telemundo Station Group(NBCUniversal) Superstation Telemundo feed Spanish Ion Television Ion Media National feed for markets without an Ion Television owned-and-operated station or affiliate The CW Plus ViacomCBS (50%) / WarnerMedia (AT&T) (50%) CW feed for markets without an over-the-air CW affiliate Independent station (North America) Replaced UPN and The WB PBS Nonprofit organization Replaced National Educational Television MeTV Weigel Broadcasting Spanish Genre Name Year of Launch Owner East/West Feed HD Notes Broadcast Azteca América Azteca International Corporation Yes National feed available for markets without an Azteca affiliate Estrella TV LBI Media(Liberman Broadcasting) Yes National feed available for markets without an Estrella TV affiliate LATV LATV Networks Yes Mega TV Spanish Broadcasting System Yes Telemundo NBCUniversal Yes Yes formerly NetSpan Spanish audio feed; national feed available for markets without a Telemundo affiliate TeleXitos UniMás Univision Communications Yes Yes Formerly TeleFutura; national feed available for markets without a UniMás affiliate Univision Yes Yes formerly Spanish International Network Spanish audio feed; national feed available for markets without a Univision affiliate Cable/ Satellite 3ABN Latino Three Angels Broadcasting Network Spanish and Portuguese TV channel based in West Frankfort, Illinois Antena 3 Internacional Spanish TV channel from Spain Atres Series Atresmedia Bandamax Televisa beIN Sports en Español beIN Media Group Yes English and Spanish audio feed Canal 22 Internacional Secretariat of Culture Yes Only Available at Directv on Channel 446 and cable providers like Spectrum on 841 in HD Canal Once Instituto Politécnico Nacional Only Available at Directv on Channel 447 and cable providers like Spectrum on Channel 844 Also available at VEMOX Caracol TV Internacional Julio Mario Santo Domingo Available at VIVOPlay CBeebies BBC Studios Available at Dish Network on Channel 848 in Spanish Centroamérica TV Cine Clásico Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Cine Estelar Only Available at Directv on Channel 422 Cine Nostalgia Only Available at Directv on Channel 424 Cine Mexicano Olympusat, Inc. Available at Directv on Channel 462 Cine Sony Television Sony Pictures Television Yes Cinelatino MVS Comunicaciones Distributed/owned in Canada by Telelatino Network Inc. CNN en Español WarnerMedia CubaMAX Available at Dish Network CubaPlay Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX De Película Televisa De Película Clásico Discovery en Español Discovery Inc. Yes Discovery Familia Yes formerly Discovery Kids en Español Ecuador TV Only Available at Directv on Channel 457 Ecuavisa Internacional Only Available at Directv on Channel 438 El Rey Network Starvision Direct Cable Univision Communications Yes English and Spanish audio feed Enlace Trinity Broadcasting Network Esperanza TV Seventh-day Adventist Church ESPN Deportes ESPN Inc. Yes Spanish-language sports network EWTN Español Eternal Word Television Network Yes Fox Deportes Fox Corporation Yes formerly Fox en Español from until 2010, Fox Sports Américas Fox Life Disney Channels Worldwide FOROtv Televisa Yes Galavisión Univision Communications Yes Yes GOL TV Gol TV Inc. Yes Gran Cine Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Hola! TV Only Available at Directv on Channel 430 History en Español A&E Networks Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network Inc. HispanicTV WarnerMedia Mexicanal Castalia Communications & Cablecom MTV Tres ViacomCBS Yes formerly MTV en Español. Nat Geo Mundo The Walt Disney Company National Geographic Society PXTV Available at VEMOX RCN Nuestra Tele RCN Group formerly TV Colombia until October 8, 2012 Ritmoson Latino Televisa ¡Sorpresa! Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Telefe Internacional Telefe Available at Directv on Channel 411 TeleFórmula Grupo Fórmula Yes Available at Dish Network on Channel 858 in SD Spectrum on Channel 845 in HD & Xfinity TeleHit Televisa Networks TELE N Olympusat, Inc. formerly Latele Novela. Available at VEMOX TUDN Univision Communications Yes formerly Univision Deportes TV Chile Televisión Nacional de Chile Available at Directv on Channel 437 Also available at VEMOX and VIVOPlay TV Venezuela Globovisión Canal Sur Available at Directv on Channel 409 Also available at VIVOPlay TVE Internacional Televisión Española TyC Sports Torneos y Competencias Clarín Group Available at Directv on Channel 469 Universo NBCUniversal Yes Yes formerly mun2 and NBC Universo Univision tlnovelas Univision Communications V-me V-me Media Inc. Available at Directv on 440 ViendoMovies SomosTV WAPA America InterMedia Advisors Ultra HD Plex Olympusat, Inc. No Ultra HD Multiplex Channels; Ultra Banda Ultra Cine Ultra Clásico Ultra Docu Ultra Familia Ultra Fiesta Ultra Film Ultra Kidz Ultra Luna Ultra Macho Ultra Mex Ultra Tainment On Demand Available. International Name Owner Language 3ABN Français Three Angels Broadcasting Network French TV channel based in West Frankfort, Illinois 3ABN International Programming as seen on 3ABN including other programming produced by 3ABN Australia 3ABN Russia Russian TV channel based in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia The Africa Channel Various Investors African TV channel based in North Hollywood, California The Arabic Channel Allied Media Arabic TV channel based in New York City, New York Afrotainment Soundview Africa African TV channel based in New York City, New York Afrotainment Music African music channel based in New York City, New York Armenian American Broadcasting Corporation Armenian TV channel based in Glendale, California ARTN Armenian-Russian Television Network Armenian TV channel based in Glendale, California Bonjour America Bonjour America Media Group TV channel in French based in Miami, Florida Bostel RTV Bostel Bosnian TV channel based in Chicago DFH Network DFH Network Inc. Turkish Pay-TV service based in Santa Ana, California comprising 7 channels Eleven Sports Network Eleven Sports International sports channel based in Stamford, Connecticut German Kino Plus FennFamLLC German TV channel based in Marietta, Georgia ITV Gold International Broadcasting Network South Asian TV channel based in Long Island City, New York Impact Television Impact Television Network Russian TV channel based in Sacramento, California Jewish Broadcasting Service English news and cultural Jewish TV channel Jewish TV channel based in Fort Lee, New Jersey Jewish Life Television Jewish Life Television Jewish TV channel based in Los Angeles, California JUS One JUS Broadcasting Punjabi TV channel based in Long Island City, New York JUS Punjabi Punjabi TV channel based in Long Island City, New York KO-AM TV KO_AM TV Inc. Korean TV channel based in Seattle The Korean Channel The Korean Channel Inc. Korean TV channel based in College Point, New York MKTV Media Korea Inc. Korean TV channel based in Fort Lee, New Jersey Myx TV ABS-CBN Corporation Asian-American TV channel based in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area New Greek TV New Greek TV Inc. Greek TV channel based in Astoria NY RSC Romanian Satellite Network Romanian Pay-TV service based in Rockville, Maryland, comprising 5 channels RT (ANO) "TV-Novosti" Russian TV channel based in Moscow, Russia TV503 Crossing TV Lincoln Square Media Russian TV channel based in New York City Saigon Broadcasting Television Network SBTN Inc. Vietnamese TV channel based in Garden Grove, California Sino TV Multicultural Radio Broadcasting Inc. Chinese channel based in New York City, New York Sky Link TV Sky Link TV Inc. Chinese TV channel based in Rosemead, California SPT TV Seabra Portuguese Television Portuguese TV channel based in Newark, New Jersey Tai Seng Sat TV Tai Seng Entertainment Chinese TV channel based in San Francisco, California Tapesh TV Persian Broadcasting Company Persian TV channel based in Los Angeles, California Jadeworld TVB USA Inc. Chinese TV channel based in Norwalk, California TV Asia Asia Star Broadcasting Inc South Asian TV channel, based in Edison, New Jersey TV Japan NHK Cosmomedia America Japanese channel based in New York City, New York tvK Television Korea24 Inc. Korean TV channel based in Los Angeles, California Viên Thao TV Vien Thao Media Vietnamese TV channel based in San Jose, California Radio The following are audio-only channels available to Pay TV users; some channels use freeze frame television to display information on screen: Name Number of Channels Owner Notes DMX (SongTap) 84 Mood Media Digital audio service available to commercial establishments Mediamplify Music EGLA Communications Digital audio service available to commercial establishments / Digital audio service available. Music Choice 50 Comcast, Cox Communications, Charter Communications, Microsoft, Arris International and Verizon Communications Digital audio service available through digital cable and Metal Choice on channel 822. Muzak 60 Muzak Holdings Digital audio service available to commercial establishments. Available on Dish Network channels 920–979, and 981. Sirius Satellite Radio / XM Satellite Radio 134 Sirius XM Holdings Available on Dish Network channels 6002-6099/Hopper 99 Stingray Music 400 Stingray Digital Available on AT&T U-Verse channels 5100–5174. Former Channels Defunct networks Main article: List of defunct television networks in the United States Network rebrands Name Owner Notes ARTS Hearst Communications/ABC Replaced by A&E in 1984, through a merger with NBC-owned arts network The Entertainment Channel. America's Collectibles Network Multimedia Commerce Group Inc. Replaced by Jewelry Television by October 15, 1993. America's Talking NBCUniversal Replaced by MSNBC in 1996. BET Jazz BET Networks Renamed as BET J, Centric, and now BET Her. The Biography Channel A&E Networks Renamed Bio in July 2007 and then rebranded to FYI on July 7, 2014. Cable Health Club Discovery Inc. Rebranded America's Health Network in 1996, The Health Network in 1999, switched to FitTV in 2004, then Discovery Fit & Health on February 1, 2011. CBN Walt Disney Television Relaunched to The Family Channel in 1990, Fox Family Channel in 1998, ABC Family on November 10, 2001, then Freeform on January 12, 2016. Classic Sports Network ESPN Inc. Purchased by ESPN and renamed ESPN Classic. The Church Channel Trinity Broadcasting Network Replaced by Hillsong Channel on June 1, 2016. CNN 2 WarnerMedia News & Sports (WarnerMedia) Rebranded as CNN Headline News in January 1983, and then simply HLN on June 17, 2007. Court TV Rebranded as TruTV on January 1, 2008. Discovery Civilization Network Discovery Inc. Became Discovery Civilization Channel first, next Discovery Times, and now Investigation Discovery. Discovery Health Channel Merged with FitTV to create Discovery Fit & Health on February 1, 2011, and got replaced with OWN on January 1, 2011. Discovery HD Theater Renamed HD Theater on September 22, 2007, then rebranded Velocity on October 4, 2011. Discovery Kids Relaunched The Hub on October 10, 2010, renamed Hub Network in 2013, and then rebranded Discovery Family on October 13, 2014. Discovery Travel and Living Rebranded Discovery Home and Leisure in 1998, and then Discovery Home in 2004, Planet Green in 2008, and then Destination America on May 26, 2012. Discovery Wings Rebranded Military Channel on January 10, 2005, then American Heroes Channel on March 3, 2014. Encore Starz Inc. Renamed Starz Encore on April 5, 2016. Fine Living Network Discovery Inc. Shut down on May 31, 2010, replaced by Cooking Channel. Fox Movie Channel Walt Disney Television Rebranded FXM on January 1, 2012. Fox Reality Channel Shut down on March 29, 2010, replaced by Nat Geo Wild. Fox Sports en Español Fox Corporation Relaunched Fox Deportes on October 1, 2010. Fox Sports World Relaunched as Fox Soccer Channel in 2005, then renamed Fox Soccer in 2011, then it was replaced by FXX on September 2, 2013. Freeview AT&T Rebranded to The 101 Network in 2005, and then got rebranded to the Audience Network on June 1, 2011. Fuel TV Fox Corporation Replaced by Fox Sports 2 on August 17, 2013. Gospel Music Channel InterMedia Partners Renamed GMC TV in fall 2010 and then Up on June 1, 2013. Ha! ViacomCBS Domestic Networks Merged with The Comedy Channel to form Comedy Central in 1991. Hallmark Movie Channel Crown Media Holdings (Hallmark Cards) Rebranded Hallmark Movies & Mysteries on September 29, 2014. HDNet HDNet Inc. Rebranded AXS TV on July 2, 2012. HRTV Betfair Rebranded TVG2 on October 28, 2015. The Inspiration Network The Inspiration Networks Renamed INSP in October 2010. INTRO Television Liberty Starz originally called TV!; renamed INTRO Television, carrying the same programming format. Replaced by Encore PLEX (eventually changed to MoviePlex) in 1995. JCTV Trinity Broadcasting Network Renamed JUCE TV on January 1, 2014. The Jewelry Channel Rebranded Liquidation Channel in 2009 and then renamed to Shop LC on January 9, 2017. Movietime NBCUniversal Rebranded as E! in 1991. MHD ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Rebranded Palladia on September 1, 2008, and then renamed MTV Live on February 1, 2016. MTV Hits Renamed NickMusic on September 9, 2016. MTVX Relaunched MTV Jams on May 1, 2002 and then renamed BET Jams on October 5, 2015. MuchUSA CHUM Limited and Rainbow Media Rebranded fuse on May 19, 2003. Mun2 NBCUniversal Rebranded NBC Universo on February 1, 2015. National College Sports Network ViacomCBS Rebranded to CSTV in 2003, and then CBS College Sports Network in 2008, and then finally CBS Sports Network on April 4, 2011. The 90's Channel Public Communicators, Inc. Relaunched Free Speech TV in 1995 Nick GaS ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Replacd by The N on January 1, 2008, and then TeenNick on September 28, 2009. Noggin Rebranded Nick Jr. on September 28, 2009. Odyssey Crown Media Holdings (Hallmark Cards) Originally launched as two separate networks: ACTS (a Christian teaching channel) and VISN (interfaith programming). VISN and ACTS merged and became Faith & Values Channel. The network was renamed again in 1996 as Odyssey. Hallmark Entertainment and The Jim Henson Company purchased the network, which was relaunched as Hallmark Channel in 2001. Outdoor Life Network NBCUniversal Relaunched as Versus on September 25, 2006. Rebranded NBC Sports Network on January 2, 2012, and then shorted down to the NBCSN on August 18, 2013. PAX TV Ion Media Networks Relaunched i: Independent Television on July 1, 2005, and then Ion Television on January 29, 2007. PBS Kids PBS Relaunched as PBS Kids Sprout on September 26, 2005, then renamed to Sprout in 2013, and then Universal Kids on September 9, 2017. Pinwheel ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Rebranded on April 1, 1979, to Nickelodeon. Prevue Channel Lions Gate Entertainment Launched in 1981 as the Electronic Program Guide, then became the Prevue Guide, then modified slightly into Prevue Channel. Purchased by TV Guide in 1999 and renamed TV Guide Channel and then became the TV Guide Network in 2007, and then shortened to TVGN in 2013, as of January 14, 2015, it is now Pop. Sci Fi Channel NBCUniversal Renamed Syfy on July 7, 2009. Smile of a Child TBN Renamed Smile on January 1, 2017. SpeedVision SPEED Channel Inc. (Fox Corporation) Renamed Speed, replaced by Fox Sports 1 on August 17, 2013. Star Channel Showtime Networks (ViacomCBS) Relaunched to become The Movie Channel in 1979. Sundance Channel AMC Networks Renamed SundanceTV on February 1, 2014. Telefutura Univision Communications Rebranded UniMás on January 7, 2013. Tempo Television Formerly Satellite Program Network and then replaced by CNBC on April 17, 1989. TNN ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Originally The Nashville Network later renamed The National Network. Purchased by Viacom and relaunched Spike on August 11, 2003. It was then renamed The Paramount Network on January 18, 2018. Toon Disney Disney Replaced by Disney XD on February 13, 2009. FUNimation Channel Funimation/Olympusat Inc. Rebranded TOKU on December 31, 2015. ValueVision ValueVision Media Relaunched in 2001 to ShopNBC, then ShopHQ on May 22, 2013, and then EVINE Live on February 13, 2015. VH1 Smooth ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Renamed VH1 Classic in 1999 and then became MTV Classic on August 1, 2016. VH1 Country renamed CMT Pure Country on May 27, 2006, and then CMT Music on January 4, 2016. VH1 MegaHits Replaced by Logo TV on June 30, 2005. VH1 Soul Renamed BET Soul on December 28, 2015. WealthTV Herring Broadcasting Rebranded AWE on October 1, 2013. See also Television portal United States portal Big Three television networks Cable television in the United States Communications in the United States Fourth television network High-definition television in the United States List of television stations in the United States List of United States over-the-air television networks List of United States television markets List of United States stations available in Canada List of Canadian television stations available in the United States Simultaneous substitution Satellite television in the United States Television in the United States Television news in the United States United States cable news References
  9. Ok just one more but please, stop posting other peoples's work and passing it off as yours. It makes you look cleverer than you actually are. List of United States pay television channels From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from List of United States cable and satellite television networks) Jump to navigation Jump to search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "List of United States pay television channels" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The following is a list of pay television networks broadcasting or receivable in the United States, organized by broadcast area and genre. Some television providers use one or more channel slots for east/west feeds, high definition services and access to video on demand. This list may be incomplete and uses limited sources relative to the 2,675[1] TV providers in the United States.[2][3][4][5][6] Contents 1 National 2 Regional 3 Local 4 Spanish 5 International 6 Radio 7 Former Channels 7.1 Defunct networks 7.2 Network rebrands 8 See also 9 References National The following channels are all broadcast primarily in English. Genre Name Year of launch Owner (Subsidary) East / West Feed HD Feed SAP Feed Notes Variety A&E 1984 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Arts & Entertainment Network and A&E Network ABC 1948 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish National feed available on over-the-top providers Aspire 2012 Magic Johnson Enterprises Yes AWE 2004 Herring Broadcasting Yes Formerly Wealth TV AXS TV 2001 Anthem Sports & Entertainment [majority stake] + 2929 Entertainment + AEG (AXS TV, LLC) Yes Spanish Formerly HDNet BBC America 1998 AMC Networks (49.99%) / BBC Studios (50.01%) Yes Yes BET 1980 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Also known as "Black Entertainment Television" Bravo 1980 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish CBS 1929 ViacomCBS Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., and CBS, Inc.; National feed available on over-the-top providers Cleo TV 2019 Urban One Yes CMT 1983 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Originally Country Music Television, formerly CMTV Discovery Channel 1985 Discovery Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Discovery Channel E! 1987 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Movie Time ES.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes FOX 1986 Fox Corporation (Fox Entertainment Media) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly FBC; National feed available on over-the-top providers Fuse 1994 Fuse Media, LLC. Yes Merged with NuvoTV in 2015 Game Show Network 1994 Sony Pictures Television Yes Yes Also referred to as GSN Ion Plus 2007 Ion Media Formerly Ion Life Ion Television 1998 Ion Media Yes Yes Formerly Pax TV and i: Independent Television; national feed available in markets without an Ion Television affiliate MTV 1981 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Originally Music Television MTV2 1996 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly M2 / The Box MyNetworkTV 2006 Fox Corporation (Fox Entertainment Media) Yes Yes Originally as a broadcast television network from 2006 to 2009; National feed available on over-the-top providers NBC 1939 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish National feed available on over-the-top providers Ovation 1996 Hubbard Broadcasting Yes Called Ovation TV from 2007-2010 Oxygen 2000 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Pop 1981 2015 as Pop ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Electronic Program Guide, Prevue Guide, Prevue Channel, TV Guide Channel, TV Guide Network and TVGN RFD-TV 2000 Rural Media Group Yes TBS 1967 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly WJRJ-TV, WTCG-TV, SuperStation WTBS and TBS Superstation The CW 2006 AT&T (WarnerMedia) [50%] / ViacomCBS [50%] Yes Yes Spanish Replaced UPN and The WB; national feed available on over-the-top providers truTV 1991 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Court TV from 1991 to December 31, 2007 TV One 2004 Urban One Yes Spanish USA Network 1977 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Madison Square Garden Sports Network VH1 1985 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly VH-1/VH-1: Video Hits One and VH1: Music First WGN America 1978 Nexstar Broadcasting(Nexstar Media Group) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly WGN, WGN Superstation and Superstation WGN Lifestyle Beauty Channel 2012 United Global Media Group, Inc. Yes Formerly Salon TV Cooking Channel 2010 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Replaced Fine Living Network; Create 2006 American Public Television Destination America 2012 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Formerly Discovery Travel and Living, Discovery Home and Leisure, Discovery Home and Planet Green Discovery Life 2011 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Replaced FitTV on February 1, 2011; a product of the merger of Discovery Health and FitTV. Formerly known as Discovery Fit & Health DIY Network 1999 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Do-It-Yourself Network; To be rebranded as Magnolia Network in Summer 2020 Food Network 1993 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Television Food Network FYI 1999 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The Biography Channel HGTV 1994 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly known as Home & Garden Television Lifetime 1984 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Lifetime Real Women 2001 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Spanish LMN 1998 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Lifetime Movie Network and LMN Logo TV 2005 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes MyDestination.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Oprah Winfrey Network 2011 Discovery, Inc. [70%] / Harpo Productions [Minority] Yes Yes Pets.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Recipe.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes TLC 1972 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Appalachian Community Service Network and The Learning Channel Travel Channel 1987 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Travel Channel We TV 1997 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Romance Classics and WE: Women's Entertainment Z Living 2007 Essel Group Yes Formerly Veria Living Factual American Heroes Channel 1998 Discovery Inc. Yes Spanish Formerly Discovery Wings and Military Channel Animal Planet 1996 Discovery, Inc. Yes Yes Spanish & French Crime & Investigation 2005 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Spanish History 1995 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The History Channel Investigation Discovery 1996 Discovery Inc. Yes Yes Formerly Discovery Civilization Network: The World History and Geography Channel, Discovery Civilization Channel and Discovery Times Military History 2005 The Walt Disney Company [50%] / Hearst Communications [50%] (A&E Networks) Formerly Military History Channel NASA TV 1982 NASA Yes Nat Geo Wild 2010 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) [73%] / National Geographic Society [27%] Yes National Geographic 2001 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) [73%] / National Geographic Society [27%] Yes Yes Formerly National Geographic Channel Science Channel 1996 Discovery, Inc. Yes Spanish Formerly Discovery Science, Discovery Science Channel, The Science Channel and Science Smithsonian Channel 2007 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) [50%] / Smithsonian Institution [50%] Yes Yes Vice on TV 2016 The Walt Disney Company [25%] & Hearst Communications [25%] (through A&E Networks) / Vice Media [50%] Yes Yes Formerly History International, H2 and Viceland Scripted Adult Swim 2001 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Late-night adult-oriented block to target 18+; Aired on the same channel as Cartoon Network AMC 1984 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly American Movie Classics Comedy Central 1991 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly CTV: The Comedy Network; A product of the merger of Viacom's HA! TV Comedy Network and The Comedy Channel Comedy.TV 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Freeform 1977 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes formerly CBN Satellite Service, CBN Cable Network, The CBN Family Channel, The Family Channel, Fox Family Channel, and ABC Family FX 1994 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly fX FXX 2013 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Hallmark Channel 2001 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly VISN/ACTS, Faith and Values, and Odyssey Hallmark Drama 2017 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Hallmark Movies & Mysteries 2004 Hallmark Cards, Inc (Crown Media Holdings) Yes Formerly known as Hallmark Movie Channel IFC 1994 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Independent Film Channel Paramount Network 1983 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Formerly The Nashville Network, The National Network, and Spike Reelz 2006 Hubbard Broadcasting Yes Spanish Formerly ReelzChannel Syfy 1992 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Sci-Fi Channel and Sci Fi TNT 1988 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Turner Network Television. Shows mostly drama TOKU 2005 Olympusat, Inc. Yes Formerly FUNimation Channel; Asian-Pacific programming. Anime, movies and series. Movies Audience 1999 AT&T (DirecTV) Yes Formerly Freeview, The 101 Network and Audience Network; Closes down February 2020. Cinémoi 2009 Cinemoi North America Launched on September 17, 2012; airs French movies; DirecTV ceased transmission July 1, 2013. Airs on Verizon FiOS. FX Movie Channel 1994 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Spanish Formerly fXM – Movies from Fox; rebranded as Fox Movie Channel in 2000 and FXM on January 1, 2012. HDNet Movies 2003 AXS TV, LLC (Anthem Sports & Entertainment [majority stake] & 2929 Entertainment & AEG) Yes Spanish MGM HD 2007 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Yes ShortsHD 2010 AMC Networks International (25%) / Shorts International (75%) Yes Sony Movie Channel 2010 Sony Pictures Television Yes Sundance TV 1996 AMC Networks Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Sundance Channel Turner Classic Movies 1994 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Also referred to as TCM. Music BET Gospel 2002 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) BET Her 1996 Yes Spanish Formerly BET on Jazz, BET Jazz, BET J, and Centric. BET Hip-Hop 2005 BET Jams 2002 Formerly MTVX and MTV Jams BET Soul 1998 Formerly VH1 Soul CMT Music 1998 Formerly VH1 Country and CMT Pure Country FM 2015 Fuse Media, LLC. Yes Great American Country 1995 Discovery, Inc. Yes MTV Classic 1998 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Formerly VH1 Smooth, VH1 Classic Rock and VH1 Classic MTV Live 2006 Yes Formerly MHD and Palladia MTVU 2000 Formerly College Television Network Revolt 2013 Revolt Media & TV Yes Features live concerts, documentaries, music videos and hip-hop themed feature films. Stingray iConcerts 2003 Stingray Digital Video-on-demand channel Kids 3ABN Kids Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Formerly SonBeam Channel BabyFirst 2006 First Media Yes BabyTV 2003 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Boomerang 2000 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Spanish Cartoon Network 1992 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish Broadcasts daily from 6:00 am to 9:00 p.m. Eastern/Pacific Time; (Adult Swim shares channel space daily from 9:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.) Discovery Family 1996 Discovery, Inc. [60%] / Hasbro [40%] Yes Formerly Discovery Kids Channel, Discovery Channel Kids, Discovery Kids, The Hub and Hub Network Disney Channel 1983 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly The Disney Channel Disney Junior 2012 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Programming and branding also included in morning preschool block aired on Disney Channel; Disney XD 1998 The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Television) Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Toon Disney / Jetix until February 13, 2009 INSP 1978 The Inspiration Networks Yes Formerly known as PTL Network, PTL Satellite Network, PTL – The Inspirational Network and The Inspiration Network. Nick at Nite 1985 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Spanish The primary nighttime programming block. Nick Jr. 1999 Yes Yes Became a 24-hour channel on December 31, 2007; formerly Noggin Nickelodeon 1977 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Pinwheel NickMusic 2002 Formerly MTV Hits Nicktoons 2002 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Nicktoons TV and Nicktoons Network. PBS Kids 1996 PBS Yes Primo TV 2017 V-me Media Yes Qubo 2006 Ion Media Yes TeenNick 2007 ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Yes Became a 24-hour channel on December 31, 2007, after Nick GAS was shut down; formerly The N from April 2002 to September 2009; Network carries vintage programming block Nick Rewind nightly from 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. Universal Kids 2005 Comcast (NBCUniversal) Yes Formerly PBS Kids Sprout and Sprout. Up 2004 InterMedia Partners Yes Uplifting, family-friendly entertainment; formerly Gospel Music Channel and GMC TV Vme Kids 2010 V-Me Media inc. Yes News AccuWeather Network 2015 AccuWeather Yes Bloomberg TV 1994 Bloomberg L.P. Yes Spanish formerly Bloomberg Information TV C-SPAN 1979 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers the United States House of Representatives C-SPAN 2 1986 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers the United States Senate and airs Book TV on weekends C-SPAN 3 2001 National Cable Satellite Corporation Yes covers other live events and airs archived historical programming CNBC 1989 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes formerly Consumer News and Business Channel CNBC World 2001 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) CNN 1980 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes National news and opinion CNN Airport 1991 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Available only in airports CNN International 1985 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Court TV 1990 Katz Broadcasting, LLC(E.W. Scripps Company) Fox Business Network 2007 Fox Corporation (Fox News Media) Yes Fox News Channel 1996 Fox Corporation (Fox News Media) Yes National news and opinion Free Speech TV 1995 Public Communicators Inc. Public, non-profit channel Fusion TV 2013 Univision Communications (Fusion Media Group) Yes formerly ABC News Now HLN 1982 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes formerly CNN2, Headline News, CNN Headline News and HLN: Headline News. i24NEWS 2017 Altice USA Yes United States cut in channel of i24NEWS; an International news channel based in New York City. Justice Central 2009 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Link TV 1999 Public Media Group of Southern California formerly World Link TV Local Now 2016 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Local news and weather, national news and sports (available through 207 localized feeds; localized content varies depending on market); distributed via over-the-top MVPD services MHz Worldview 2005 MHz Networks MSNBC 1996 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes National news and opinion MSNBC World 1996 Comcast (NBCUniversal News Group) Yes Newsmax TV 2014 Newsmax Media Yes Newsy 2008 E.W. Scripps Company Yes One America News Network 2013 Herring Broadcasting Yes In cooperation with The Washington Times. RT America 2010 (ANO) TV-Novosti Yes United States cut in channel of RT; an international news channel based in Washington, D.C. The Weather Channel 1982 Entertainment Studios Networks Yes Spanish IntelliStar 2 WeatherNation TV 2011 WeatherNation TV Inc. Yes Weather network Weatherscan 1999 Entertainment Studios Networks Local and regional weather forecasts; national feed available on Dish Network Sports beIN Sports beIN Media Group Yes Cars.TV Entertainment Studios Networks Yes CBS Sports Network ViacomCBS (ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks) Yes Spanish formerly National College Sports Network, CSTV and CBS College Sports Network Eleven Sports Network Eleven Sports Network Yes replaced ONE World Sports ESPN The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPN Classic The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Spanish formerly Classic Sports Network, plans to become a Video on Demand channel ESPN College Extra The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPN2 The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish ESPNews The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes ESPNU The Walt Disney Company [80%] / Hearst Communications [20%] (ESPN Inc.) Yes Spanish Fox College Sports Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Fox College Sports (Atlantic) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Atlantic Fox College Sports (Central) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Central Fox College Sports (Pacific) Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish formerly Fox Sports Pacific Fox Soccer Plus Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes formerly Fox Sports Digital Networks, Replaced Setanta Sports USA on March 1, 2010. FS1 Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes Spanish Fox Sports 24-hour sports network. Replaced Speed FS2 Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) Yes Spanish Fox Sports 24-hour sports network. Formerly Fuel TV Game In Demand Yes Spanish outlet for MLB Extra Innings, and NHL Center Ice Golf Channel Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes Spanish formerly The Golf Channel MAVTV Lucas Oil Yes Spanish formerly Maverick Television MLB Extra Innings Major League Baseball Yes Spanish MLB Network Major League Baseball Yes Spanish MLS Direct Kick Major League Soccer Yes Motor Trend Discovery, Inc. / Source Interlink (Motor Trend Group) Yes Formerly Discovery HD Theater, HD Theater, and Velocity NBA League Pass National Basketball Association Yes Spanish NBA TV National Basketball Association Yes formerly NBA.com TV; Turner Sports operates the channel in association with the NBA. NBCSN Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes Spanish formerly Outdoor Life Network, Versus, and NBC Sports Network NFL Network National Football League Yes Spanish NFL RedZone National Football League Yes NFL Football (airs 1-8PM Sundays only) NFL Network Version of red zone NFL Sunday Ticket National Football League Yes Exclusive to DirecTV NFL Sunday Ticket RedZone National Football League Yes Exclusive DirecTV version of RedZone NHL Center Ice National Hockey League Yes Spanish NHL Network National Hockey League (84.4%) / NBCUniversal (15.6%) Yes Spanish Olympic Channel Comcast (NBCUniversal Sports Group) Yes formerly Bravo HD+ and Universal HD Outdoor Channel Kroenke Sports & Entertainment Yes Spanish formerly The Outdoor Channel Outside TV Mariah Media Yes formerly RSN Television Pursuit Channel Anthem Media Group Yes Hunting and fishing adventure programming Ride TV Ride Television Network, Inc. Yes Equestrian programming Sportsman Channel Kroenke Sports & Entertainment (Outdoor Sportsman Group) Yes Spanish Team In Demand Yes Spanish outlet for NBA League Pass, and MLS Direct Kick Tennis Channel Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes Spanish The Cowboy Channel Rural Media Group Yes formerly National Christian Network and FamilyNet The Ski Channel Steve Bellamy, Jonny Moseley, Bob Bryan, Mike Bryan Yes Spanish Video-on-demand channel TVG Betfair Yes Spanish The Interactive Horse Racing Network TVG2 Betfair Yes Formerly HRTV Untamed Sports TV Olympusat, Inc. World Fishing Network Keywest Marketing (80.1%) / Altitude Sports and Entertainment (19.9%) Yes Spanish Faith 3ABN Praise Him Music Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network 3ABN Proclaim! Three Angels Broadcasting Network Believer's Voice of Victory Network Kenneth Copeland Ministries BYUtv Brigham Young University Yes Latter-day Saint audience. Catholic Faith Network Roman Catholic Diocese of Rockville Centre Formerly known as Telecare CatholicTV CatholicTV.com 24/7 faith-based entertainment Christian Television Network Christian Television Network Available on DirecTV. Dare to Dream Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Daystar Word of God Fellowship Yes EWTN Eternal Word Television Network Spanish FETV LeSEA Broadcasting GEB America Oral Roberts University Yes Available on DirecTV. God TV The Angel Foundation worldwide Broadcast Licence is held by Angel Christian Television Trust Inc. God's Learning Channel Prime Time Christian Broadcasting Hillsong Channel Trinity Broadcasting Network formerly The Church Channel (2002–16) Hope Channel Seventh-day Adventist Church Jewish Life Television Jewish Life Television JUCE TV Trinity Broadcasting Network formerly JCTV LeSEA LeSEA Broadcasting Yes Also known as World Harvest Television NRB Network National Religious Broadcasters Available on DirecTV. Smile Trinity Broadcasting Network 24/7 religious-based children's television network formerly Smile of a Child TV SonLife Broadcasting Network Jimmy Swaggart Ministries Yes The Word Network Adell Broadcasting The Worship Network Christian Network, Inc. Three Angels Broadcasting Network Three Angels Broadcasting Network Tri-State Christian Television TCT Ministries Available on DirecTV. Trinity Broadcasting Network Trinity Broadcasting Network Yes Upliftv Olympusat, Inc. Available on DirecTV. Shopping Gem Shopping Network Gem Shopping Network Home Shopping Network 1977 Qurate Retail Group formerly Home Shopping Club HSN2 1982 Qurate Retail Group Jewelry Television 1993 Multimedia Commerce Group formerly America's Collectibles Network QVC 1986 Qurate Retail Group QVC2 2013 Qurate Retail Group formerly QVC Plus QVC3 2016 Qurate Retail Group Shop LC 2007 Vaibhav Global formerly The Jewelry Channel and Liquidation Channel ShopHQ 1991 Evine Inc. formerly ValueVision, ShopNBC, Evine and Evine Live Premium Epix 2009 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix 2 2010 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix Drive-in 2011 Yes No Spanish On Demand channel also available. Epix Hits 2012 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Showtime 1976 ViacomCBS (Showtime Networks) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Showtime 2 1991 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Beyond 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Extreme 1998 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Family Zone 2001 Yes No Spanish Showtime Next 2001 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Showcase 2001 Yes Yes Spanish Showtime Women 2001 Yes Yes Spanish The Movie Channel 1973 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Warner Star Chanel and Star Channel On Demand channel also available. The Movie Channel Xtra 1997 Yes Yes Spanish Flix 1992 Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Starz 1994 Lionsgate (Starz Inc.) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. Starz Cinema 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Comedy 2005 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Edge 1996 Yes Yes Spanish Starz in Black 1997 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Kids & Family 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore 1991 Yes Yes Spanish Formerly Encore On Demand channel also available. Starz Encore Action 1994 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Black 2005 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Classic 2013 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Español 2013 Yes No No Starz Encore Family 1994 Yes No Spanish Starz Encore Suspense 1994 Yes Yes Spanish Starz Encore Westerns 1994 Yes No Spanish MoviePlex 1997 Yes Yes No Formely Plex IndiePlex 2006 Yes Yes No RetroPlex 2006 Yes Yes No HBO 1972 AT&T (WarnerMedia) Yes Yes Spanish On Demand channel also available. HBO2 1991 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Comedy 1999 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Family 1996 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Latino 2000 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Signature 1991 Yes Yes Spanish HBO Zone 1999 Yes Yes Spanish Cinemax 1980 Yes Yes Spanish MoreMax 1991 Yes Yes Spanish 5StarMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish ActionMax 1995 Yes Yes Spanish MovieMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish OuterMax 2001 Yes Yes Spanish ThrillerMax 1998 Yes Yes Spanish Cinemáx 2001 Yes Yes No Adult Playboy TV 1982 Playboy Enterprises Yes aka Playboy Channel Spice Networks 1994 Playboy Enterprises Yes 6 Multiplex channels; Club Jenna, Fresh!, SKiN TV, Spice Wild, Spice:Xcess, Shorteez Climax 2007 Playboy Enterprises Yes 3 Multiplex channels Hot Choice 1988 In Demand Yes PPV, available on most cable systems. Hustler TV 1995 Pramer International Group Yes PPV Service Peephole TV Media House Enterprises Yes 7 Multiplex channels; Peephole.TV (East/West feed), Peephole Color, Peephole Gay World, Peephole Big Ass & Tits, Peephole Teen & Milf, Peephole Gang Bang & Gonzo. The Erotic Network 2007 New Frontier Media Yes 6 Multiplex channels; Juicy, Real, SexSee, TEN, Vavoom, Xtsy. Regional The following channels are only available in certain regions as noted; they are all primarily broadcast in English; Genre Name Location Owner (Subsidary) HD Notes News News 12 Long Island New York metropolitan area Altice USA (News 12 Networks) News 12 New Jersey News 12 Westchester News 12 Connecticut News 12 The Bronx News 12 Brooklyn News 12 Hudson Valley Arizona Capitol Television Phoenix, Arizona Arizona State Legislature Also called ACP Cable 11 Northern Lancaster County Eastern Pennsylvania Blue Ridge Communications TV 13 The Poconos Eastern Pennsylvania Bay News 9 Tampa, Florida Charter Communications News 13 Orlando, Florida formerly Central Florida News 13 NY1 New York City Spectrum News Austin Austin, Texas Formerly known as News 8 Austin, YNN Austin, and Time Warner Cable News Austin Spectrum News Buffalo Buffalo, New York Formerly known as YNN Buffalo and Time Warner Cable News Buffalo Spectrum News Capital Region Upstate New York Formerly known as Capital News 9, YNN Capital Region, and Time Warner Cable News Capital Region Spectrum News Central New York Syracuse, New York Formerly known as News 10 Now, YNN Central New York, and Time Warner Cable News Central New York Spectrum News North Carolina Raleigh–Durham Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point and Charlotte, North Carolina Formerly known as News 14 Carolina and Time Warner Cable News North Carolina Spectrum News Rochester Rochester, New York Original station of the Spectrum News system; formerly known as WGRC-TV, GRC9News, R News, YNN Rochester, and Time Warner Cable News Rochester WSNN-LD Sarasota, Florida Citadel Communications (managed by LDB Media, LLC) branded as Suncoast News Network (SNN) Formerly branded as SNN Local News, SNN Local News 6, SNN News 6, and Six News Now Pittsburgh Cable News Channel Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Cox Communications Also called PCNC; Uses resources from co-owned WPXI News Channel Nebraska Norfolk, South Sioux City, Columbus, Grand Island, Lincoln, Omaha and Beatrice, Nebraska Flood Communications, LLC News 9 NowNews on 6 Now Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma Cox Communications / Griffin Communications New England Cable News New England NBCUniversal also called NECN WJLA 24/7 News Washington, D.C. regional, Virginia and Maryland Sinclair Broadcast Group Formerly known as NewsChannel 8 and TBD TV Arizona NewsChannel Phoenix, Arizona Tegna Idaho's Very Own 24/7 Boise, Idaho NewsWatch 15 New Orleans, Louisiana Tegna / Cox Communications Sports Mid-Atlantic Sports Network Baltimore Orioles / Washington Nationals Yes English and Spanish audio feed Big Ten Network Fox Corporation (Fox Sports Media Group) / Big Ten Conference Yes Big Ten Conference sports English and Spanish audio feed New England Sports Network Boston Red Sox / Boston Bruins Yes Oc 16 Charter Communications Yes University of Hawaii Athletic programs Spectrum Sports (Florida) Yes formerly Catch 47 and Bright House Sports Network Spectrum Sports (Kansas City) Yes formerly Metro Sports and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum Sports (Ohio) Yes formerly TWTV (Cincinnati and Dayton), Time Warner Cable Connections, Time Warner NE Ohio Network (NEON) (Cleveland, Akron and Canton), Central Ohio Sport! TV (Columbus) and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum Sports (Wisconsin) Yes formerly Time Warner Sports Milwaukee, Time Warner Cable Sports 32, and Time Warner Cable SportsChannel Spectrum SportsNet Yes formerly TWC SportsNet Spectrum SportsNet LA Yes Cox Sports Television Cox Communications Yes ACC Network ESPN Inc. Yes SEC Network Yes Altitude Sports and Entertainment Kroenke Sports & Entertainment Yes Sports channel covering Denver sports teams MSG MSG Networks Yes Formerly UA-Columbia/MSG and Madison Square Garden Network English and Spanish audio feed MSG Plus Yes formerly Cablevision Sports 3, SportsChannel New York and FSN New York English and Spanish audio feed MSG Western New York Yes subfeed of MSG, programmed by Pegula Sports and Entertainment, formerly MSG Zone 3 or MSG Sabres English and Spanish audio feed NBC Sports Bay Area Comcast (NBC Sports Regional Networks, NBC Sports Group, NBCUniversal) Yes formerly Pacific Sports Network, SportsChannel Bay Area, SportsChannel Pacific, FSN Bay Area and CSN Bay Area, sister channel of NBC Sports California NBC Sports Chicago formerly CSN Chicago NBC Sports Washington formerly HTS: Home Team Sports and CSN Mid-Atlantic NBC Sports Boston formerly PRISM New England, SportsChannel New England, FSN New England and CSN New England NBC Sports Northwest formerly CSN Northwest NBC Sports Philadelphia formerly PRISM and CSN Philadelphia NBC Sports California formerly CSN West, sister channel of NBC Sports Bay Area SportsNet New York New York Mets / Charter Communications / NBCUniversal Yes English and Spanish audio feed Pac-12 Network Pac-12 Conference Yes Pac-12 Conference sports, consists of a national feed plus 6 regional feeds Fox Sports Arizona Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes formerly Prime Sports Arizona Fox Sports Detroit Fox Sports Florida formerly SportsChannel Florida – sister channel of Fox Sports Sun Fox Sports Midwest (formerly Prime Sports Midwest) – sister channel of Fox Sports Kansas City and Fox Sports Indiana Fox Sports Indiana sister channel of Fox Sports Indiana and Fox Sports Kansas City Fox Sports Kansas City sister channel of Fox Sports Midwest and Fox Sports Indiana. Fox Sports North formerly WCCO II and Midwest Sports Channel – MSC) – Sister channel of Fox Sports Wisconsin Fox Sports Wisconsin Formerly Wisconsin Sports Network, MSC WI feed and Fox Sports North WI feed) sister channel of Fox Sports North Fox Sports Ohio (Cleveland feed) formerly SportsChannel Ohio Fox Sports Ohio (Cincinnati feed) formerly SportsChannel Cincinnati Prime Ticket formerly FSN West 2) – sister channel of Fox Sports West Fox Sports South formerly the first SportSouth) – sister channel of current Fox Sports Southeast, formerly the second SportSouth. Fox Sports Southwest (originally Home Sports Entertainment – HSE, then Prime Sports Southwest) Fox Sports Houston – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports Oklahoma – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports New Orleans – subfeed of Fox Sports Southwest Fox Sports West originally Prime Ticket, then Prime Sports West) – sister channel of Prime Ticket Fox Sports San Diego Fox Sports San Diego – subfeed of Fox Prime Ticket Fox Sports Southeast formerly Turner South and SportsSouth and sister channel of FSN South English and Spanish audio feed Fox Sports Sun formerly Sunshine Network and Sun Sports; Sister channel of FSN Florida English and Spanish audio feed SportsTime Ohio English and Spanish audio feed Longhorn Network University of Texas at Austin / ESPN Inc. / IMG College Yes AT&T SportsNet Southwest AT&T Inc. (WarnerMedia) Yes formerly CSN Houston and Root Sports Southwest AT&T SportsNet Pittsburgh formerly Pirates Cable Network, KBL Entertainment Network, Prime Sports KBL, FSN Pittsburgh and Root Sports Pittsburgh AT&T SportsNet Rocky Mountain formerly Prime Sports Network, Prime Sports Rocky Mountain, FSN Rocky Mountain and Root Sports Rocky Mountain Root Sports Northwest formerly Northwest Cable Sports, Pirme Sports Northwest and FSN Northwest YES Network Yankee Global Enterprises / Amazon / Sinclair Broadcast Group Yes English and Spanish audio feed Local The following channels are Distant Locals, sold out-of-market to areas without a relevant affiliate: Call Sign Location Owner (Parent company) Notes WPIX New York City E. W. Scripps Company(E. W. Scripps Company) Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate KTLA Los Angeles Nexstar Broadcasting(Nexstar Media Group) Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate WGN-TV Chicago Superstation feed for markets without an independent station KWGN-TV Denver Superstation CW feed for markets without a CW affiliate WSBK-TV Boston CBS Television Stations(ViacomCBS) Superstation feed of MyNetworkTV for markets without a MyNetworkTV affiliate WPCH-TV Atlanta Meredith Corporation Superstation feed; formerly WTBS, rebranded as PeachtreeTV WWOR-TV Secaucus, New Jersey(New York City) Fox Television Stations(Fox Corporation) Superstation MyNetworkTV feed for markets without a MyNetworkTV affiliate WABC-TV New York City ABC Owned Television Stations(The Walt Disney Company) National ABC feed for markets without an ABC affiliate KABC-TV Los Angeles WCVB-TV Boston Hearst Television(Hearst Communications) WXYZ-TV Detroit E.W. Scripps Company WLS-TV Chicago ABC Owned Television Stations (The Walt Disney Company) WPVI-TV Philadelphia KSTP-TV Minneapolis–St. Paul Hubbard Broadcasting KGO-TV San Francisco ABC Owned Television Stations(The Walt Disney Company) WHTM-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Nexstar Media Group KMGH-TV Denver E. W. Scripps Company WCBS-TV New York City CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) National CBS feed for markets without a CBS affiliate KCBS-TV Los Angeles WBZ-TV Boston KYW-TV Philadelphia KTVT Dallas KPIX-TV San Francisco WWJ-TV Detroit WBBM-TV Chicago WCCO-TV Minneapolis–St. Paul KCNC-TV Denver WHP-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Sinclair Broadcast Group WNBC New York City NBC Owned Television Stations(NBCUniversal) National NBC feed for markets without an NBC affiliate KNBC Los Angeles KNTV San Francisco KXAS-TV Dallas WCAU Philadelphia WDIV-TV Detroit Graham Media Group KFOR-TV Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WMAQ-TV Chicago NBC Owned Television Stations (NBCUniversal) KARE Minneapolis–St. Paul Tegna KUSA Denver WNYW New York Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) National Fox feed for markets without a Fox affiliate KTTV Los Angeles KTVU San Francisco KMSP-TV Minneapolis-St. Paul WTXF-TV Philadelphia WPWR-TV Chicago WFXT Boston Cox Media Group WLNY-TV New York City CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) WMYD Detroit E. W. Scripps Company KCOP-TV Los Angeles Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) KCAL-TV Los Angeles CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) WFMZ-TV Allentown, Pennsylvania Maranatha Broadcasting Company, Inc. WNYE-TV New York City NYC Media New York City Department of Information Technology & Telecommunications WPSG Philadelphia CBS Television Stations (ViacomCBS) KBCW San Francisco WKBD-TV Detroit WDPN-TV Philadelphia Maranatha Broadcasting Company Inc. WUHF Rochester, New York Sinclair Broadcast Group WMCN-TV Princeton, New Jersey KICU-TV San Francisco Fox Television Stations (Fox Corporation) WPHL-TV Philadelphia Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WRNN-TV Kingston, New York WRNN-TV Associates (WRNN License Company, LLC) KRON-TV San Francisco Nexstar Media Group WADL (TV) Detroit WFLD Chicago Fox Television Stations KOFY-TV San Francisco CNZ Communications INC. WCIU-TV Chicago Weigel Broadcasting WJBK Detroit Fox Television Stations KDVR Denver Nexstar Broadcasting (Nexstar Media Group) WNET New York City WNET.org WLIW Long Island, New York NJTV New Jersey WTTW Chicago KCET Los Angeles Public Media Group of Southern California Superstation feed; Non-commercial educational independent station WHYY-TV Wilmington, Delaware WHYY, Inc. WLVT-TV Allentown, Pennsylvania Lehigh Valley Public Telecommunications Corporation KOCE-TV Los Angeles WITF-TV Harrisburg, Pennsylvania WITF Inc. KQED (TV) San Francisco WTVS Detroit KQEH San Jose WKAQ-TV San Juan, Puerto Rico Telemundo Station Group(NBCUniversal) Superstation Telemundo feed Spanish Ion Television Ion Media National feed for markets without an Ion Television owned-and-operated station or affiliate The CW Plus ViacomCBS (50%) / WarnerMedia (AT&T) (50%) CW feed for markets without an over-the-air CW affiliate Independent station (North America) Replaced UPN and The WB PBS Nonprofit organization Replaced National Educational Television MeTV Weigel Broadcasting Spanish Genre Name Year of Launch Owner East/West Feed HD Notes Broadcast Azteca América Azteca International Corporation Yes National feed available for markets without an Azteca affiliate Estrella TV LBI Media(Liberman Broadcasting) Yes National feed available for markets without an Estrella TV affiliate LATV LATV Networks Yes Mega TV Spanish Broadcasting System Yes Telemundo NBCUniversal Yes Yes formerly NetSpan Spanish audio feed; national feed available for markets without a Telemundo affiliate TeleXitos UniMás Univision Communications Yes Yes Formerly TeleFutura; national feed available for markets without a UniMás affiliate Univision Yes Yes formerly Spanish International Network Spanish audio feed; national feed available for markets without a Univision affiliate Cable/ Satellite 3ABN Latino Three Angels Broadcasting Network Spanish and Portuguese TV channel based in West Frankfort, Illinois Antena 3 Internacional Spanish TV channel from Spain Atres Series Atresmedia Bandamax Televisa beIN Sports en Español beIN Media Group Yes English and Spanish audio feed Canal 22 Internacional Secretariat of Culture Yes Only Available at Directv on Channel 446 and cable providers like Spectrum on 841 in HD Canal Once Instituto Politécnico Nacional Only Available at Directv on Channel 447 and cable providers like Spectrum on Channel 844 Also available at VEMOX Caracol TV Internacional Julio Mario Santo Domingo Available at VIVOPlay CBeebies BBC Studios Available at Dish Network on Channel 848 in Spanish Centroamérica TV Cine Clásico Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Cine Estelar Only Available at Directv on Channel 422 Cine Nostalgia Only Available at Directv on Channel 424 Cine Mexicano Olympusat, Inc. Available at Directv on Channel 462 Cine Sony Television Sony Pictures Television Yes Cinelatino MVS Comunicaciones Distributed/owned in Canada by Telelatino Network Inc. CNN en Español WarnerMedia CubaMAX Available at Dish Network CubaPlay Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX De Película Televisa De Película Clásico Discovery en Español Discovery Inc. Yes Discovery Familia Yes formerly Discovery Kids en Español Ecuador TV Only Available at Directv on Channel 457 Ecuavisa Internacional Only Available at Directv on Channel 438 El Rey Network Starvision Direct Cable Univision Communications Yes English and Spanish audio feed Enlace Trinity Broadcasting Network Esperanza TV Seventh-day Adventist Church ESPN Deportes ESPN Inc. Yes Spanish-language sports network EWTN Español Eternal Word Television Network Yes Fox Deportes Fox Corporation Yes formerly Fox en Español from until 2010, Fox Sports Américas Fox Life Disney Channels Worldwide FOROtv Televisa Yes Galavisión Univision Communications Yes Yes GOL TV Gol TV Inc. Yes Gran Cine Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Hola! TV Only Available at Directv on Channel 430 History en Español A&E Networks Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network Inc. HispanicTV WarnerMedia Mexicanal Castalia Communications & Cablecom MTV Tres ViacomCBS Yes formerly MTV en Español. Nat Geo Mundo The Walt Disney Company National Geographic Society PXTV Available at VEMOX RCN Nuestra Tele RCN Group formerly TV Colombia until October 8, 2012 Ritmoson Latino Televisa ¡Sorpresa! Olympusat, Inc. Available at VEMOX Telefe Internacional Telefe Available at Directv on Channel 411 TeleFórmula Grupo Fórmula Yes Available at Dish Network on Channel 858 in SD Spectrum on Channel 845 in HD & Xfinity TeleHit Televisa Networks TELE N Olympusat, Inc. formerly Latele Novela. Available at VEMOX TUDN Univision Communications Yes formerly Univision Deportes TV Chile Televisión Nacional de Chile Available at Directv on Channel 437 Also available at VEMOX and VIVOPlay TV Venezuela Globovisión Canal Sur Available at Directv on Channel 409 Also available at VIVOPlay TVE Internacional Televisión Española TyC Sports Torneos y Competencias Clarín Group Available at Directv on Channel 469 Universo NBCUniversal Yes Yes formerly mun2 and NBC Universo Univision tlnovelas Univision Communications V-me V-me Media Inc. Available at Directv on 440 ViendoMovies SomosTV WAPA America InterMedia Advisors Ultra HD Plex Olympusat, Inc. No Ultra HD Multiplex Channels; Ultra Banda Ultra Cine Ultra Clásico Ultra Docu Ultra Familia Ultra Fiesta Ultra Film Ultra Kidz Ultra Luna Ultra Macho Ultra Mex Ultra Tainment On Demand Available. International Name Owner Language 3ABN Français Three Angels Broadcasting Network French TV channel based in West Frankfort, Illinois 3ABN International Programming as seen on 3ABN including other programming produced by 3ABN Australia 3ABN Russia Russian TV channel based in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia The Africa Channel Various Investors African TV channel based in North Hollywood, California The Arabic Channel Allied Media Arabic TV channel based in New York City, New York Afrotainment Soundview Africa African TV channel based in New York City, New York Afrotainment Music African music channel based in New York City, New York Armenian American Broadcasting Corporation Armenian TV channel based in Glendale, California ARTN Armenian-Russian Television Network Armenian TV channel based in Glendale, California Bonjour America Bonjour America Media Group TV channel in French based in Miami, Florida Bostel RTV Bostel Bosnian TV channel based in Chicago DFH Network DFH Network Inc. Turkish Pay-TV service based in Santa Ana, California comprising 7 channels Eleven Sports Network Eleven Sports International sports channel based in Stamford, Connecticut German Kino Plus FennFamLLC German TV channel based in Marietta, Georgia ITV Gold International Broadcasting Network South Asian TV channel based in Long Island City, New York Impact Television Impact Television Network Russian TV channel based in Sacramento, California Jewish Broadcasting Service English news and cultural Jewish TV channel Jewish TV channel based in Fort Lee, New Jersey Jewish Life Television Jewish Life Television Jewish TV channel based in Los Angeles, California JUS One JUS Broadcasting Punjabi TV channel based in Long Island City, New York JUS Punjabi Punjabi TV channel based in Long Island City, New York KO-AM TV KO_AM TV Inc. Korean TV channel based in Seattle The Korean Channel The Korean Channel Inc. Korean TV channel based in College Point, New York MKTV Media Korea Inc. Korean TV channel based in Fort Lee, New Jersey Myx TV ABS-CBN Corporation Asian-American TV channel based in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area New Greek TV New Greek TV Inc. Greek TV channel based in Astoria NY RSC Romanian Satellite Network Romanian Pay-TV service based in Rockville, Maryland, comprising 5 channels RT (ANO) "TV-Novosti" Russian TV channel based in Moscow, Russia TV503 Crossing TV Lincoln Square Media Russian TV channel based in New York City Saigon Broadcasting Television Network SBTN Inc. Vietnamese TV channel based in Garden Grove, California Sino TV Multicultural Radio Broadcasting Inc. Chinese channel based in New York City, New York Sky Link TV Sky Link TV Inc. Chinese TV channel based in Rosemead, California SPT TV Seabra Portuguese Television Portuguese TV channel based in Newark, New Jersey Tai Seng Sat TV Tai Seng Entertainment Chinese TV channel based in San Francisco, California Tapesh TV Persian Broadcasting Company Persian TV channel based in Los Angeles, California Jadeworld TVB USA Inc. Chinese TV channel based in Norwalk, California TV Asia Asia Star Broadcasting Inc South Asian TV channel, based in Edison, New Jersey TV Japan NHK Cosmomedia America Japanese channel based in New York City, New York tvK Television Korea24 Inc. Korean TV channel based in Los Angeles, California Viên Thao TV Vien Thao Media Vietnamese TV channel based in San Jose, California Radio The following are audio-only channels available to Pay TV users; some channels use freeze frame television to display information on screen: Name Number of Channels Owner Notes DMX (SongTap) 84 Mood Media Digital audio service available to commercial establishments Mediamplify Music EGLA Communications Digital audio service available to commercial establishments / Digital audio service available. Music Choice 50 Comcast, Cox Communications, Charter Communications, Microsoft, Arris International and Verizon Communications Digital audio service available through digital cable and Metal Choice on channel 822. Muzak 60 Muzak Holdings Digital audio service available to commercial establishments. Available on Dish Network channels 920–979, and 981. Sirius Satellite Radio / XM Satellite Radio 134 Sirius XM Holdings Available on Dish Network channels 6002-6099/Hopper 99 Stingray Music 400 Stingray Digital Available on AT&T U-Verse channels 5100–5174. Former Channels Defunct networks Main article: List of defunct television networks in the United States Network rebrands Name Owner Notes ARTS Hearst Communications/ABC Replaced by A&E in 1984, through a merger with NBC-owned arts network The Entertainment Channel. America's Collectibles Network Multimedia Commerce Group Inc. Replaced by Jewelry Television by October 15, 1993. America's Talking NBCUniversal Replaced by MSNBC in 1996. BET Jazz BET Networks Renamed as BET J, Centric, and now BET Her. The Biography Channel A&E Networks Renamed Bio in July 2007 and then rebranded to FYI on July 7, 2014. Cable Health Club Discovery Inc. Rebranded America's Health Network in 1996, The Health Network in 1999, switched to FitTV in 2004, then Discovery Fit & Health on February 1, 2011. CBN Walt Disney Television Relaunched to The Family Channel in 1990, Fox Family Channel in 1998, ABC Family on November 10, 2001, then Freeform on January 12, 2016. Classic Sports Network ESPN Inc. Purchased by ESPN and renamed ESPN Classic. The Church Channel Trinity Broadcasting Network Replaced by Hillsong Channel on June 1, 2016. CNN 2 WarnerMedia News & Sports (WarnerMedia) Rebranded as CNN Headline News in January 1983, and then simply HLN on June 17, 2007. Court TV Rebranded as TruTV on January 1, 2008. Discovery Civilization Network Discovery Inc. Became Discovery Civilization Channel first, next Discovery Times, and now Investigation Discovery. Discovery Health Channel Merged with FitTV to create Discovery Fit & Health on February 1, 2011, and got replaced with OWN on January 1, 2011. Discovery HD Theater Renamed HD Theater on September 22, 2007, then rebranded Velocity on October 4, 2011. Discovery Kids Relaunched The Hub on October 10, 2010, renamed Hub Network in 2013, and then rebranded Discovery Family on October 13, 2014. Discovery Travel and Living Rebranded Discovery Home and Leisure in 1998, and then Discovery Home in 2004, Planet Green in 2008, and then Destination America on May 26, 2012. Discovery Wings Rebranded Military Channel on January 10, 2005, then American Heroes Channel on March 3, 2014. Encore Starz Inc. Renamed Starz Encore on April 5, 2016. Fine Living Network Discovery Inc. Shut down on May 31, 2010, replaced by Cooking Channel. Fox Movie Channel Walt Disney Television Rebranded FXM on January 1, 2012. Fox Reality Channel Shut down on March 29, 2010, replaced by Nat Geo Wild. Fox Sports en Español Fox Corporation Relaunched Fox Deportes on October 1, 2010. Fox Sports World Relaunched as Fox Soccer Channel in 2005, then renamed Fox Soccer in 2011, then it was replaced by FXX on September 2, 2013. Freeview AT&T Rebranded to The 101 Network in 2005, and then got rebranded to the Audience Network on June 1, 2011. Fuel TV Fox Corporation Replaced by Fox Sports 2 on August 17, 2013. Gospel Music Channel InterMedia Partners Renamed GMC TV in fall 2010 and then Up on June 1, 2013. Ha! ViacomCBS Domestic Networks Merged with The Comedy Channel to form Comedy Central in 1991. Hallmark Movie Channel Crown Media Holdings (Hallmark Cards) Rebranded Hallmark Movies & Mysteries on September 29, 2014. HDNet HDNet Inc. Rebranded AXS TV on July 2, 2012. HRTV Betfair Rebranded TVG2 on October 28, 2015. The Inspiration Network The Inspiration Networks Renamed INSP in October 2010. INTRO Television Liberty Starz originally called TV!; renamed INTRO Television, carrying the same programming format. Replaced by Encore PLEX (eventually changed to MoviePlex) in 1995. JCTV Trinity Broadcasting Network Renamed JUCE TV on January 1, 2014. The Jewelry Channel Rebranded Liquidation Channel in 2009 and then renamed to Shop LC on January 9, 2017. Movietime NBCUniversal Rebranded as E! in 1991. MHD ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Rebranded Palladia on September 1, 2008, and then renamed MTV Live on February 1, 2016. MTV Hits Renamed NickMusic on September 9, 2016. MTVX Relaunched MTV Jams on May 1, 2002 and then renamed BET Jams on October 5, 2015. MuchUSA CHUM Limited and Rainbow Media Rebranded fuse on May 19, 2003. Mun2 NBCUniversal Rebranded NBC Universo on February 1, 2015. National College Sports Network ViacomCBS Rebranded to CSTV in 2003, and then CBS College Sports Network in 2008, and then finally CBS Sports Network on April 4, 2011. The 90's Channel Public Communicators, Inc. Relaunched Free Speech TV in 1995 Nick GaS ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Replacd by The N on January 1, 2008, and then TeenNick on September 28, 2009. Noggin Rebranded Nick Jr. on September 28, 2009. Odyssey Crown Media Holdings (Hallmark Cards) Originally launched as two separate networks: ACTS (a Christian teaching channel) and VISN (interfaith programming). VISN and ACTS merged and became Faith & Values Channel. The network was renamed again in 1996 as Odyssey. Hallmark Entertainment and The Jim Henson Company purchased the network, which was relaunched as Hallmark Channel in 2001. Outdoor Life Network NBCUniversal Relaunched as Versus on September 25, 2006. Rebranded NBC Sports Network on January 2, 2012, and then shorted down to the NBCSN on August 18, 2013. PAX TV Ion Media Networks Relaunched i: Independent Television on July 1, 2005, and then Ion Television on January 29, 2007. PBS Kids PBS Relaunched as PBS Kids Sprout on September 26, 2005, then renamed to Sprout in 2013, and then Universal Kids on September 9, 2017. Pinwheel ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Rebranded on April 1, 1979, to Nickelodeon. Prevue Channel Lions Gate Entertainment Launched in 1981 as the Electronic Program Guide, then became the Prevue Guide, then modified slightly into Prevue Channel. Purchased by TV Guide in 1999 and renamed TV Guide Channel and then became the TV Guide Network in 2007, and then shortened to TVGN in 2013, as of January 14, 2015, it is now Pop. Sci Fi Channel NBCUniversal Renamed Syfy on July 7, 2009. Smile of a Child TBN Renamed Smile on January 1, 2017. SpeedVision SPEED Channel Inc. (Fox Corporation) Renamed Speed, replaced by Fox Sports 1 on August 17, 2013. Star Channel Showtime Networks (ViacomCBS) Relaunched to become The Movie Channel in 1979. Sundance Channel AMC Networks Renamed SundanceTV on February 1, 2014. Telefutura Univision Communications Rebranded UniMás on January 7, 2013. Tempo Television Formerly Satellite Program Network and then replaced by CNBC on April 17, 1989. TNN ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Originally The Nashville Network later renamed The National Network. Purchased by Viacom and relaunched Spike on August 11, 2003. It was then renamed The Paramount Network on January 18, 2018. Toon Disney Disney Replaced by Disney XD on February 13, 2009. FUNimation Channel Funimation/Olympusat Inc. Rebranded TOKU on December 31, 2015. ValueVision ValueVision Media Relaunched in 2001 to ShopNBC, then ShopHQ on May 22, 2013, and then EVINE Live on February 13, 2015. VH1 Smooth ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks Renamed VH1 Classic in 1999 and then became MTV Classic on August 1, 2016. VH1 Country renamed CMT Pure Country on May 27, 2006, and then CMT Music on January 4, 2016. VH1 MegaHits Replaced by Logo TV on June 30, 2005. VH1 Soul Renamed BET Soul on December 28, 2015. WealthTV Herring Broadcasting Rebranded AWE on October 1, 2013. See also Television portal United States portal Big Three television networks Cable television in the United States Communications in the United States Fourth television network High-definition television in the United States List of television stations in the United States List of United States over-the-air television networks List of United States television markets List of United States stations available in Canada List of Canadian television stations available in the United States Simultaneous substitution Satellite television in the United States Television in the United States Television news in the United States United States cable news References Dont forget to like and subscribe
  10. oops i THINK YOU MEANT THIS ONE. hOPE THIS HELPS. lET ME KNOW IF YOU NEED FURTHER HELP COPYING AND PASTING OTHER PEOPLES WORK WITHOUT GIVING THEM CREDIT. United States cable news From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Cable news channels are television networks devoted to television news broadcasts, with the name deriving from the proliferation of such networks during the 1980s with the advent of cable television. In the United States, early networks included CNN in 1980, Financial News Network (FNN) in 1981 and CNN2 (now HLN) in 1982. CNBC was created in 1989, taking control of FNN in 1991. Through the 1990s and beyond, the cable news industry continued to grow, with the establishment of several other networks, including, Fox News Channel (FNC), MSNBC, and specialty channels such as Bloomberg Television, Fox Business Network, and ESPN News. More recent additions to the cable news business have been CBSN, Newsmax TV, TheBlaze, Fusion, One America News Network, part-time news network RFD-TV, and—for a time—Al Jazeera America. As some of the most highly available channels, FNC, CNN, and MSNBC are sometimes referred to as the "big three" with Fox News having the highest viewership and ratings. While the networks are usually referred to as 24-hour news networks, reruns of news programs and analysis or opinion programming are played throughout the night, with the exception of breaking news. Regional 24-hour cable news television channels that are primarily concerned with local programming and cover some statewide interest have included Spectrum News (a brand used for multiple networks including in upstate New York, North Carolina, Florida and Texas), NY1 (which operates from New York City), News 12 Networks, FiOS1, and the former Northwest Cable News (NWCN) (which operated from Seattle). New England Cable News covers the six-state region of New England. Contents 1 "Big Three" news channels 1.1 Channels 1.1.1 Fox News Channel 1.1.2 MSNBC 1.1.3 CNN 1.1.3.1 CNN spinoffs 1.2 Ratings 2 Other cable news channels 2.1 General news 2.1.1 Blaze TV 2.1.2 Free Speech TV 2.1.3 Fusion 2.1.4 InfoWars 2.1.5 Newsmax TV 2.1.6 NewsNet 2.1.7 Newsy 2.1.8 One America News Network 2.1.9 RFD-TV 2.2 Foreign cable news networks with U.S. operations 2.2.1 RT America 2.2.2 i24News 2.2.3 CGTN America 2.2.4 CNC World 2.2.5 BBC World News 3 Financial news 3.1 CNBC 3.2 Bloomberg Television 3.3 Fox Business Network 3.4 Cheddar 3.5 Ratings 4 Professional sports news 4.1 ESPNews 4.2 FS1 4.3 NBCSN 4.4 CBS Sports Network / CBS Sports HQ 5 College sports news 5.1 ESPNU 5.2 Big Ten Network 5.3 Fox College Sports 5.4 Longhorn Network 5.5 SEC Network 5.6 Pac-12 Network 6 Weather news 6.1 The Weather Channel 6.2 AccuWeather 6.2.1 The Local AccuWeather Channel 6.2.2 AccuWeather Network 6.3 WeatherNation TV 6.4 NBC Weather Plus 7 See also 8 References "Big Three" news channels Channels Fox News Channel Main article: Fox News See also: Fox News controversies Fox News Channel (FNC) was founded in 1996 under the ownership of News Corporation (founded by Australian-born media mogul Rupert Murdoch), the fourth largest media company in the United States behind Sony, Viacom, Time Warner and The Walt Disney Company. The network is headed by chief executive officer Rupert Murdoch. The network began broadcasting its programming in high definition in May 2008.[1] Since the network's launch, FNC has gradually grown to become the highest-rated cable network.[2] FNC's former prime time lineup included programs such as The O'Reilly Factor, hosted by Bill O'Reilly, which had been a top rated program since the early 2000s when considered among major cable news channels. The channel's longtime slogans are "Fair and Balanced" and "We Report. You Decide". MSNBC Main article: MSNBC See also: History of MSNBC: 1996-2007, History of MSNBC: 2008-Present, and MSNBC controversies MSNBC debuted in 1996, as a partnership between NBC News and Microsoft (Microsoft's stake in the channel was gradually bought out by NBC until the latter's parent NBCUniversal bought out the remaining minority stake held by Microsoft in 2011). When the network was launched, its leading hosts included Jodi Applegate, John Gibson, Tim Russert and Brian Williams. For over a decade, the network's ratings were consistently in last place among the cable news channels. After Phil Griffin became president of MSNBC in mid-2008, the channel began shifting towards an increasingly politically liberal ideology in its analysis programming, particularly in its prime-time lineup.[3][4][5] MSNBC launched a high definition simulcast feed on June 29, 2009.[6] Notable personalities on the network include Morning Joe co-hosts Joe Scarborough and Mika Brzezinski, daytime anchors Chuck Todd and Andrea Mitchell, and evening commentators Chris Matthews and Rachel Maddow. The network was noted in the mid-2000s for its harsh criticism of then-President George W. Bush, most notably the 'special comment' segment of former anchor Keith Olbermann's show, Countdown. This, combined with accusations of support for then-President Barack Obama, have led to MSNBC being criticized for a liberal bias, a reputation it has increasingly embraced with its "Lean Forward" slogan (which it adopted in 2011) and open promotion of progressive and liberal ideas. The channel had a spin-off called Shift. Established in 2014, it was an online-only channel through its website MSNBC.com. The programming schedule was less focused on politics than the main channel, built to be a divergence from it and is more tailored to a younger audience. The channel ceased operations without notice some time before 2018. CNN Main article: CNN See also: CNN controversies Cable News Network (CNN) launched on June 1, 1980, as the first cable channel devoted to news programming. The Persian Gulf War in 1991 catapulted CNN into the spotlight, largely because the channel was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the American bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett. Throughout the 1990s, CNN (which was at the time the only major cable news channel) became very influential, an influence later coined as the CNN effect. CNN was the first cable news network to begin broadcasting in high definition in September 2007.[7] Today, CNN's television personalities include Wolf Blitzer, Erin Burnett, Anderson Cooper and Jake Tapper. CNN spinoffs Further information: HLN (TV network), CNN International, CNN Airport Network, CNN en Español, CNN Sports Illustrated, and CNNfn This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "United States cable news" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In 1982, the Turner Broadcasting System (which would merge with Time Warner in 1996) created a spin-off of CNN called CNN2, which was originally formatted to show the top news stories of the day on a 30-minute "wheel" schedule. The channel rebranded as CNN Headline News in 1983, before the network abandoned the CNN branding and changed its name to the orphaned initialism HLN in 2008, following a shift from news programming towards a mix of news during the day and discussion programs and documentary series at night that began two years earlier. Turner founded CNN International in 1985, with a straight focus on international news stories compared to CNN, which featured an equal emphasis on U.S. and world news. CNN launched a special service on January 20, 1992 called CNN Airport Network which is available exclusively in United States airports; the service simulcasts programs from CNN and HLN, but with inserts of information of interest to air travelers. CNN also operates a Spanish language service, CNN en Español. Turner Broadcasting also established two, now defunct networks. CNNfn, launched at the end of 1995, attempting to challenge CNBC. It ceased operations after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNNSI, a partnership between CNN and Sports Illustrated, attempted to counter the rising success of ESPNews in covering sports news. While the network was shut down, CNN and Sports Illustrated continue to maintain their partnership, with Sports Illustrated operating a sports section on CNN's website. Ratings FNC has been number one among cable news audiences since supplanting CNN in 2002.[8] Until the start of 2002, CNN was the number one cable news network in the ratings.[9] Starting in 2013, a major ratings decline at MSNBC has pushed that network to fourth place in March 2015.[10] FNC marked its 15th year as the highest-rated cable news channel in the same demographic, posting 2.8 million average total viewers in January 2017. MSNBC beat CNN in total primetime viewers, ranking sixth among all cable networks in January. CNN beat MSNBC, but trailed first place Fox News Channel, in total daytime viewers.[11][12][13] Other cable news channels General news Blaze TV Main article: TheBlaze Blaze TV is a news and opinion network operated by Blaze Media, a joint venture between Conservative Review and Glenn Beck's Mercury Radio Arts. It began September 12, 2012 as GBTV, initially controlled solely by Beck, and formed the joint venture December 3, 2018, taking on the programming of CRTV, Conservative Review's subscription video service that had launched in October 2016. Blaze TV is explicitly conservative in perspective, with popular hosts on the network including Beck, Mark Levin, Pat Gray, Steve Deace, Steven Crowder and Phil Robertson. Blaze TV is available via Dish Network and Verizon FiOS, various smaller cable providers, and through subscription Internet television. Free Speech TV Main article: Free Speech TV Free Speech TV (FSTV) is a national, independent, progressive news network that reaches more than 40 million television households in the United States. The network brands itself as "the alternative to television networks owned by billionaires, governments and corporations." It was launched in 1995 and is owned and operated by Public Communicators Incorporated, a 501(c)3 non-profit, tax-exempt organization founded in 1974. Distributed principally by Dish Network, DirecTV, and the network’s live stream at freespeech.org and on Roku, Free Speech TV has run commercial free since 1995 with support from viewers and foundations. The network claims to "amplify underrepresented voices and those working on the front lines of social, economic and environmental justice," bringing viewers an array of daily news programs, independent documentaries and special events coverage. In practice, the network's political leanings represent a left-wing perspective, with several progressive talk radio hosts having time slots on the network and the network simulcasting Democracy Now! with longtime progressive radio network Pacifica. Fusion Main article: Fusion TV Fusion is owned by Univision Communications, The channel was created as a joint venture between Univison and Disney-ABC Television Group subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company and relies in part on the resources of their respective news divisions, ABC News and Noticias Univision. The channel launched in October 2013. The network's content features news, lifestyle, pop culture, satire and entertainment aimed at English-speaking millennials, including those of a Hispanic background; the channel is Univision's first major push into English-language programming. The channel features talent such as Alicia Menendez, Mariana Atencio and Jorge Ramos. It is distributed on both Dish Network and DirecTV along with Verizon FIOS, AT&T U-Verse, Google Fiber and Cablevision/Optimum and is being provided on upcoming Disney/ESPN carriage deals with other providers. Fusion while a joint venture was ABC's third attempt at a cable news channel after Satellite News Channel and ABC News Now. (ABC pulled out of the venture in 2015.) InfoWars Main article: InfoWars InfoWars began its existence in 1999 as the online outlet for conspiracy theorist and radio host Alex Jones. It began carrying a live video feed of Jones's show in the 2010s and expanded to hire other hosts in the same era. InfoWars originally was positioned as an extreme libertarian ideology (during the 2000s Jones frequently accused the George W. Bush Administration of numerous conspiracy theories including accusations that they had orchestrated the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and in 2008 was a backer of Ron Paul's presidential campaign) but shifted into an alt-right/far-right positioning with the rise and ultimate success of the 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign. Its hosts and contributors include Jones, Paul Joseph Watson, Mike Cernovich, Roger Stone, and Jerome Corsi. Most satellite and cable providers have refused to carry InfoWars, and most social media outlets blacklisted the outlet in 2018. The video feed is available through the InfoWars web site and a limited number of terrestrial affiliates. Newsmax TV Main article: Newsmax TV Newsmax TV debuted June 15, 2014 as a television arm of Newsmax Media, a media company better known for its magazine and website. The channel runs a mix of rolling news coverage in the afternoons, video simulcasts of conservative talk radio programs, talk shows, and reruns of documentaries. Talent on the network includes Howie Carr, Wayne Allyn Root, Joe Pagliarulo and Bill O'Reilly. Until mid-2016, it was distributed on both Dish Network and DirecTV, Dish has since dropped it. The channel does have numerous local broadcasting affiliates. A live stream of the channel is also available for free online at NewsmaxTV.com, as well as YouTube.[14] Newsmax TV has generally been described as right-wing, broadcasting many programs hosted by conservative media personalities. NewsNet Main article: NewsNet NewsNet is based in Cadillac, Michigan at WMNN-LD, a local all-news television outlet. The network launched nationally on 18 affiliates with test programming in late December 2018, with the full launch took place on January 1, 2019. NewsNet follows a traditional rolling news clock with no opinion programming. It is available, in addition to its terrestrial affiliate base, as a free channel on streaming platforms. Newsy Main article: Newsy Newsy began in 2008 as a syndication service providing news videos to mobile and Web users. It was acquired by The E. W. Scripps Company, an owner of local television stations, in 2014 and transformed into its current form, a linear channel devoted to rolling news coverage and short-form videos. Originally distributed solely via over-the-top platforms, Newsy was offered to cable outlets beginning in late 2017. One America News Network Main article: One America News Network One America News Network (OANN) was launched in the summer of 2013 by Herring Networks, initially under the cooperation of The Washington Times. The channel's content consists of rolling news coverage and political talk shows from a conservative viewpoint. The network is distributed by DirecTV, Verizon FiOS, CenturyLink Prism, Consolidated Communications, and AT&T U-verse. It formerly streamed online but no longer does so directly as of December 2014; its set-top box streaming apps remain in operation. In 2015, OANN was said to have viewership that "outperforms Fusion, Bloomberg and Al Jazeera combined, according to first quarter ratings on total hours viewed," despite its much narrower distribution.[15] RFD-TV Main article: RFD-TV RFD-TV (Rural Free Delivery Television) is a rural-oriented television network independently owned and operated by Rural Media Group. The majority of its daytime weekday programming is devoted to news coverage, including outside-produced newscasts such as U.S. Farm Report, AgDay and This Week in Agribusiness, the network's nightly Rural Evening News, and a five-hour rolling news coverage block centered on agricultural commodities coverage with news and weather. RFD-TV is available through both national satellite providers, on a limited number of cable outlets, and through a paywalled Internet stream. Foreign cable news networks with U.S. operations RT America Main article: RT America RT America (branded on air as RT) is the official arm of the Russian Federation's media organ, Russia Today. The American channel launched in 2010 and broadcasts content from both the international and United Kingdom editions of RT in addition to original programming from its American studios. Its approach is alternative and purposely contrarian in nature compared to most American news outlets. Talent on the network includes hosts Larry King, Lee Camp, Jesse Ventura, Alex Salmond and Mike Papantonio. It is available nationally on Dish Network and DirecTV and regionally on Charter Spectrum and other cable providers, and through a limited number of terrestrial affiliates that carry RT on digital subchannels. Additionally, RT America is made available through several streaming apps across many different platforms such as Roku and Android TV as well as several Blu-ray players and smart TVs. The channel's live stream is also available free on RT's website. RT has been registered as a foreign agent since November 2017.[16] i24News Main article: i24NEWS (United States) i24NEWS is an English language international news television channel that is owned by Altice USA. It is the English version of i24NEWS, a news service based in Israel and operated as a joint venture by Israel's two most prominent commercial broadcasters. The network began broadcasting in the US on February 13, 2017. It is live from 6-10 p.m. Eastern Time and at other times broadcasts from Israel. Live programming is broadcast from Times Square in New York with an additional bureau in Washington, D.C. The channel uses resources from i24's main Jaffa headquarters. Talent includes David Shuster who is also the managing editor, Michelle Makori, and Dan Raviv. The channel acquired many of its debut behind-the-scenes talent from the former Al Jazeera America. The channel is carried on Altice USA-owned Optimum and Suddenlink cable systems and Charter Spectrum. The channel live streams via its website. CGTN America Main article: CGTN America CGTN America is the American division of China Global Television Network, the English-language news channel run by Chinese state broadcaster China Central Television. It is based in Washington, D.C. and manages bureaus across North and South America. The service launched in 2012 as CCTV America and employs a mix of American, international and Chinese journalists and produces Americas-based programming with a focus on Asia for CGTN. The channel is carried on DirecTV, Dish Network, AT&T U-Verse and smaller carriers and live streams via its website and Livestream. CNC World Main article: CNC World CNC World is an English-language network majority owned by Xinhua, the Chinese state news agency. It has a more explicit propaganda aim than CGTN and is closely intertwined with the Chinese Communist Party. Its U.S. operations are based in New York City. The channel is available through digital subchannels and a live stream on the Internet. BBC World News Main article: BBC World News BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel.[17] While the channel does not specifically target the U.S., the BBC has a bureau in Washington, D.C., and produces two programs that cover U.S. news and politics: BBC World News America and Beyond 100 Days. These shows are also broadcast on public television stations, as well as half-hour BBC World News bulletins. BBC World News has covered both U.S. presidential and midterm elections results. The BBC produces weather forecasts for the U.S. and Canada and runs advertisements on the U.S. feed, as foreign broadcasts are not covered by the United Kingdom television license. The channel is carried on Cablevision, Comcast, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS and AT&T U-Verse, as well as internet TV providers YouTube TV and Sling TV. A 2018 survey for Research Intelligencer by Brand Keys found that the BBC was the most trusted TV news brand among American viewers, beating out Fox News and PBS.[18] Financial news CNBC Bloomberg TV FBN Headquarters Englewood Cliffs, N.J. New York City New York City Number of Households in 2012 97 million 57 million 68 million Profits in 2008 $350 million $15.6 million not reported* Management Mark Hoffman (President) Michael Clancy (Executive Editor) Rupert Murdoch (CEO) [19] * FBN is operated as a division of the Fox Entertainment Group – which had $1.85 billion in net income in 2004. No information reported for the profits or losses which the FBN division represents. CNBC Main article: CNBC CNBC (originally an abbreviation for the Consumer News and Business Channel) was launched by NBC in 1989 after the purchase of Satellite Program Network, and merged with competitor Financial News Network that same year. It is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. CNBC is the widest distributed of the business channels with about 84.27% of carriage. The channel has many international spin-offs. Bloomberg Television Main article: Bloomberg Television CNBC gained a competitor in the financial news genre with Bloomberg Television, which was created in 1994 by Bloomberg L.P., led by former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. It is distributed worldwide through cable, satellite and internet providers, and is headquartered in New York. Bloomberg Television was unusual in that its Internet stream, one of the few television networks to continuously offer a video feed over the Internet since the 1990s, was free to the public; the feed was placed behind a soft paywall along with the rest of Bloomberg's Internet ventures in May 2018. Fox Business Network Main article: Fox Business Network FBN is the sister business network to Fox News Channel. In October 2007, News Corporation launched its own financial news network called Fox Business Network (FBN); News Corporation CEO Rupert Murdoch stated his reason for launching the channel was that CNBC is too "negative towards business", and had promised to make FBN more "business friendly". Cheddar Main article: Cheddar (TV channel) Cheddar was established in 2017 as an initially online-only channel that operated on a freemium model with some content free and others paywalled. It was acquired by Altice USA in 2019 and, after a two-year run in which several low-powered stations owned by DTV America carried the slot, began transitioning to cable systems that year. Cheddar targets a younger audience than the other business news channels. Ratings FBN's ratings were initially too low to be registered beyond Nielsen's margin of error;[20] its highest viewership was estimated to be 202,000 viewers, during the 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time hour of Imus in the Morning's debut broadcast on the network in 2009.[21] By October 2016, FBN had surpassed CNBC, as roughly a third of CNBC's viewership migrated to FBN over the course of a year, with both netting approximately 170,000 viewers.[22] Bloomberg also does not subscribe to Nielsen and its ratings are assumed to be very low (however, its viewership was higher than CNBC's when Bloomberg's programming was simulcast on E! in the early morning hours, an arrangement that began in 2004 after USA Network ended its simulcast of the channel after ten years, and was discontinued altogether under E! in 2007).[23] Currently, CNBC usually has between 200,000-400,000 viewers during the day.[24] In 2000, CNBC had higher ratings than CNN during market hours.[25] The viewership of business newscasts may be underestimated in part because much of its viewership comes from communal areas, most of which cannot be accurately measured by Nielsen and are thus not counted; for this reason, CNBC dropped its subscription to Nielsen in 2015.[26] RFD-TV's average viewership, including for its financial market coverage as well as its non-news programming, is approximately 136,000 viewers.[27] Professional sports news ESPNews Main article: ESPNews See also: Criticism of ESPN ESPN launched a 24-hour sports news channel named ESPNews on November 1, 1996, which is carried by most cable and satellite providers, although usually only on dedicated sports and information tiers. It airs news, highlights, press conferences and commentary by analysts all in relation to sports. ESPNews was also syndicated to regional sports networks as daytime filler programming and also often appears as blackout filler on ESPN or ESPN2 when those channels air a program unavailable in a certain geographic area. ESPNews scaled back its news-only format in 2013, after several years of ESPN expanding its flagship newscast, SportsCenter, throughout the daytime hours on the main channel. ESPNews newscasts are now branded under the SportsCenter brand, while replays of ESPN2 talk programs typically air when SportsCenter airs on ESPN's main channel. At least one of the ESPN networks is usually carrying a SportsCenter broadcast at any given time, with the lone exceptions being particularly busy sports days in which all three networks (ESPN, ESPN2 and ESPNEWS) are carrying sporting events and the network's multi-channel coverage of major sports events. FS1 Main articles: Fox Sports 1 and FS2 Fox Entertainment Group re-branded Speed Channel as FS1, a sports channel carrying both analysis shows and live sports events, on August 13, 2013. The studio programs are usually pushed to its sister station, FS2, when live sports are occurring during the broadcast. FS2 acts primarily as an overflow network for FS1, airing their studio programs when they cannot air on FS1 due to schedule conflicts, and also airs reruns of FS1 programming. However, FS2 does air live sports as well, most often from outside the United States. Fox Sports has, three times in its history, attempted to launch a national sportscast. The first two aired on Fox Sports Net: the National Sports Report from 1996–2002, and Final Score from 2006–2011. The third, Fox Sports Live, aired on FS1 from the network's launch until 2017. NBCSN Main article: NBCSN Originally launched as the Outdoor Life Network in 1995, re-branded in '06 as Versus and re-branded yet again in 2012 as NBC Sports Network, the name was finally abbreviated to NBCSN. Unlike NBC, which airs reruns of the most anticipated Olympic events of the day, NBCSN airs Olympic events live. The network also extensively covers the National Hockey League and the Premier League in England, also carrying limited college football, basketball and hockey. NBCSN also airs news & analysis programming; since parent company Comcast purchased British broadcaster Sky plc in 2019, NBCSN has simulcast Sky Sports News during the early afternoon hours. Unlike ESPN and Fox, the network does not have a flagship, all-sport newscast, with its news and discussion programs generally centered around individual sports. The network's attempts at general-purpose shows have typically been short-lived. During NBC and NBCSN's coverage of the Olympic Games, sister network Olympic Channel (and before that, its predecessor Universal Sports) flips to an all-sports news format, providing summary coverage of the day's Olympic events. CBS Sports Network / CBS Sports HQ Main article: CBS Sports Network CBS Sports Network was founded as College Sports TV. It still maintains a primary focus on college sports, but has since broadened to include general studio discussion shows, simulcasts of CBS Sports Radio talk shows, and some lower-end professional sports. On February 26, 2018, CBS Sports launched CBS Sports HQ, an Internet-only channel that serves as a 24-hour channel for sports news, highlights and discussion programs, without any live sports. College sports news ESPNU Main article: ESPNU ESPNU is a 24-hour sports news network dedicated to college sports. ESPN airs a customized version of SportsCenter, SportsCenter U, covering college sports, as well as documentaries about college teams and players. Big Ten Network Main article: Big Ten Network The Big Ten Network, whose origins can be traced back to '03, airs a large amount of original sports programming, including a program similar to SportsCenter called Big Ten Tonight, as well as live sports. Unlike other college sports channels, such as ESPNU or BTN's sister station Fox College Sports, BTN covers the Big Ten Conference exclusively. Fox College Sports Main article: Fox College Sports Fox College Sports (FCS) airs an extremely large amount of live sports. Because Fox Sports has so many rights to so many college sporting events, FCS networks are split by region, similar to Fox Sports. Longhorn Network Main article: Longhorn Network Launched in 2011 as a joint venture between ESPN & the Texas Longhorns, the Longhorn Network airs over 20 different live sports, as well as sports news & analysis. SEC Network Main article: SEC Network Three years after the launch of the Longhorn Network, ESPN entered a similard joint venture with the Southeastern Conference, also known as the SEC. While it does broadcast over 20 different SEC sports, it also airs analysis of upcoming games as well as a sports talk show. Some SEC Network football games are simulcast on WDCW. Pac-12 Network Main article: Pac-12 Network The Pac-12 Network covers every sport in the PAC-12 as well as every team in the conference, airing nearly 900 live events a year. With the vast number of events in the PAC-12, the Pac-12 Network has been split into six separate regional channels. Weather news The Weather Channel Main article: The Weather Channel The Weather Channel is the market leader in news regarding weather forecasting and the most widely distributed cable network in the United States. It was launched in August 1982, under the ownership of Landmark Communications (which sold the network to a joint venture of NBCUniversal, Blackstone Group and Bain Capital in 2008; these parties, in turn, split the channel, with the non-broadcast assets going to IBM in 2016 and the channel itself going to Byron Allen's Entertainment Studios in 2018). Originally, the channel was devoted entirely to weather forecasts and news coverage (with computer-generated local forecasts inserted through each individual cable provider every ten minutes, and previously at randomized time intervals, ten times an hour), but since 2001, the network has increasingly cut back its weather coverage in favor of reality television and documentary series (this reliance on such programs has led to carriage disputes between Dish Network and DirecTV in the early 2010s, the latter resulting in the channel's first provider defection, citing subscriber complaints regarding The Weather Channel's shift away from forecast programs). Most of the channel's morning and at least part of its afternoon lineup remains devoted to weather news coverage and national forecasts. Since the 2000s, there have been several other attempts to launch weather-centric television channels. AccuWeather The Local AccuWeather Channel Main article: AccuWeather Channel The Local AccuWeather Channel is distributed mainly as a digital subchannel on various terrestrial television outlets. Content on local versions of The Local AccuWeather Channel vary widely, ranging from a mix of local and AccuWeather content (such as WFAA) to all-local, automated outlets (such as WFMZ-TV). Now largely deprecated, it is unknown as of November 2019 (when WFAA dropped its affiliation) whether any affiliates still carry AccuWeather Channel over the air. AccuWeather Network Main article: AccuWeather Network AccuWeather Network is a national version of the AccuWeather channel. The network broadcasts pre-recorded national and regional weather forecasts, analysis of ongoing weather events, and weather-related news, along with local weather segments for mostly the Northeastern United States. It is currently on Verizon FIOS and DirecTV. WeatherNation TV Main article: WeatherNation TV WeatherNation TV, originally known as The Weather Cast, also uses this model (having taken the place of The Local AccuWeather Channel as the affiliation of certain stations' weather channels since 2013), although it also provides a feed directly to cable providers and directly to consumers through mobile and smart-TV apps. A national feed is available on Dish Network. NBC Weather Plus Main article: NBC Weather Plus Before NBC and its partners acquired The Weather Channel, NBCUniversal operated NBC Weather Plus, a digital multicast service that operated from 2004 to 2008 (continuing thereafter as a locally programmed service using Weather Plus' graphics system called NBC Plus). See also Television portal United States portal Big Three television networks Cable television in the United States Communications in the United States Fourth television network High-definition television in the United States International broadcasting List of television stations in the United States List of United States cable and satellite television networks List of United States over-the-air television networks List of United States television markets Satellite television in the United States Television in the United States Television news in the United States Category:24-hour television news channels in the United States References Multichannel News April 29, 2008 FOX News to make HD bow with Time Warner "FOX News Channel marks ratings milestone". Fox News. 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2017-02-07. Cable Channel Nods to Ratings and Leans Left. New York Times. Published November 6, 2007. Accessed August 24, 2008. Kurtz, Howard (2008-09-08). "MSNBC Drops Olbermann, Matthews as News Anchors". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-30. Stelter, Brian (2008-09-07). "MSNBC Takes Incendiary Hosts From Anchor Seat". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-30. "MSNBC To Go HD in June". Archived from the original on 2009-04-05. Retrieved 2009-04-02. TV Week September 6, 2007 CNN HD launches Archived October 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. "State of the News Media 2008". Journalism.org. 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009. "State of the News Media 2004". Journalism.org. 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2009. "As ratings plunge, MSNBC faces shakeup". POLITICO. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Info, Msnbc. "JANUARY 2017 RATINGS – MSNBC RACKS UP HIGHER TOTAL VIEWER GROWTH THAN CNN AND FOX NEWS ACROSS KEY DAYPARTS". msnbc. Archived from the original on 2017-02-07. Retrieved 2017-02-07. "FOX News Channel marks ratings milestone". Fox News. 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2017-02-07. "Ratings". cnnpressroom.blogs.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07. "Newsmax network debuts Monday on Dish, DirecTV". USA TODAY. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Roller, Emma. How one TV channel is positioning itself to be the next Fox News. National Journal. Retrieved March 18, 2015. "Russia's RT America registers as 'foreign agent' in U.S." Reuters. 13 November 2017. "About BBC World News TV". BBC. Retrieved 12 May 2019. Murphy, Mike. "The most trusted TV news brand in the U.S. isn't even American". MarketWatch. Retrieved 12 May 2019. State of the Media 2009 Ratings Chart "Fox Business Network Flops In The Ratings". The Huffington Post. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Krakauer, Steve (2009-10-06). Has Fox Business Found Its Star? Imus Premiere Gets Strong Ratings. Retrieved 2009-10-08. Ariens, Chris (November 1, 2016). Fox Business Network Sees First Monthly Win Over CNBC. TVNewser. Retrieved November 2, 2016. "Picking Up the Pace in Business TV". The New York Times. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2016. "TV By The Numbers by zap2it.com". TV By The Numbers by zap2it.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016. "Fast Company Magazine Issue 35 June 2000 - Business + Innovation". Fast Company. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Concha, Joe (August 22, 2017). "'Lou Dobbs Tonight' most-watched business news show of the year". The Hill. Retrieved August 23, 2017. Crupi, Anthony (27 February 2017). "Small Change: Why Niche Cable Nets Are on Their Last Legs | Media - AdAge". Advertising Age. Retrieved 27 February 2017. v t e
  11. ANAL ASKED ME TO POST THIS HERE. hOPE THIS HELPS aNAL😀 List of news television channels From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search International news channels are 24-hour news television channels which cover international news updates on their newscast programmes. Most international news channels are broadcast on cable, satellite or the Internet, and many have diversified their staff by broadcasting to multiple large language markets. Like other means of news broadcasting, international news channels have become a fiercely competitive market. Many governments, for example, have established and funded international news channels in order to offer their perspective on events, often in competition against more established foreign or domestic competitors. The following is a non-exhaustive list of news channels in alphabetical order regardless of language or country of origin. Contents 1 General news channels 2 Business news channels 3 Sport news channels 4 Weather news channels 5 Defunct channels 6 See also General news channels Network Country Owner(s) (Ownership) Availability Language(s) ATN News Bangladesh Multimedia Production Company (Private) Nationwide Bengali 24 Horas Spain RTVE (Government) Nationwide Spanish 3/24 Spain CCMA (Regional government) Regional Catalan Aaj Tak India TV Today Network (Private) Nationwide online Hindi ABC News Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online English Africanews Republic of the Congo Euronews SA (Private) International English, French ABP Live India ABP Group (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online English ABP News India ABP Group (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Hindi ABP Ananda India ABP Group (Private) Regional Bengali adn40 Mexico TV Azteca (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Spanish all news programs, English but one Saturday news program. Al Jazeera Qatar Al Jazeera Media Network (Government) International Arabic Al Jazeera Balkans Qatar Al Jazeera Media Network (Government) Multi-national (Balkans) Bosnian language, Croatian and Serbian Al Jazeera English Qatar Al Jazeera Media Network (Government) International English Al Jazeera Mubasher Al-‘Amma Qatar Al Jazeera Media Network (Government) International Arabic Asianet News India National Cable, Online Malayalam Language BBC Arabic Television United Kingdom BBC (Government) International Arabic BBC News United Kingdom BBC (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online English BBC Parliament United Kingdom BBC (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online English BBC Persian Television United Kingdom BBC (Government) International Persian BBC World News United Kingdom BBC (Government) International English RTV SLO 3 Slovenia RTV SLO 3 (Government) Nationwide Slovene Bernama TV Malaysia Malay, English CBC News Network Canada CBC (Government) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV, online English CCTV-13 China China Central Television (Government) Nationwide Chinese CGTN (TV channel) China China Central Television (Government) International English CGTN America China China Central Television (Government) International English CGTN Africa China China Central Television (Government) International English CGTN Arabic China China Central Television (Government) International Arabic CGTN French China China Central Television (Government) International French CGTN Russian China China Central Television (Government) International Russian CGTN Spanish China China Central Television (Government) International Spanish Channel NewsAsia Singapore MediaCorp (Government) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV English ČT24 Czech Republic Česká televize (Government) Nationwide Czech DD News India Prasar Bharati (Government) Nationwide English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Bengali, Urdu DW-TV Germany DW-TV (Government) International German, English, French, Spanish, Arabic Tagesschau24 Germany ARD (Government) Nationwide German Euronews Europe Euronews SA (Private) International English, French, Spanish, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Ukrainian, Polish France 24 France France Médias Monde (Government) International French, English, Arabic, Spanish France Info France France Télévisions (Government) Nationwide French NPO Nieuws Netherlands NPO (Government) Nationwide Dutch HRT 4 Croatia HRT (Government) Nationwide Croatian IRINN Iran IRIB (Government) Nationwide Persian Press TV Iran IRIB (Government) International English, French HispanTV Iran IRIB (Government) International Spanish Al-Alam News Network Iran IRIB (Government) International Arabic Sahar TV Iran IRIB (Government) International English, French, Arabic, Kurdish, Bosnian, Urdu (Sahar Universal Network also had programs in Russian and Turkish language. Those languages went off the air later.) News World India India Hindi & English NDTV 24x7 India New Delhi Television Limited English Asahi Newstar Japan TV Asahi Nationwide Japanese TBS News Bird Japan Tokyo Broadcasting System Nationwide Japanese NHK World TV Japan NHK (Government) International English Nile TV Egypt English, French, Hebrew YTN South Korea YTN (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV, online Also available internationally Korean PTV News Pakistan Urdu and English Rai News 24 Italy RAI (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online Italian RDI Canada CBC (Government) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV, online French RTÉ News Now Ireland RTÉ (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online English, Irish, Irish Sign Language RTP3 Portugal RTP (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online Also available internationally Portuguese RT Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) International English, French, Spanish, Arabic RT France Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) International French RT UK Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) Nationwide English RT America Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) Nationwide English RT en Español Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) International Spanish RT Arabic Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) International Arabic RT Deutsch Russia ANO TV-Novosti (Government) Nationwide German Russia 24 Russia VGTRK (Government) Nationwide Also available internationally Russian SABC News International South Africa SABC (Government) English WION India Essel Group (Private) International English Zee 24Ghanta India Essel Group (Private) Regional Bengali Zee News India Essel Group (Private) Nationwide Hindi Zee Live India, Mauritius Essel Group (Private) Nationwide English, Mirror Now India English TG Norba 24 Italy Gruppo Norba (Private) Terrestrial (regional), satellite Italian Telesur Venezuela La Nueva Televisión del Sur (Government) International Spanish TRT Al Arabiya Turkey TRT (Government) International Arabic TRT Haber Turkey TRT (Government) Nationwide Turkish TRT Kurdî Turkey TRT (Government) Nationwide Kurdish TRT World Turkey TRT (Government) International English TVB iNews China ( Hong Kong) TVB (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial Chinese (Cantonese) TVP Info Poland Telewizja Polska (Government) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online Polish VOA TV United States Broadcasting Board of Governors (Government) International English (VOA currently broadcasts news in 45 languages) RTK 3 Kosovo Radio Television of Kosovo (Government) Nationwide Albanian, Serbian TV5 (India) India Shreya Broadcasting Pvt, Ltd (Private) India Regional Telugu ANC Philippines ABS-CBN Corporation (Private) Nationwide English, Filipino Africa 24 Africa French Ada Derana Sri Lanka Sinhala One News (Philippines) Philippines TV5 Network (Private) Nationwide English, Filipino Inquirer 990 Television Philippines Inquirer Group of Companies (Private) Filipino ARY News Pakistan Urdu PTV World Pakistan English Apna News Pakistan Punjabi Arise News United Kingdom International English Astro Awani Malaysia Malaysian Band News Brazil Grupo Bandeirantes de Comunicação (Private) Nationwide Portuguese BeritaSatu TV Indonesia Indonesian, English BFM TV France NextRadioTV (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV, online French Brigada News TV Philippines Cebuano CBSN United States CBS Corporation (Private) Nationwide online English Channels TV Nigeria Nigerian City 42 Pakistan Urdu, English CNN United States WarnerMedia (Private) Nationwide English CNN Airport United States WarnerMedia (Private) Nationwide English CNN Chile Chile Nationwide Spanish CNN en Español United States WarnerMedia (Private) International Spanish CNN-News18 India Network 18 (Private) Nationwide English CNN Indonesia Indonesia Trans Media (Private) Nationwide Indonesian CNN International United States WarnerMedia (Private) International English CNN Philippines Philippines Nine Media Corporation (Private) Nationwide English, Filipino CNN Türk Turkey Doğan Media Group (Private) Nationwide Turkish CP24 Canada Bell Media (Private) Regional Satellite, cable, IPTV English CTV News Channel Canada Bell Media (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV English Dawn News Pakistan English DD Sahyadri India Marathi Digi 24 Romania Romanian Din News Pakistan Urdu Dunya News Pakistan Urdu DXAB Teleradyo Philippines ABS-CBN Cebuano DYAB Teleradyo Philippines ABS-CBN Cebuano Dzaïr News Algeria Arabic, Tamazight, French, English DZMM TeleRadyo Philippines ABS-CBN Nationwide Filipino Nova24TV Slovenia Slovene Top TV Slovenia Slovene DZRH News Television Philippines Manila Broadcasting Company (Private) Nationwide Filipino Echo TV Hungary Hungarian Echourouk News Algeria Arabic, French eNCA South Africa Naspers (Private) International English Ennahar TV Algeria Arabic, French ETV News Kannada India Kannada ETV Marathi India Marathi Excélsior TV Mexico Grupo Imagen (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Spanish Express News Pakistan Urdu and English Focus TV India Hindi FOROtv Mexico Televisa (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Also available internationally Spanish Fox News Channel United States 20th Century Fox (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV Also available internationally English FTV News Taiwan Chinese GEO News Pakistan Urdu Global News Network Philippines English, Filipino Globo News Brazil Grupo Globo (Private) Nationwide Portuguese Globovisión Venezuela Spanish GMA News TV Philippines GMA Network (Private) English, Filipino Headlines Today India English Hír TV Hungary Hungarian HKBN News China ( Hong Kong) Chinese (Cantonese) HLN United States Time Warner (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV English i24news Israel International English, French, Arabic INews TV Indonesia Indonesian IBN-7 India Hindi IBN Lokmat India Marathi Info TV Lithuania Lithuanian i-Cable Live News Channel China ( Hong Kong) I-Cable Communications (Private) Nationwide Cable Chinese (Cantonese) India News India Hindi India Tv India Hindi Indus News Pakistan Urdu CNews France Groupe Canal+ (Private) Nationwide French Jai Maharashtra India Marathi Jurnal TV Moldova Romanian Janasri News India Kannada Kompas TV Indonesia Indonesian Espreso TV Ukraine Ukrainian News7 Bulgaria Bulgarian News 12 Networks United States Altice USA (Private) New York metropolitan area English Kanal 5 Ukraine Ukrainian Kasthuri Newz 24 India Kannada Kolkata TV India Bengali KTN News Pakistan Sindhi Khyber News Pakistan Pushto LCI France Groupe TF1 (Private) Nationwide French LCN Canada Quebecor Media (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV French Manorama News India Indian MetroTV Indonesia Indonesian, English, Chinese MNC News Indonesia Indonesian, English, Chinese Milenio Televisión Mexico Grupo Multimedios (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Spanish MSNBC United States Comcast (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV English Welt Germany Axel Springer SE (Private) Nationwide German n-tv Germany RTL Group (Private) Nationwide German NDTV 24x7 India English NDTV India India Hindi NDTV Profit India English Ne Bangla India Bengali News 24 India Hindi News One Pakistan Urdu NewsX India English Niagara News TV Canada Regional English NTV Turkey Turkish Nuestra Tele Noticias 24 Horas Colombia Spanish One America News United States Herring Networks Nationwide English Odisha TV India Oriya Ora News Albania Albanian OSN News (Rebroadcasts of American news) Arab World Arabic Phoenix InfoNews Channel China ( Hong Kong) Phoenix Television (Private) International Chinese NPO Politiek Netherlands NPO (Government) Nationwide Dutch Polsat News Poland Cyfrowy Polsat (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV Polish Polsat News 2 Poland Cyfrowy Polsat (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV Polish Presse Africaine Africa French Public TV India Kannada Raj News Kannada India Kannada Record News Brazil Grupo Record (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, IPTV Portuguese Realitatea TV Romania Romanian România TV Romania Romanian Royal News Pakistan Urdu Samaa News Pakistan Urdu Samaya TV India Kannada SIC Notícias Portugal Impresa (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV Also available internationally Portuguese Sindh TV News Pakistan Sindhi Sky News Australia Australia News Corp Australia (Private) Nationwide English Sky News New Zealand New Zealand News Corp Australia (Private) Nationwide English Sky News United Kingdom 21st Century Fox (Private) Nationwide Terrestrial, satellite, cable, online Also available internationally English Sky News Arabia United Kingdom Sky plc, ADMIC (Private) International Arabic Saam TV India Marathi Sky TG24 Italy 21st Century Fox (Private) Nationwide Italian ABP Ananda India ABP Group (Private) Nationwide Bengali ABP News India ABP Group Nationwide Hindi STV Notícias Mozambique Portuguese Sun News Network Canada English Superstacja Poland Polish Suvarna News India Kannada TA3 Slovakia Slovak Tara Newz India Government of West Bengal, India (Government) International Bengali TEZ India Hindi TGCOM24 Italy Mediaset (Private) Nationwide terrestrial, satellite, Internet Italian TOLOnews Afghanistan Dari, Pashto and English Times Now India English TheBlaze United States Blaze Media Nationwide English TNN24 Thailand Thai Spring News Thailand Thai Nation TV Thailand Thai Todo Noticias Argentina Spanish Crónica TV Argentina Spanish C5N Argentina Spanish Canal 26 Argentina Spanish América 24 Argentina Spanish CN23 Argentina Spanish TVB News Channel China ( Hong Kong) TVB (Private) Nationwide Chinese (Cantonese) TV 2 Nyhetskanalen Norway Norwegian TV 2 News Denmark Danish TV 24 India Hindi TVC News Nigeria English TVI 24 Portugal Media Capital (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV Also available internationally Portuguese TVN24 Poland TVN Group (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV, online Polish TVN24 BiS Poland TVN Group (Private) Nationwide Satellite, cable, IPTV, online Polish TV9 (Telugu) India Telugu TV9 (Kannada) India Kannada Udaya News India Kannada Waqt TV Pakistan Urdu VSH News Pakistan Balochi Zee 24 Taas India Essel Group (Private) Marathi Newsmax TV United States Newsmax Media Nationwide English Business news channels Network Country Language(s) Bloomberg Television United States English BNN Bloomberg Canada English BTVI India English Bloomberg TV Philippines Philippines English BFM Business France French Class CNBC Italy Italian CNBC United States English CNBC Arabiya United Arab Emirates Arabic CNBC Asia Singapore English CNBC Awaaz India Hindi CNBC Bajar India Gujarati CNBC Europe United Kingdom English CNBC Pakistan Pakistan Urdu and English CNBC-TV18 India English CNBC Awaaz India Hindi ET Now India English Fox Business Network United States English Nikkei CNBC Japan Japanese RTL Z Netherlands Dutch RBC TV Russia Russian SBS-CNBC South Korea Korean Business Plus Pakistan Urdu and English TVN24 Biznes i Świat Poland Polish now Business News China ( Hong Kong) Chinese (Cantonese) Zee Business India Hindi Zee 24 Hours Business , India Fiji English Sport news channels Network Country Language(s) A Bola TV Portugal Portuguese beIN Sports News Middle East and North Africa Arabic ESPNews United States English Fox Sports News Australia English Fox Sports News Asia Hong Kong English Polsat Sport News Poland Polish Sky Sports News United Kingdom English SuperSport News Albania Albanian ERT Sports HD Greece Greek Weather news channels Network Country Language(s) La Chaîne Météo France French Sky Meteo24 Italy Italian Sky News Weather Channel Australia English Climatempo Brazil Portuguese The Weather Network Canada English TVN Meteo Poland Polish The Weather Channel United States English WeatherNation TV United States English AccuWeather Network United States English Defunct channels Network Country Language(s) Period of broadcasting Noticias ECO (private) Mexico Spanish 1988 - 2001 Al Jazeera Mubasher Misr Qatar Arabic 2011 - 2014 Al Jazeera Türk Qatar Turkish 2014 - 2017 aTV 2 News & Business Channel(public) China Chinese (Cantonese) 2007 -2009 Económico TV Portugal Portuguese 2010 - 2016 SBS World News Channel Australia Multiple Language 2002 - 2009 CNBC-e Turkey English and Turkish 2000 - 2015, replaced by TLC Türkiye CNN+ Spain Spanish 1999 – 2010 Nou 24 2009 – 2013 Z1 Czech Republic Czech 2008 - 2011 Nyhetskanalen Norway Norwegian 1997 - 1998 Polsat Biznes Poland Polish 2013 - 2014, replaced by Polsat News 2 TVN CNBC (private) 2007 - 2013, TVN CNBC, replaced by TVN24 Biznes i Świat TVNZ 7 New Zealand English and Māori 2008 - 2012 MBN (business, private) South Korea Korean 1995 - 2003 (business), 2003 – 2011 (private); then the general channel switched Sky News Business Channel Australia English 2008 - 2018 Sky News Election Channel Australia English 2016 - 2017 SVT24 (public) Sweden Swedish 2003 - 2005; is still on air but consists mainly of reruns of programmes from SVT1 and SVT2 DR Update (public) Denmark Danish 2008 - 2013; DR Update has been closed and replaced by DR Ultra. ITV News Channel (private) UK English 2000 - 2005 ABC News Now US 2004 - 2013 (replaced by Fusion) Al Jazeera America 2013 - 2016 CNNfn 1995 - 2004 Current TV 2005 - 2013 (replaced by Al Jazeera America) DoD News Channel 2004 - 2015 (formerly Pentagon Channel) NBC Weather Plus 2004 - 2008 Newsworld International 1994 - 2005 (replaced by Current TV) TouchVision 2013 - 2016 Express 24/7 Pakistan 2009 - 2011 Bloomberg TV Indonesia Indonesia Indonesian 2013 - 2015 CBS Telenoticias Latin America Spanish, Portuguese 1994 - 2000 Your Money Australia English 2018
  12. How many clients have you called stupid this week Mr diplomacy?
  13. Rubbish looks somehow more beautiful in Russian
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