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mitsubishi

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Today marks #pronounsday – seeking to make sharing, educating and respecting personal pronouns commonplace. @pronounsday pic.twitter.com/pe9x9GWTJj

— Julie Cooke (@DCCJulieCooke) October 16, 2019

“It is so important to understand the pronouns that somebody wishes to be used for them,” the uniformed DCC tells us in her video, filmed in front of a Cheshire Constabulary background – just in case we were in any doubt about whether this is an official police communication
 
1400 TEENAGE RAPE VICTIMS GANG RAPED BY MUSLIM SCUM iN ROTHERHAM FOR YEARS THAT THE POLICE DELIBERATELY IGNORED
 
Shove your prounouns day up Your fucking overpaid arse JULIE
 
(I knew it would be down to me to find the right words)
 
Edited by mitsubishi

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In these days of neo communism there are 2 types of people

1-Gutless cowards who worry about saying what they really think in case it upsets their owners

2- The rest of us.

 

Guess which type stands in the way of tyranny.

 

 

 

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GOOD NEWS!!

 Youtube comments indicate..

 

almost everybody on the planet knows

Zuckerboy is a

sweaty lying 2 faced jew cunt puppet that will delete you unless you agree 2+2=5

Naturally, I didn't waste a second of my life bothering to listen to a single word that came out of his arse.

 

Edited by mitsubishi

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The best people for the job/best qualified are running the fed which is giood to know

Always look to buy when possible.

 

https://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/structure-and-functions

The Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System

 

 

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. It was founded by Congress in 1913 to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. Over the years, its role in banking and the economy has expanded. 

Test your knowledge about the Federal Reserve through these quizzes.

The Federal Reserve has three primary functions: Monetary Policy, Banking Supervision, Financial Services

 

Board of Governors

 

The Board of Governors, located in Washington, D.C., provides the leadership for the System.
 
The Board of Governors, also known as the Federal Reserve Board, is the national component of the Federal Reserve System. The board consists of the seven governors, appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Governors serve 14-year, staggered terms to ensure stability and continuity over time. The chairman and vice-chairman are appointed to four-year terms and may be reappointed subject to term limitations.
 
Among the responsibilities of the Board of Governors are to guide monetary policy action, to analyze domestic and international economic and financial conditions, and to lead committees that study current issues, such as consumer banking laws and electronic commerce.
 
The Board also exercises broad supervisory control over the financial services industry, administers certain consumer protection regulations, and oversees the nation's payments system. The Board oversees the activities of Reserve Banks, approving the appointments of their presidents and some members of their boards of directors. The Board sets reserve requirements for depository institutions and approves changes in discount rates recommended by Reserve Banks.
 
The Board's most important responsibility is participating in the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which conducts our nation's monetary policy; the seven governors comprise the voting majority of the FOMC with the other five votes coming from Reserve Bank presidents.
 
Board members are called to testify before Congress, and they maintain regular contact with other government organizations as well. The chairman reports twice a year to Congress on the Fed's monetary policy objectives, testifies on numerous other issues, and meets periodically with the Secretary of the Treasury.
 
The Board funds its operations by assessing the Federal Reserve Banks rather than through Congressional appropriation. Its financial accounts are audited annually by a public accounting firm, and these accounts are also subject to audit by the General Accounting Office.

 

Federal Reserve Banks

 

A network of 12 Federal Reserve Banks and 24 branches make up the Federal Reserve System under the general oversight of the Board of Governors. Reserve Banks are the operating arms of the central bank.

Each of the 12 Reserve Banks serves its region of the country, and all but three have other offices within their Districts to help provide services to depository institutions and the public. The Banks are named after the locations of their headquarters - Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond, Atlanta, Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Dallas and San Francisco.

The Reserve Banks serve banks, the U.S. Treasury, and, indirectly, the public. A Reserve Bank is often called a "banker's bank," storing currency and coin, and processing checks and electronic payments. Reserve Banks also supervise commercial banks in their regions. As the bank for the U.S. government, Reserve Banks handle the Treasury's payments, sell government securities and assist with the Treasury's cash management and investment activities. Reserve Banks conduct research on regional, national and international economic issues. Research plays a critical role in bringing broad economic perspectives to the national policymaking arena and supports Reserve Bank presidents who all attend meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC).

Each Reserve Bank's board of directors oversees the management and activities of the District bank. Reflecting the diverse interests of each District, these directors contribute local business experience, community involvement and leadership. The board imparts a private-sector perspective to the Reserve Bank. Each board appoints the president and first vice president of the Reserve Bank, subject to the approval of the Board of Governors.

All member banks hold stock in Reserve Banks and receive dividends. Unlike stockholders in a public company, banks cannot sell or trade their Fed stock. Reserve Banks interact directly with banks in their Districts through examinations and financial services and bring important regional perspectives that help the entire Federal Reserve System do its job more effectively.

 

Member Banks

 

Approximately 38 percent of the 8,039 commercial banks in the United States are members of the Federal Reserve System. National banks must be members; state-chartered banks may join if they meet certain requirements. The member banks are stockholders of the Reserve Bank in their District and as such, are required to hold 3 percent of their capital as stock in their Reserve Banks.

 

Other Depository Institutions

 

In addition to the approximately 3,000 member banks, about 17,000 other depository institutions provide the American people checkable deposits and other banking services. These depository institutions include nonmember commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, and credit unions. Although not formally part of the Federal Reserve System, these institutions are subject to System regulations, including reserve requirements, and have access to System payments services.

 

Federal Open Market Committee

 

The Federal Open Market Committee, or FOMC, is the Fed's monetary policymaking body. It is responsible for formulation of a policy designed to promote stable prices and economic growth. Simply put, the FOMC manages the nation's money supply.
 
The voting members of the FOMC are the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and presidents of four other Reserve Banks, who serve on a rotating basis. All Reserve Bank presidents participate in FOMC policy discussions. The chairman of the Board of Governors chairs the FOMC.
 
The FOMC typically meets eight times a year in Washington, D.C. At each meeting, the committee discusses the outlook for the U.S. economy and monetary policy options.
 
The FOMC is an example of the interdependence built into the Fed's structure. It combines the expertise of the Board of Governors and the 12 Reserve Banks. Regional input from Reserve Bank directors and advisory groups brings the private sector perspective to the FOMC and provides grassroots input for monetary policy decisions.

 

Advisory Councils

 

Three statutory advisory councils - the Federal Advisory Council, the Consumer Advisory Council, and the Thrift Institutions Advisory Council - advise the Board on matters of current interest. These councils, whose members are drawn from each of the 12 Federal Reserve Districts, meet two to four times a year. The individual Reserve Banks have advisory committees as well, including thrift institutions advisory committees, small business and agricultural advisory committees. Moreover, officials from all Reserve Banks meet periodically in various committees.

 

 

Edited by mitsubishi

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Forget the Joker and charlies charlie-There are still good movies around if you want to learn how to lose money much more slowly.

With famous movies such as Wall Street and The Wolf of Wall Street, the finance industry has been sensationalized in Hollywood. While these types of movies offer high entertainment value, they don't provide an accurate depiction of what it's really like to be a professional in the world of finance.

 

There are such big-screen movies, but here we take a more realistic approach through documentary film. For current finance professionals looking to increase their skills, or for aspiring finance professionals looking to break into the industry, finance documentaries are a great way to gain insight and knowledge.

 

Key Takeaways

  • Financial professionals should always be educating themselves and learning from others.
  • While going to a seminar or reading a book are popular methods, sometimes it can seem easier to just watch a film.
  • Hollywood films, however, don't always present an accurate picture of reality—so do take what you see with a grain of salt.

1. Inside Job

Inside Job is one of the most well-done and informative documentaries on the 2008 housing and banking financial crisis. The movie won the 2010 Oscar for the best documentary picture.

 

Broken down into five parts, the film takes the viewer through the U.S. policy changes and banking practices that led to the global financial crisis. It begins by highlighting how the economy was set up to fail, how the bubble grew between 2001 and 2007, how the crisis struck in 2008, who was accountable for the crisis and then a wrap-up of the aftermath.

 

For a finance professional, this is the No. 1 documentary to watch. Through an understanding of the history of one of the largest financial crises, it's possible to learn from past mistakes to foresee when something like this can happen again and prevent it from happening. 

 

2. Trader

The film Trader follows the intelligent but superstitious trader Paul Tudor Jones, showing him at his best and at his worst. Jones, a hedge fund manager, accurately predicted the 1987 economic downturn, based on a combination of intuition and Elliott Wave graphs.

 

While Jones is extremely intelligent, he's also extremely superstitious. This highlights the fact that many people within the investment finance industry rely on luck as much as skill and analytics. Sometimes it takes guts along with analysis to make the correct investment decision.

 

The documentary also follows Jones as he donates his time and money to help New York City children graduate from high school. This underscores the importance of giving back to the community, rather than succumbing to greed.

 

3. 25 Million Pounds

Watch 25 Million Pounds to learn the true story of Nick Leeson, a British trader who started his career as a Morgan Stanley clerk and ended up as a law-breaking rogue trader who brought down Barings, an old British bank. This bank held money for the high-powered elite, including the Queen herself. The true story was so compelling that it also inspired the film "Rogue Trader," which starred Ewan McGregor.

 

Through interviews with Leeson in the early 1990s, "25 Million Pounds" allows finance professionals a chance to peer into the mind of someone who has dealt with dishonest traders and even committed fraud himself. The interviews highlight Leeson's relationship with the trader Kweku Adoboli, who managed to take over $2 billion from UBS.

 

4. Frontline: "Breaking the Bank"

By watching Frontline: "Breaking the Bank," viewers are able to get an understanding of the American banking crisis that led to nearly $800 billion in Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funds being accepted by American banks due to reckless management. These funds injected cash into the American banking system and ensured that none of the largest banks would fail.

 

While some argue that the cash bailout that saved the large American banks from collapsing was necessary, others argue that the bailout subverted free enterprise and capitalism. Understanding the intricacies of the American banking crisis gives finance professionals a better understanding of the interwoven economy and how the free market reacts to a crisis.

 

5. The Ascent of Money

Finance professionals who are interested in the complete financial history of the world should definitely put The Ascent of Money on their list of documentaries to watch. Niall Ferguson takes viewers through a complete history of the financial world, from the ancient city of Babylon all the way to the 2008 global financial crisis.

 

The Ascent of Money highlights such events as the Babylonian futures contracts and Francisco Pizarro's exploitation of the Cerro Rico de Potosí, a mine that yielded silver for Europe.

 

Understanding the deep financial history of the world gives finance professionals a greater perspective and understanding of how the finance world operates.

 

6. Commanding Heights

Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy highlights the birth of globalization. Similar to the deep history highlighted in The Ascent of Money, this documentary delves deep into the beginning of globalization by first taking the viewer into Russia and behind the Iron Curtain.

 

From there, Commanding Heights presses on to highlight such events such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank's response to the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Afterward, the film continues through the end of the 20th century, when deregulation became prevalent.

 

For finance professionals, this film provides a thorough understanding of the world economy.

 

7. Life and Debt

Life and Debt is a documentary film that highlights how indebtedness makes a bad situation worse for small countries. Through an understanding of the European Union's rescue of floundering countries such as Greece and Portugal, the film gives finance professionals food for thought about the benefits and drawbacks of bailing out entire countries through debt lending.

 

In addition, Life and Debt takes a closer look at the effects of national indebtedness and IMF policy on ordinary citizens and local businesses.

 

8. Other Frontline Documentaries

Similar to Inside Job and Frontline's "Breaking the Bank," these two documentaries help highlight the 2008 financial crisis, the largest recession since the Great Depression. Inside Job does a great job of giving a high-level overview of the 2008 crisis while also providing entertainment value, but these two PBS documentaries really dig into the causes and effects.

 

While the two documentaries overlap a little, both are important to watch, one after the other.

 

9. The Warning

The Warning also takes a look at the 2008 financial crisis, but it does so from a different angle. It picks up the story of Brooksley Born, the head of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), who urged for tighter regulation that could have mitigated the crisis.

 

For finance professionals, The Warning shows that it's possible to foresee a financial crisis and work to keep it from happening.

 

10. Freakonomics: The Movie

While Freakonomics (released in 2010) isn't strictly financial, it brings to light a lot of interesting theories about why people behave the way they do. By taking seemingly random data points, the documentary shows how causality and correlation can be made between the two. For finance professionals, it's extremely....https://www.investopedia.com/articles/professionals/100215/10-must-watch-documentaries-finance-professionals.asp

 

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GOOD NEWS!

 

I DONT THINK WW3 IS COMING do you????

 
 

The question about what Ben Bernanke would be doing now that he's retired from the Fed has been answered. The ex-chairman of the Federal Reserve is the newest fellow at the Brookings Institution, one of the most influential “progressive” think tanks promoting world government (or “global governance,” the euphemism the internationalists prefer to use today).

“Today we at the Brookings Institution and its new Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy are excited to welcome Ben S. Bernanke as a distinguished Fellow in Residence,” announced David Wessel, director of the Hutchins Center, in his February 3 Brookings blog.

“Mr. Bernanke, of course, has just finished eight tumultuous years as chairman of the Federal Reserve,” Wessel continued. “He was sworn in as Fed chairman in early 2006 unaware that fissures were opening in the foundations of the U.S. economy and financial system.”

Wessel then goes on to laud Bernanke as the “rescuer-in-chief,” the indispensible man who saved the global economy. Says Wessel:

Two years later, he was rescuer-in-chief during the worst financial crisis in 75 years. His mantra: Whatever it takes. As Glenn Hutchins, vice chair of the Brookings board, put it at the recent Hutchins Center inaugural event: “Despite the massive deleveraging of the last few years, we are still deeply in debt to Ben Bernanke.”

 
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In the past few years, Mr. Bernanke has been presiding over an historic experiment in monetary policy — more than five years of zero interest rates (so far) and trillions of dollars in bond-buying, a controversial approach aimed at restoring growth to the American economy.

The bouquet from Wessel is hardly surprising; he and Bernanke have been longtime chums, and Wessel authored the hagiographic 2009 book, In Fed We Trust: Ben Bernanke’s War on the Great Panic, which, the reader might guess from the title, places Bernanke up there on the deity pedestal.

Its understandable that Wall Street tycoon Glenn Hutchins would be so effusive and “deeply in debt” to Bernanke over the “massive deleveraging.” Hutchins’ Silver Lake Partners investment firm, which specializes in leveraged buyouts, profited handsomely from Bernanke’s policies at the Fed, which have left all the rest of us, literally, deeply in debt. Hutchins, by the way, is a member of the board of directors of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. That is a pertinent fact that would seem to be newsworthy, but none of the MSM news stories we’ve seen on Bernanke’s new job have bothered to mention it. Nor do they mention that Brookings vice chair Hutchins is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR, the institutional Big Sister to Brookings) or that his Silver Lake Partners is a Corporate Premium Member of the CFR.

The CFR connection is no small thing, though the MSM financial reporters and pundits either ignore it completely, or scorn any mention of it as wild “conspiracy theory” talk. As we pointed out recently in a couple of stories on Bernanke’s retirement/replacement (see here and here), the CFR made a clean sweep of open positions at the Fed, not only placing CFR members Janet Yellen and Stanley Fischer as chairman and vice chairman, respectively, but also fellow CFR members Lael Brainard and Jerome Powell as governors on the Federal Reserve Board. They are joining other key officials who are members of the same CFR Club Fed, including Daniel Tarullo, William Dudley, Dennis Lockhart, Richard Fischer — and Glenn Hutchins.

And, as we’ve noted, this CFR lock-hold on the Fed goes all the way back to the founding of the Federal Reserve System, the key architect of which was Wall Street banker and CFR member Paul Warburg.
   
The Brookings Institution, which describes itself as “non-partisan” and is frequently described by sympathetic MSM commentators as “centrist,” nevertheless, has justifiably earned a reputation as a “liberal-left” or “progressive” outfit, since it invariably promotes and supports policies and legislation that weaken our nation’s constitutional checks and balances; expand, strengthen, and centralize more power in the federal government; undermine our national sovereignty with increased regional economic and political integration with other countries; and empower the United Nations and its adjuncts, with the end goal of realizing a world government.

Brookings President Strobe Talbott (CFR) is an ardent apostle for world government. As we reported in 2008:

In a 1992 essay for Time magazine, entitled “The Birth of the Global Nation,” Talbott wrote glowingly of the vision he saw materializing, in which “nationhood as we know it will be obsolete; all states will recognize a single, global authority. A phrase briefly fashionable in the mid-20th-century — ‘citizen of the world’ — will have assumed real meaning.”

World government is a theme Talbott has continued to expound (and expand) upon, most recently in his 2008 book, The Great Experiment: The Story of Ancient Empires, Modern States, and the Quest for a Global Nation.

Talbott was Bill Clinton’s Russia advisor and deputy secretary of state. Before that he was Bill Clinton’s roommate, first at Oxford and later in Moscow when the duo went to Russia in 1969. We noted, in the article cited above, “Rooting for World Order”:

Talbott’s journalism career began there in Moscow, under the tutelage of Soviet “journalist” Vitali Yevgenyevich Lui, who was better known in the West as “Victor Louis,” the nom de plume under which his articles appeared in publications such as the New York Times and the Washington Post. Victor Louis was one of the KGB’s most important assets for planting disinformation stories in the western media, through his own stories as well as through the “scoops” he provided to western journalists.

Louis and his KGB overlords picked the young Talbott as the journalist (actually then just an intern for Time magazine) to whom they would leak Khrushchev’s KGB-massaged “memoirs.” It was this boost from Louis that launched Talbott’s career.

Talbott and Louis would remain close, and Talbott would continue to follow Louis’ KGB lead when reporting on the Soviet Union and U.S. foreign policy vis-a-vis the Soviet Union.

According to former Soviet spymaster Sergei Tretyakov, Talbott was considered by Russian intelligence to be a valued source of information. In Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia’s Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War (2008, G.P. Putnam’s Sons), Tretyakov told author Pete Earley that Russian intelligence classified Talbott as “a special unofficial contact.” 

Nevertheless, the Tretyakov accusation and Talbott’s troubling relationship with KGB operative Victor Louis have not caused sufficient concern in official circles in Washington to cause any investigation of the matter; Congress, apparently, is too busy protecting the nation against such threats as “sports doping.” Lance Armstrong and other celebrity athletes are fair game; political insiders such as Talbott are off limits.

If Talbott is/was a Soviet/Russian intelligence operative, he wouldn’t be the only one to have made a home at Brookings. Victor Perlo, a member of the notorious Soviet spy network in the Roosevelt administration in the 1930s and '40s, also worked for Brookings, in between his stints in “government service.”

Brookings: Where “Occupy Wall Street” Goes to Bed With Wall Street

Brookings has staked out the top spot on the left flank of the think tank realm, but that has not hurt them at all in terms of raising money from Big Business, Big Banking, and Big Foundations. Far from it; the leftwing brain trust is rolling in dough from wealthiest of the privileged elites.

According to its 2013 Annual Report, Brookings has amassed assets totaling $404,233,000, and its operating expenses for 2013 ran to more than $69 million. Brookings’ top donors (giving $1 million or more) include the Ford Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, JPMorgan Chase & Co., The John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Microsoft Corporation, The Rockefeller Foundation, David M. Rubenstein, and John L. Thornton.

Thornton (CFR) is chairman of the Board of Trustees at Brookings and former president and CEO of Goldman Sachs, the Wall Street behemoth (or “giant vampire squid,” as Rolling Stone’s Matt Taibbi famously put it) that has prospered immensely from the policies of Bernanke and the Fed. Mr. Rubenstein (CFR), one of three vice chairs at Brookings, is co-founder and managing director of The Carlyle Group, the $176 billion global investment firm. The other two vice chairs at Brookings are Suzanne Nora Johnson (CFR), a former vice chair at Goldman Sachs, and Glenn Hutchins (CFR) of Silver Lake Partners. Strobe Talbott (CFR) also sits on this five-man executive committee of the Board of Trustees. All five are CFR members, and four represent the top of the Wall Street food chain that has been gobbling up more and more of us lesser morsels, thanks to the policies of (and their special, privileged positions with) the Fed.

Other trustees at Brookings are of similar ilk: Robert J. Abernethy (CFR), president, American Standard Development Co., Inc.; Abby Joseph Cohen (CFR), senior investment strategist, Goldman Sachs; Kenneth M. Duberstein (CFR), chairman and CEO, The Duberstein Group, Inc.; Ann M. Fudge (CFR), former chairman and CEO, Young & Rubicam Brands; Tracy R. Wolstencroft (CFR), advisory director, Goldman Sachs; Steven Rattner (CFR), chairman, Willett Advisors LLC; Andrew H. Tisch (CFR), co-chairman of the board, Loews Corporation.

Other major donors to Brookings, according to the 2013 Annual Report are Bank of America, Carnegie Corporation, AT&T, Google, Citibank, Daimler, FedEx, Fiat, GE, Siemens, Toyota, Barclays Bank, and Deutsche Bank, as well as the governments of the United Arab Emirates, Switzerland, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada,  Finland, Norway, Dubai, the European Union, and the United States.

Bernanke should do well in these environs; at Brookings he is among friends whom he has greatly enriched. Now it is his turn to be rewarded by those he has faithfully served.

 

Edited by mitsubishi

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Good trading is good news

and good traders say when trading is boring it's cos they (great) are traders.

The Most Boring Thing Ever Written

I am writing something. Yes, I plan to make it the most boring thing ever written. I go to the store. A car is parked. Many cars are parked or moving. Some are blue. Some are tan. They have windows. In the store, there are items for sale. These include such things as soap, detergent, magazines, and lettuce. You can enhance your life with these products. Soap can be used for bathing, be it in a bathtub or in a shower. Apply the soap to your body and rinse. Detergent is used to wash clothes. Place your dirty clothes into a washing machine and add some detergent as directed on the box. Select the appropriate settings on your washing machine and you should be ready to begin. Magazines are stapled reading material made with glossy paper, and they cover a wide variety of topics, ranging from news and politics to business and stock market information. Some magazines are concerned with more recreational topics, like sports card collecting or different kinds of hairstyles. Lettuce is a vegetable. It is usually green and leafy, and is the main ingredient of salads. You may have an appliance at home that can quickly shred lettuce for use in salads. Lettuce is also used as an optional item for hamburgers and deli sandwiches. Some people even eat lettuce by itself. I have not done this. So you can purchase many types of things at stores.

If I drive around, I sometimes notice the houses and buildings all around. There are also pieces of farm land that are very large. Houses can be built from different kinds of materials. The most common types are brick, wood, and vinyl or synthetic siding. Houses have lawns that need to be tended. Lawns need to be mowed regularly. Most people use riding lawnmowers to do this. You can also use a push mower. These come in two varieties: gas-powered and manual. You don’t see manual push-mowers very much anymore, but they are a good option if you do not want to pollute the air with smoke from a gas-powered lawnmower. I notice that many families designate the lawnmowing responsibility to a teenager in the household. Many of these teenagers are provided with an allowance for mowing the yard, as well as performing other chores, like taking out the trash, washing the dishes, making their bed, and keeping the house organized. Allowances are small amounts of money given by parents to their children, usually on a weekly basis. These usually range from 5 dollars to 15 dollars, sometimes even 20 dollars. Many parents feel that teenagers can learn financial responsibility with this system.

Now I will talk about farm land. Farm land can be identified by some common features. They almost always consist of a very large patch of dirt with small green plants lined up in very long rows. You may sometimes see farm equipment riding over these rows, like tractors or combines. These machines help farmers grow more crops in less time. They are a very helpful invention. Some different types of crops are soybeans, cotton, corn, tomatoes, tobacco, and lettuce (which I mentioned earlier). Most crops are used as food, and can be defined as either fruits or vegetables. Some are commonly eaten raw, after being rinsed in water to remove any dirt. Some are often cooked, which helps give them a more pleasant taste and makes them easier to chew. A very versatile vegetable is the potato. It can be eaten raw, or it can be cooked in a variety of ways. They can be baked, and many people like to add butter to them. They can be mashed, and a lot of times brown gravy or milk gravy is poured on top of them. They can be cut into thin strips and fried. Typically a large amount of grease is required to prepare potatoes in this style, but they are easy to make and easy to eat. You can order them at several fast-food restaurants. Potatoes can also be boiled, stewed, and scalloped. There is a wide variety of options available to you when cooking potatoes.

Some other types of crops grown on farm land are used for other purposes. Cotton is used to make clothing (which I also mentioned earlier). It is a very versatile and inexpensive material for clothes. Such items as shirts, pants, socks, and underwear can be made from cotton. The process of converting cotton from a cotton plant to clothing is fairly complicated. Today, cotton is harvested more efficiently through the use of the cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney many years ago.

Tobacco is another type of crop. It is used in making cigarettes. A lot of people smoke cigarettes, even though many medical sources have identified them as harmful to people’s health. Warnings are printed on cigarette packages reminding people of possible dangers resulting from smoking. Cigarettes are available in several brands, including Marlboro, Salem, and Virginia Slims. There is a brand called Kool, but I don’t know whether they are still available at most outlets. Tobacco farming is a large industry, and currently there is debate about it. Recently the government decided on some regulations that cost tobacco companies a large amount of money.

If you notice, some farm lands have animals living on them. Most of these are cows, and there are also pigs, sheep, and goats living on farms. Some are raised for the milk they provide. This milk goes through several processes to ensure that it is not contaminated before it is made available to consumers at stores (which I mentioned earlier). Another use for farm animals is meat. Three popular types of meat are beef, pork, and chicken. Beef comes from cows. Pork comes from pigs. Chicken comes from chickens, but you probably knew that. These animals are raised to become plump and healthy, then they are killed, sometimes at slaughter houses. The meat is then removed from their bodies, cleaned, and made available at a variety of stores and restaurants. Sometimes this process can seem gross, but it is part of an advanced ecological food chain on earth. Just like birds eat worms and tigers eat deer, human beings eat cows and pigs. The main difference is that we don’t eat animals raw. We cook the meat to remove blood, fat, and germs from it. We also season our meat with salt or different kinds of sauces. The end result is food that is very tasty and is healthy for us.

Farmers do not like trespassers. If a farmer sees one, he will sometimes shoot at them with a shotgun that he owns. Trespassing is against the law. Laws are created by government to prevent people from living in fear. They are meant to provide safety for citizens. Our government in America consists of a legislative branch, an executive branch, and a judicial branch. The legislative branch makes laws based on the concerns of citizens they represent. The executive branch consists of the President. This person enforces the law, and he has certain other duties like declaring war and approving bills prepared by members of the legislative branch. The President is also considered the leader of our country. The judicial branch interprets the laws. This branch consists of the courts and the trials held in them. Here a judge and jury determine from evidence presented by lawyers whether someone is guilty of breaking a law. Initial law enforcement takes place among police officers. They are the first people to encounter situations where a law is being broken. If a criminal (law-breaker) becomes too violent or hostile, they will use guns or mace or nightsticks to administer immediate punishment. Their goal is to bring the criminal under control, so that he can receive a punishment determined by members of the judicial branch of government. Punishments mostly include time in jail, but they can also include fines and, in extreme cases, the death penalty. There is controversy surrounding the death penalty.

Children play with toys. This is common to almost all kids. Toys come in a very wide variety. Boys tend to like cars, action figures, and toy weapons. Girls tend to like dolls, toy kitchens, and make-up. Both of them like building or assembling things, be it with Legos, blocks, Play-Doh, or something similar. Toys can be found at most stores, and these days entire stores are dedicated to selling only toys. The most popular of these is Toys ‘R’ Us (with a backwards “R”). Their mascot is Geoffrey the Giraffe. Children love to go to Toys ‘R’ Us and look at the wide variety of toys available. Most children receive the greatest quanitity of toys on their birthdays, or during the holiday season in December. For the majority of children, this holiday is Christmas. For Jewish children, the holiday is Channakuh. Either way, the kid gets presents during this time, and most of these presents are toys.

Christmas is a holiday which has gradually become centered around the character “Santa Claus” and his elves and reindeer. Children are told that Santa’s elves build their toys, and Santa delivers them personally to each house in the world by riding in an airborne sleigh hauled by nine reindeer, including Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, who leads the way. Another popular Christmas character is Frosty the Snowman. Frosty is basically any snowman that comes to life. So during Christmas, many children build snowmen, and some of them hope that theirs might come to life. But all of these characters are myths. The true origin of Christmas is a celebration of the birth of Jesus, who founded the religion of Christianity a couple of thousand years ago. Many popular Christmas carols deal with his story, such as “Joy to the World” and “Silent Night.”

Other holidays include Thanksgiving, Halloween, and Independence Day. Thanksgiving has become a tradition of preparing large quantities of food for a large gathering of people, mainly family and friends. This meal usually features turkey or ham as the main course. Turkey and ham are both kinds of meat (which I mentioned earlier). The meal usually also consists of dressing and a wide assortment of vegetables (which I also mentioned earlier). The origin of Thanksgiving is usually traced to the days of the pilgrims, who were the first settlers in America. They made peace with the native people, the Indians, and together enjoyed a large feast, thanking God for providing them with such an abundance. (Their concepts of God were probably very different.)

Halloween is the holiday when people dress in costumes to look like other characters. Most of these are children, who go from door to door in different neighborhoods to request candy from the people living there. They usually say “trick or treat” then receive a treat. Very rarely does the person in the house respond with a trick. Halloween has some sort of demonic origin that I am not quite sure about, but the name derives from “All Hallow’s Eve.” I will not say much about Independence Day, but it is the day Americans celebrate the anniversary of our independence from Britain. Most families purchase fireworks during this holiday and set them off in their lawns (which I mentioned earlier).

America gained independence from Britain in the late 1700’s after the Revolutionary War. Britain was hoping to extend its empire across the Atlantic Ocean, but the colonists who settled the territory did not want to be under Britain’s control, with their various taxes and regulations. Both sides were very passionate about their position on the issue, so a war occurred. This war featured a few heroes, including George Washington and Paul Revere. George Washington became America’s first president when we gained independence. I am not sure what happened to Paul Revere. The Declaration of Independence was written before the war by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 and made clear the position of the colonists. It was signed by many important people, including Ben Franklin and John Hancock. Ben Franklin is well-known for many things. One of these is inventing electrical conductors in the form of lightning rods. A famous tale is that he flew a kite with a small piece of metal somewhere on the string during a lightning storm. This was an effective way to test his theory. Another thing Ben Franklin is known for is publishing Poor Richards Almanac. This was like a magazine and contained some of his famous writings and quotations. One famous quote was “Tell me, I forget. Teach me, I remember. Involve me, I learn.” Maybe this had something to do with why he flew that kite.

Trees are one of our most important natural resources. They are made of wood, and wood can be made into a variety of products. Some of the more obvious kinds are furniture, houses, and toothpicks. However, wood can also be made into paper. When I first heard this, I was skeptical, but it is true. Paper is a very important product in our society. Writers and artists have greatly benefited from the invention of paper. With only some paper and a pen or pencil, a writer can produce stories and poems that can captivate readers. They can also write down historical facts about their society. Actually, these writings don’t become historical until years later. At the time, the writings could probably be considered news. Artists use paper for their drawings and paintings. They can also use canvas. Drawings and paintings can be very beautiful. They can depict a wide variety of subjects, including flowers, animals, landscapes, and people. They can be realistic or impressionistic. Some paintings also attempt to convey emotions merely by the way the colors are combined and the brushstrokes are applied. This is a modern or contemporary approach to art. Many people think this approach does not require as much talent as the realistic styles.

I will end my writing here. I have tried to make it very boring, and I hope I have succeeded. There are plenty of boring documents available for you to read. Check your public library for more information. You can also find boring materials at a bookstore or on websites. Sometimes this information can be found in magazines (which I mentioned earlier).

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https://www.brade.zone/2008/09/13/boring/

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Should be self explanatory this one. If not, try thinking in terms of not including the word 'FOREX' into every sentence.

 

 

 

 

iN OTHER NEWS- (THE GOOD NEWS IS HALFWAY DOWN)

 

 

Banks and other financial firms have disclosed three times as many breaches so far this year than they did in 2016, Bitglass says.

 

The preparedness of banks to deal with threats, such as a recently reported plan by criminals to launch mass attacks on ATM machines worldwide, would appear to be shaky at best considering the number of data breaches in the financial sector this year.

Security vendor Bitglass recently analyzed data breaches disclosed by banks, insurance companies, investment firms, and other financial services institutions thus far in 2018 and compared it with the same data from two years ago.

Between January and August this year, financial firms disclosed three times as many breaches as they did in the same period in 2016—103 in 2018 compared to 37 two years ago. The top three breaches alone this year compromised more records than the 64,512 records exposed in all of 2016, Bitglass said.

Hacking and malware were once again the primary causes like they were in 2016, and accounted for 74% of the data breaches that financial companies have disclosed so far this year. Nearly 15% of the breaches resulted from accidental data disclosures. 

Among the financial institutes that have disclosed breaches this year is RBC Royal Bank, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity Investments, Sallie Mae, and Dun & Bradstreet. The biggest incident involved an employee at SunTrust Banks who stole the names, addresses, phone numbers, and account balances of some 1.5 million of the banks' customers. In another instance, attackers managed to gain access to the Royal Bank of Canada's travel rewards website and steal payment card data belonging to some 66,000 individuals.

The breach numbers suggest that while financial services companies spend more on cybersecurity than most other organizations — and are more heavily regulated than others — the sector as a whole doesn't appear to becoming a whole lot more secure over time.

One of the reasons, of course, is that cybercriminals target banks and financial institutions more heavily than organizations in most other industries (with the exception of government and healthcare). Banks and other financial firms have significantly better defenses against malicious activities, but precisely for that reason they also tend to be targets of much more sophisticated threats.

Just one example of the constant and rapidly evolving threats that banks face is a new global campaign that cybercriminals are reportedly preparing to conduct large-scale theft from ATMs worldwide. The FBI has supposedly warned banks to be on the lookout for the attacks in coming months.

Another reason is that financial services institutions, like organizations in other sectors, have a tendency to over-rely on the tools they already have in place, says Jacob Serpa, product marketing manager at Bitglass. Companies often tend to stick with their existing tools because they have invested significant funds in them, and because they overestimate the ability of the products to deal with current and emerging threats, he says.

Regulations such as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and PCI DSS have been useful in getting financial companies to pay more attention to security, but many continue to treat compliance with these regulations as the end goal of their security efforts.

"Companies should consider compliance with regulations like GLBA and PCI DSS as the bare minimum for cybersecurity, while understanding that much more needs to be done to be truly secure," Serpa says.

Not Just About the Money

Market research firm IDC expects that enterprises worldwide will spend north of $91 billion on cybersecurity this year. Banks, the federal government, and discrete manufacturers will be the biggest spenders, with more than $27 billion in spending.

While such spending might indicate banks are getting better at security, that is not always the case. Deloitte's cyber risk service practice earlier this year surveyed CISOs from 51 organizations in the financial services sector including banks, insurance companies, and investment management firms about their cyber risk management strategies.

Deloitte's study showed that the amount of money an organization spends on cybersecurity doesn't automatically translate to better security. Deloitte found that many financial companies with below average security spending had a better risk posture than companies that spent a lot more. Factors that did affect security were top-level accountability, a culture that emphasized shared responsibility for security, and a risk-focused approach to mitigating security threats.

At the same time, Deloitte also found that larger financial companies are not allocating enough resources to cybersecurity, with budgets ranging between 5% and 20% of the total IT budget, and the average hovering around 12%.

 

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DefinItely you can make money in FOREX if you understand what is beneath the statistics in financial data as it evolves in countries you may have wrongt ideas about. (Did I really need to state the obvious)🙁

THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX- throw those indicators OUT OUT OUT.

Defining Capitalism, Communism, Fascism, Socialism

 Caveat: There are some inherent pitfalls trying to offer simple, bite sized definitions of capitalism, socialism, communism and fascism – the first being that these are complex concepts concerning both economics and government, so short definitions will be incomplete; the second being that these concepts are not always mutually exclusive (most modern states combine elements of more than one); the third being that historical states defined the terms differently; and finally, some of the terms refer strictly to economic systems (capitalism) while others (fascism) also refer to government and economic systems (communism and fascism). 

For a point of reference, the United States is a Constitutional Democratic Republic that has long embraced both capitalism (free markets) and socialism (public schools and universities, and public works – parks, roads and highways, sewer and water, dams, harbors, as well as social welfare, such as worker’s comp, unemployment insurance, social security etc.).

Capitalism
In common usage, the word capitalism means an economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated, and the investment of capital and the production, distribution and prices of commodities (goods and services) are determined mainly in a free market, rather than by the state. In capitalism, the means of production are generally operated for profit.

In a purely capitalist economy, there would be no public schools, no state owned or maintained roads and highways, public works, welfare, unemployment insurance, workers compensation, Social Security benefits etc.

Socialism
Most generally, socialism refers to state ownership of common property, or state ownership of the means of production.  A purely socialist state would be one in which the state owns and operates the means of production. However, nearly all modern capitalist countries combine socialism and capitalism.

The University of Idaho, and any other public school or university, is a “socialist” institutions, and those who attend it or work for it are partaking in socialism, because it is owned and operated by the state of Idaho.  The same is true of federal and state highways, federal and state parks, harbors etc.

Communism
Most generally, communism refers to community ownership of property, with the end goal being complete social equality via economic equality.  Communism is generally seen by communist countries as an idealized utopian economic and social state that the country as a whole is working toward;  that is to say that pure communism is the ideal that the People’s Republic of China is (was?) working toward.  Such an ideal often justifies means (such as authoritarianism or totalitariansim) that are not themselves communist ideals.

Fundamentally, communism argues that all labor belongs to the individual laborer; no man can own another man's body, and therefore each man owns his own labor.  In this model all "profit" actually belongs in part to the laborer, not, or not just, those who control the means of production, such as the business or factory owner.  Profit that is not shared with the laborer, therefore, is considered inherently exploitive.

 Fascism
The word descends from the Latin ‘fasces’, the bundle of sticks used by the Romans to symbolize their empire.  This should clue you in that Fascism attempts to recapture both the glory and social organization of Rome.

Most generally, “a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.” 

Unlike communism, fascism is opposed to state ownership of capital and economic equality is not a principle or goal.  During the 1930s and WWII, communism and fascism represented the extreme left and right, respectively, in European politics.  Hitler justified both Nazi anti-Semitism and dictatorship largely on the basis of his working to fight-off communism.

The church also played a major role in all of the European fascist countries (Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal) as the authority on religious and moral issues, which was opposed to the threat of "godless communists".

Mussolini, the Italian father of Fascism, writes that: “..Fascism [is] the complete opposite of…Marxian Socialism, the materialist conception of history of human civilization can be explained simply through the conflict of interests among the various social groups and by the change and development in the means and instruments of production.... Fascism, now and always, believes in holiness and in heroism; that is to say, in actions influenced by no economic motive, direct or indirect. And if the economic conception of history be denied, according to which theory men are no more than puppets, carried to and fro by the waves of chance, while the real directing forces are quite out of their control, it follows that the existence of an unchangeable and unchanging class-war is also denied - the natural progeny of the economic conception of history. And above all Fascism denies that class-war can be the preponderant force in the transformation of society....

After Socialism, Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology, and repudiates it, whether in its theoretical premises or in its practical application. Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies that numbers alone can govern by means of a periodical consultation, and it affirms the immutable, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be permanently leveled through the mere operation of a mechanical process such as universal suffrage....

A Note On Morality:  Capitalism and socialism are essentially a-moral* terms: they simply refer to economic systems – who owns what and how capital is exchanged – regardless of any other type of moral principle or goal.  Communism and fascism, on the other hand, refer to both economics, governance, and basic moral principles: that is to say they refer to overarching ideas about how people should live (rather than describing how people do business), so they imply a total ideology: a morality, an economy, a government.

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https://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/engl_258/Lecture Notes/capitalism etc defined.htm

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Pay att to the dates given here and then compare the DOW (fOR EXAMPLE) in OHLC data.

.https://www.diffen.com/difference/Capitalism_vs_Socialism

Capitalism vs Socialism

 
10-13 minutes

Tenets

One of the central arguments in economics, especially in the socialism vs. capitalism debate, is the role of the government. A capitalist system is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit. A socialist system is characterized by social ownership of the means of production, e.g., cooperative enterprises, common ownership, direct public ownership, or autonomous state enterprises.

Proponents of capitalism espouse competitive and free markets and voluntary exchanges (instead of the forced exchange of labor or goods). Socialists advocate greater government involvement, but the opinions of supporters differ in terms of types of social ownership they advocate, the degree to which they rely on markets versus planning, how management is to be organized within economic enterprises, and the role of the state in regulating businesses to ensure fairness.

 

Criticisms of Socialism and Capitalism

Criticisms of Capitalism

"When the rate of return on capital exceeds the rate of growth of output and income, as it did in the nineteenth century and seems quite likely to do again in the twenty-first, capitalism automatically generates arbitrary and unsustainable inequalities that radically undermine the meritocratic values on which democratic societies are based." —French economist Thomas Piketty in Capital in the Twenty-First Century

Capitalism is criticized for encouraging exploitative practices and inequality between social classes. In particular, critics argue that capitalism inevitably leads to monopolies and oligarchies, and that the system's use of resources is unsustainable.

In Das Kapital, one of the most famous critiques of capitalism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels claim that capitalism centers profits and wealth in the hands of the few who use the labor of others to gain wealth.

The concentration of money (capital and profits) in capitalism can lead to the creation of monopolies or oligopolies. As postulated by British economist John Maynard Keynes, oligopolies and monopolies can then lead to oligarchies (government by a few) or fascism (the merging of government and corporations with monopolistic power). Laissez faire capitalism, as espoused in 19th century U.S. business growth, did reach the point where monopolies and oligopolies were formed (e.g., Standard Oil), which gave rise to antitrust laws, trade union movements, and legislation to protect workers.

Critics such as Richard D. Wolff and environmental groups also state that capitalism is destructive of resources both natural and human, as well as disruptive to economic stability, though this is actually considered a plus in the "creative destruction" facet of Joseph Schumpeter's economic theories. The unplanned, almost chaotic, factors of a capitalist economy, with its recessions, unemployment, and competition, are often seen as negative forces. As defined by historian Greg Grandin and economist Immanuel Wallerstein, the destructive nature of capitalism moves beyond workers and communities to natural resources, where the pursuit of growth and profits tends to ignore or overwhelm environmental concerns. When linked to imperialism, as in the works of Vladimir Lenin, capitalism is also seen as a destroyer of cultural differences, spreading a message of "sameness" across the globe that undermines or drowns out local traditions and mores.

Criticisms of Socialism

"Socialist policy is abhorrent to the British ideas of freedom. Socialism is inseparably interwoven with totalitarianism and the object worship of the state. It will prescribe for every one where they are to work, what they are to work at, where they may go and what they may say. Socialism is an attack on the right to breathe freely. No socialist system can be established without a political police. They would have to fall back on some form of Gestapo, no doubt very humanely directed in the first instance." —British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1945

Critics of socialism tend to focus on three factors: the loss of individual freedom and rights, the inefficiency of planned or controlled economies, and the inability to establish the constructs socialism theorizes are ideal.

Based on long-term growth and prosperity, planned or controlled economies typical of socialist states have fared poorly. Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek noted that prices and production quotas would never be adequately supported by market information, since the market in the socialist system is basically non-reactive to prices or surpluses, only to shortages. This would lead to irrational and ultimately destructive economic decisions and policies. Ludwig von Mises, another Austrian economist, argued that rational pricing is not possible when an economy has only one owner of goods (the state), as this leads to imbalances in production and distribution.

Because socialism favors the community over the individual, the loss of freedoms and rights is deemed undemocratic at best and totalitarian at worst. Objectivist philosopher Ayn Rand stated that the right to private property is the fundamental right, for if one cannot own the fruits of one's labors, then the person is always subject to the state. A similar argument raised by supporters of capitalism, and therefore often by critics of socialism, is that competition (considered a basic human trait) cannot be legislated away without undermining the will to achieve more, and that without proper compensation for one's efforts, the incentive to do well and be productive (or more productive) is taken away.

Socialism is often criticized for tenets that are not socialist, but rather communist or a hybrid of the two economic systems. Critics point out that the "most socialist" regimes have failed to deliver adequate results in terms of economic prosperity and growth. Examples cited range from the former U.S.S.R. to current regimes in China, North Korea, and Cuba, most of which were or are more on the communist end of the spectrum.

Based on historical evidence from communist governments, to date, extensive famine, severe poverty, and collapse are the end results of trying to control an economy based on "5-year plans" and assigning people to jobs and tasks as if the country were a machine rather than a society. A common observation about particularly restrictive socialist or communist economies is that they eventually develop "classes" with government officials as "the rich," a fringe-like "middle class," and a large "lower class" composed of workers, which supporters of capitalism are often quick to point out are the same structures socialism eschews as "exploitative."

Capitalism vs. Socialism Timeline

1776 - Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations, establishing an economic point of view on history, sustainability, and progress.

1789 - The French Revolution espouses a philosophy of equality for all, building upon the tenets also included in the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

1848 - Karl Marx and Frederich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto, defining the social struggle between the moneyed classes and workers, the former exploiting the latter.

1864 - International Workingman's Association (IWA) is founded in London.

1866 - The U.S. National Labor Union is founded.

1869 - The Social Democratic Worker's Party forms in Germany. Socialism becomes increasingly linked to trade unions in the 1870s, particularly in France, Austria, and other countries in Europe.

1886 - The American Federation of Labor (AFL) is created. (It will later merge with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1955.)

1890 - The Sherman Antitrust Act passes, with the aim of encouraging competition against large and powerful corporations.

1899 - The Australian Labor Party becomes the first elected socialist party.

1902 - The British Labour Party wins its first seats in the House of Commons.

1911 - John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil is broken up under antitrust laws. After the breakup of Standard Oil, Rockefeller's wealth rises until he becomes the world's first billionaire.

1917 - The Russian Revolution overthrows the Tsarist regime and imposes a Communist government, led by Vladimir Lenin. Europe and the U.S. react to the takeover with concerns that Communism will sweep away democracy.

1918 - The German Revolution establishes the Weimar Republic with the Social Democratic Party nominally in charge, facing challenges by communist supporters and National Socialists.

1922 - Benito Mussolini assumes control of Italy, calling his blend of corporations and government power "fascism."

1924 - The British Labour Party forms its first government under Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.

1926-1928 - Joseph Stalin consolidates power in Russia, emerging as the leading force for communism around the world.

1929 - The Great Depression begins, plunging the world into an unprecedented economic slowdown. Capitalism is blamed for its excesses, and socialist parties of varying ideological stances emerge, primarily in Europe.

1944 - The Canadian province of Saskatchewan forms the first socialist government in North America.

1945 - The British Labour Party returns to power, ousting Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

1947 - China is taken over by a communist regime led by Mao Zedong.

1959 - Fidel Castro overthrows the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba, then surprisingly announces an alliance with the Communist Party of the U.S.S.R.

1960s - 1970s - Nordic countries, such as Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland, increasingly blend socialism and capitalism to develop higher standards of living, with particular progress in education, health care, and employment.

1991 - The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.,) collapses, and former Soviet republics attempt to throw off their communist past to explore democratic and capitalist systems, with limited success.

1995 - China begins capitalist practices under the Communist Party's auspices, launching the fastest-growing economy in history.

1998 - Hugo Chávez is elected President of Venezuela and embarks on a nationalization program, leading a social democratic movement in Latin America led by Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and others.

2000s - Corporate profits set record highs nearly every year, while real wages stagnate or decline from 1980 levels (in real dollars). French economist Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century, which analyzes economic inequality under capitalism, becomes an international bestseller.

 

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Are you addicted to trading?

Many people don't understand why or how other people become addicted to drugs. They may mistakenly think that those who use drugs lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop their drug use simply by choosing to. In reality, drug addiction is a complex disease, and quitting usually takes more than good intentions or a strong will. Drugs change the brain in ways that make quitting hard, even for those who want to. Fortunately, researchers know more than ever about how drugs affect the brain and have found treatments that can help people recover from drug addiction and lead productive lives.

What Is drug addiction?

Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive, or difficult to control, despite harmful consequences. The initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, but repeated drug use can lead to brain changes that challenge an addicted person’s self-control and interfere with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs. These brain changes can be persistent, which is why drug addiction is considered a "relapsing" disease—people in recovery from drug use disorders are at increased risk for returning to drug use even after years of not taking the drug.

It's common for a person to relapse, but relapse doesn't mean that treatment doesn’t work. As with other chronic health conditions, treatment should be ongoing and should be adjusted based on how the patient responds. Treatment plans need to be reviewed often and modified to f

What happens to the brain when a person takes drugs?

Most drugs affect the brain's "reward circuit," causing euphoria as well as flooding it with the chemical messenger dopamine. A properly functioning reward system motivates a person to repeat behaviors needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. Surges of dopamine in the reward circuit cause the reinforcement of pleasurable but unhealthy behaviors like taking drugs, leading people to repeat the behavior again and again.

As a person continues to use drugs, the brain adapts by reducing the ability of cells in the reward circuit to respond to it. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug—an effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug to try and achieve the same high. These brain adaptations often lead to the person becoming less and less able to derive pleasure from other things they once enjoyed, like food, sex, or social activities.

Long-term use also causes changes in other brain chemical systems and circuits as well, affecting functions that include:

  • learning
  • judgment
  • decision-making
  • stress
  • memory
  • behavior

Despite being aware of these harmful outcomes, many people who use drugs continue to take them, which is the nature of addiction.

Why do some people become addicted to drugs while others don't?

No one factor can predict if a person will become addicted to drugs. A combination of factors influences risk for addiction. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that taking drugs can lead to addiction. For example:

it the patient’s changing needs.

  • Biology. The genes that people are born with account for about half of a person's risk for addiction. Gender, ethnicity, and the presence of other mental disorders may also influence risk for drug use and addiction.
  • Environment. A person’s environment includes many different influences, from family and friends to economic status and general quality of life. Factors such as peer pressure, physical and sexual abuse, early exposure to drugs, stress, and parental guidance can greatly affect a person’s likelihood of drug use and addiction.
  • Development. Genetic and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in a person’s life to affect addiction risk. Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, the earlier that drug use begins, the more likely it will progress to addiction. This is particularly problematic for teens. Because areas in their brains that control decision-making, judgment, and self-control are still developing, teens may be especially prone to risky behaviors, including trying drugs.

Can drug addiction be cured or prevented?

As with most other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, treatment for drug addiction generally isn’t a cure. However, addiction is treatable and can be successfully managed. People who are recovering from an addiction will be at risk for relapse for years and possibly for their whole lives. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medicines with behavioral therapy ensures the best chance of success for most patients. Treatment approaches tailored to each patient’s drug use patterns and any co-occurring medical, mental, and social problems can lead to continued recovery.

MORE GOOD NEWS!!!

More good news is that drug use and addiction are preventable. Results from NIDA-funded research have shown that prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media are effective for preventing or reducing drug use and addiction. Although personal events and cultural factors affect drug use trends, when young people view drug use as harmful, they tend to decrease their drug taking. Therefore, education and outreach are key in helping people understand the possible risks of drug use. Teachers, parents, and health care providers have crucial roles in educating young people and preventing drug use and addiction.

Points to Remember

  • Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive, or difficult to control, despite harmful consequences.
  • Brain changes that occur over time with drug use challenge an addicted person’s self-control and interfere with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs. This is why drug addiction is also a relapsing disease.
  • Relapse is the return to drug use after an attempt to stop. Relapse indicates the need for more or different treatment.
  • Most drugs affect the brain's reward circuit by flooding it with the chemical messenger dopamine. Surges of dopamine in the reward circuit cause the reinforcement of pleasurable but unhealthy activities, leading people to repeat the behavior again and again.
  • Over time, the brain adjusts to the excess dopamine, which reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug—an effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug, trying to achieve the same dopamine high.
  • No single factor can predict whether a person will become addicted to drugs. A combination of genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influences risk for addiction. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that taking drugs can lead to addiction.
  • Drug addiction is treatable and can be successfully managed.
  • More good news is that drug use and addiction are preventable. Teachers, parents, and health care providers have crucial roles in educating young people and preventing drug use and addiction.

Learn more

For information about understanding drug use and addiction, visit:

For more information about the costs of drug abuse to the United States, visit:

https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-use-addiction

 

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IntroductionPsychology is the scientific study of behavior, cognition, and emotion.Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processesand behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres ofhuman activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.Psychology differs from the other social sciences anthropology, economics, political science, andsociology in seeking to explain the mental processes and behavior of individuals. Psychologydiffers from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction ofmental processes and behavior on a systemic level, as opposed to studying the biological or neuralprocesses themselves. In contrast, the subfield of neuropsychology studies the actual neuralprocesses and how they relate to the mental effects they subjectively produce. Biologicalpsychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states.Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior, mind and thought andthe subconscious neurological bases of behaviour. Psychology also refers to the application of suchknowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives andthe treatment of mental illness. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behavior andmental processes of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its ownright (e.g. animal cognition and ethology), or somewhat more controversially, as a way of gainingan insight into human psychology by means of comparison (including comparative psychology).Psychology is commonly defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system and can be framed purely interms of phenomenological or information processing theories of mind. Increasingly, though, anunderstanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularlyin areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.Psychology describes and attempts to explain consciousness, behavior and social interaction.Empirical psychology is primarily devoted to describing human experience and behavior as itactually occurs. In the past 20 years or so psychology has begun to examine the relationshipbetween consciousness and the brain or nervous system. It is still not clear in what ways theseinteract: does consciousness determine brain states or do brain states determine consciousness - orare both going on in various ways? Perhaps to understand this you need to know the definition of"consciousness" and "brain state" - or is consciousness some sort of complicated 'illusion' whichbears no direct relationship to neural processes? An understanding of brain function is increasinglybeing included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificialintelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.The late 19th century marks the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise. The year 1879 iscommonly seen as the start of psychology as an independent field of study, because in that yearGerman scientist Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively topsychological research in Leipzig, Germany.Wundt combined philosophical introspection with techniques and laboratory apparatuses broughtover from his physiological studies with Helmholtz, as well as many of his own design. Thisexperimental introspection was in contrast to what had been called psychology until then, a branchof philosophy where people introspected themselves.Introspectionis the direct observation or rumination of one's own heart, mind and/or soul and Early Systems of PsychologyWundt's form of psychology is called structuralism. It is in a class called systematic interpretationsbecause It attempted to explain all behavior with reference to one systematic position. Some othersytems of psychology are functionalism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology, and psychodynamicpsychology.Functionalism is concerned with the reason for behavior and not the structure of the brain. Itallowed the study of new subjects including children and animals.Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behaviour can be studiedand explained scientifically without recourse to internal mental states. Psychologists that usebehaviorism are concerned mainly with muscular movements and glandular secretions.Gestalt Psychology is a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of thebrain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies. It has a particular interest inperceptual problems and how they can be interpereted. A Gestaltist believes that the whole is greaterthan or different than the sum of all of the parts. Trying to break up behavior into seperate parts issimplistic because everything affects everything else.Psychodynamic psychology was first practiced by Sigmund Freud, although he didn't intend it to bea system.PerspectivesWhile the use of one system to solve all problems has been abandoned by most psychologists, theseearly systems were important in the development of new systems and ideas. There are eight majorperspectives that psychologists usually take, although many use an eclectic approach instead ofconfining themselves to just one.The psychodynamic perspective emphasizes unconscious drives and the resolution of conflicts, thebehavorial emphasizes the acquisition and alteration of observable responses, and the humanisticapproaches attempt to achieve maximum human potential as set in Maslow's hierchy of needs.The biological perspective is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mentalstates, very closely related to neuroscience.Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certainmental and psychological traits such as memory, perception, or language as evolved adaptations,i.e., as the functional products of natural or sexual selection.Cognitive psychology accepts the use of the scientific method, but rejects introspection as a validmethod of investigation. It should be noted that Herbert Simon and Allen Newell identified the'thinking-aloud' protocol, in which investigators view a subject engaged in introspection, and whospeaks his thoughts aloud, thus allowing study of his introspection.Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors areinfluenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985).Wundt argued that "we learn little about our minds from casual, haphazard self-observation...It isessential that observations be made by trained observers under carefully specified conditions forthe purpose of answering a well-defined question."Many scientists threw away the idea of introspection as part of psychology because the observationof stimulation was speculative without an empirical approach. However the case, an opposite tointrospection called extrospection has been created with a relation to Psychophysics.Psychophysics is the branch of psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli IntroductionPsychology is the scientific study of behavior, cognition, and emotion.Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processesand behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres ofhuman activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.Psychology differs from the other social sciences anthropology, economics, political science, andsociology in seeking to explain the mental processes and behavior of individuals. Psychologydiffers from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction ofmental processes and behavior on a systemic level, as opposed to studying the biological or neuralprocesses themselves. In contrast, the subfield of neuropsychology studies the actual neuralprocesses and how they relate to the mental effects they subjectively produce. Biologicalpsychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states.Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior, mind and thought andthe subconscious neurological bases of behaviour. Psychology also refers to the application of suchknowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives andthe treatment of mental illness. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behavior andmental processes of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its ownright (e.g. animal cognition and ethology), or somewhat more controversially, as a way of gainingan insight into human psychology by means of comparison (including comparative psychology).Psychology is commonly defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system and can be framed purely interms of phenomenological or information processing theories of mind. Increasingly, though, anunderstanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularlyin areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.Psychology describes and attempts to explain consciousness, behavior and social interaction.Empirical psychology is primarily devoted to describing human experience and behavior as itactually occurs. In the past 20 years or so psychology has begun to examine the relationshipbetween consciousness and the brain or nervous system. It is still not clear in what ways theseinteract: does consciousness determine brain states or do brain states determine consciousness - orare both going on in various ways? Perhaps to understand this you need to know the definition of"consciousness" and "br

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good news!! IF YOU HAVE A PET IT CAN GIVE YOU GOOD IDEAS ABOUT TRADING FOREX

Dogs spontaneously process basic numerical quantities, using a distinct part of their brains that corresponds closely to number-responsive neural regions in humans, finds a study at Emory University.

Biology Letters published the results, which suggest that a common neural mechanism has been deeply conserved across mammalian evolution.

"Our work not only shows that dogs use a similar part of their brain to process numbers of objects as humans do -- it shows that they don't need to be trained to do it," says Gregory Berns, Emory professor of psychology and senior author of the study.

"Understanding neural mechanisms -- both in humans and across species -- gives us insights into both how our brains evolved over time and how they function now," says co-author Stella Lourenco, an associate professor of psychology at Emory.

Such insights, Lourenco adds, may one day lead to practical applications such as treating brain abnormalities and improving artificial intelligence systems.

Lauren Aulet, a PhD candidate in Lourenco's lab, is first author of the study.

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan dogs' brains as they viewed varying numbers of dots flashed on a screen. The results showed that the dogs' parietotemporal cortex responded to differences in the number of the dots. The researchers held the total area of the dots constant, demonstrating that it was the number of the dots, not the size, that generated the response.

The approximate number system supports the ability to rapidly estimate a quantity of objects in a scene, such as the number of predators approaching or the amount of food available for foraging. Evidence suggests that humans primarily draw on their parietal cortex for this ability, which is present even in infancy.

This basic sensitivity to numerical information, known as numerosity, does not rely on symbolic thought or training and appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Much of the research in non-humans, however, has involved intensive training of the subjects.

Previous research, for example, has found that particular neurons in the parietal cortex of monkeys are attuned to numerical values. Such studies had not clarified whether numerosity is a spontaneous system in non-human primates, because the subjects underwent many trials and received rewards for selecting scenes with greater numbers of dots in preparation for the experiments.

Behavioral studies in dogs that were trained in the task of discriminating between different quantities of objects have also indicated that dogs are sensitive to numerosity.

The Emory researchers wanted to delve further into the neural underpinnings of canine number perception using fMRI.

Berns is founder of the Dog Project, which is researching evolutionary questions surrounding man's best, and oldest friend. The project was the first to train dogs to voluntarily enter an fMRI scanner and remain motionless during scanning, without restraint or sedation.

Lourenco primarily researches human visual perception, cognition and development.

Eleven dogs of varying breeds were involved in the current fMRI experiments. The dogs did not receive advance training in numerosity. After entering the fMRI, they passively viewed dot arrays that varied in numerical value. Eight of the 11 dogs showed greater activation in the parietotemporal cortex when the ratio between alternating dot arrays was more dissimilar than when the numerical values were constant.

"We went right to the source, observing the dogs' brains, to get a direct understanding of what their neurons were doing when the dogs viewed varying quantities of dots," Aulet says. "That allowed us to bypass the weaknesses of previous behavioral studies of dogs and some other species."

Humans and dogs are separated by 80 million years of evolution, Berns notes. "Our results provide some of the strongest evidence yet that numerosity is a shared neural mechanism that goes back at least that far," he says.

Unlike dogs and other animals, humans are able to build on basic numerosity in order to do more complex math, drawing primarily on the prefrontal cortex. "Part of the reason that we are able to do calculus and algebra is because we have this fundamental ability for numerosity that we share with other animals," Aulet says. "I'm interested in learning how we evolved that higher math ability and how these skills develop over time in individuals, starting with basic numerosity in infancy."

Additional authors of the study include Veronica Chiu and Ashley Prichard, Emory graduate students in psychology, and Mark Spivak, CEO of Comprehensive Pet Therapy. Spivak and Berns co-founded Dog Star Technologies to develop techniques to study how dogs perceive the world.

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the John Merck Fund and the Office of Naval Research.

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191218153339.htm

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Good NEWS!!!

You can make good profits in forex if you can fully understand the implications here. in this article An absolutely fascinating read here. Absolutely (fascinating)

Financial services technology 2020 and beyond: Embracing disruption

PricewaterhouseCoopers
17-22 minutes

Our global report Financial services technology 2020 and beyond: Embracing disruption examines the forces that are disrupting the role, structure, and competitive environment for financial institutions and the markets and societies in which they operate. The post-crisis regulatory frameworks have been gradually settling into place, and financial institutions have been adjusting their business models accordingly. It is now becoming obvious that the accelerating pace of technological change is the most creative force—and also, the most destructive one—in the financial services ecosystem today. In this paper, we set out to capture the real world implications of these technological advances on the financial services industry and those who must supervise and use it. 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 


What our Financial Services Technology Leaders have to say

 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 

Julien Courbe, Global Financial Services Technology leader on technology becoming a transforming agent for the industry

 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 

John Lyons, Europe Financial Services Technology leader on why digital should be put at the heart of operation models

 

The ten competitive technology-driven influencers for 2020

1: FinTech will drive the new business model

For a long time, new market entrants found it difficult to break into the financial services industry.

Well, not any more. FinTech disruptors have been finding a way in. Disruptors are fast-moving companies, often start-ups, focused on a particular innovative technology or process in everything from mobile payments to insurance. And, they have been attacking some of the most profitable elements of the financial services value chain. This has been particularly damaging to the incumbents who have historically subsidized important but less profitable service offerings. In our recent PwC Global FinTech Survey, industry respondents told us that a quarter of their business, or more, could be at risk of being lost to standalone FinTech companies within 5 years.

Global investments in FinTech more than tripled in 2014, reaching more than $12 billion. In comparison, banks spent an estimated $215 billion on IT worldwide in 2014, including hardware, software, and internal and external services. This is a material number, and because it is so highly targeted, the FinTech spending will really make an impact.

2: The sharing economy will be embedded in every part of the financial system

By 2020, consumers will need banking services, but they may not turn to a bank to get them. Or, at least, maybe not what we think of as a bank today. The so-called sharing economy may have started with cars, taxis, and hotel rooms, but financial services will follow soon enough. In this case, the sharing economy refers to decentralized asset ownership and using information technology to find efficient matches between providers and users of capital, rather than automatically turning to a bank as an intermediary.

3: Blockchain will shake things up

Several industry groups have come together to commercialise technology and apply it to real financial services scenarios. We expect this surge in funding and innovation to continue as blockchain and FinTech move from a largely retail focus to include more institutional use. And while many of these companies may not survive the next three to five years, we believe the use of the blockchain “public ledger” will go on to become an integral part of financial institutions’ technology and operational infrastructure.

4: Digital becomes mainstream

Two decades ago, many large financial institutions built “e-business” units to ride a wave of e-commerce interest. Eventually, the initial “e” went away, and this became the new normal. Internet development, and large technology investments, drove unprecedented advances in efficiency. Today’s “digital” wave has the same markers: separate teams, budgets, and resources to advance a digital agenda. This agenda extends from customer experience and operational efficiency to big data and analytics. In financial services, we have seen this approach applied to payments, retail banking, insurance, and wealth management, and migrating toward institutional areas such as capital markets and commercial banking.

5: “Customer intelligence” will be the most important predictor of revenue growth and profitability

Do you know what your customers value? Are you sure? Once, customer intelligence was based on some relatively simple heuristics, built from focus groups and surveys. These were proxies for real, individualised data about consumer behaviour, and the results were pretty hazy. Now, technology advances have given businesses access to exponentially more data about what users do and want. It is an amazing opportunity for whomever can use analytics to unlock the information inside, to give customers what they really want.

6: Advances in robotics and AI will start a wave of ‘re-shoring’ and localisation

We are already seeing alliances between leading incumbent financial services and technology companies, using robotics and AI to address key pressure points, reduce costs, and mitigate risks. They are targeting a specific combination of capabilities such as social and emotional intelligence, natural language processing, logical reasoning, identification of patterns and self-supervised learning, physical sensors, mobility, navigation, and more. And they are looking far beyond replacing the bank teller.

Already, some robots can sense the details of their environments, recognize objects, and respond to information and objects with safe, useful behaviours. (Sceptical? You shouldn’t be. Self-driving cars have performed very well in real-world tests.) Over time, they will be able to perform not only more tasks, but more complex tasks. Service robots are in the early stages of a long development cycle, and they still face some big technological hurdles. In the next three to five years, we expect modest, evolutionary gains. After that, though, we anticipate rapid gains, as new models combine increasingly powerful and standard modular platforms with the ability to learn.

7: The public cloud will become the dominant infrastructure model

As significant as the shift toward cloud-based computing has been, it is just getting started. Today, many financial institutions use cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications for business processes that might be considered non-core, such as CRM, HR, and financial accounting. They also turn to SaaS for ‘point solutions’ on the fringes of their operations, including security analytics and KYC verification. But as application offerings improve and as COOs and CIOs get comfortable with the arrangements, the technology is rapidly becoming the way that core activity is processed. By 2020, core service infrastructures in areas such as consumer payments, credit scoring, and statements and billings for asset managers’ basic current account functions will be well on the way to becoming utilities.

8: Cyber-security will be one of the top risks facing financial institutions

Financial services executives are already depressingly familiar with the impact that cyber-threats have had on their industry. In our 2016 global CEO survey, 69% of financial services’ CEOs reported that they are either somewhat or extremely concerned about cyber-threats, compared to 61% of CEOs across all sectors. Unfortunately, it is not likely to change for the better in the coming years, due to the following forces:

  • Use of third-party vendors
  • Rapidly evolving, sophisticated, and complex technologies
  • Cross-border data exchanges
  • Increased use of mobile technologies by customers, including the rapid growth of the Internet of Things
  • Heightened cross-border information security threats

9: Asia will emerge as a key center of technology-driven innovation

Around the world, the middle class is projected to grow by 180% between 2010 and 2040; Asia’s middle class is already larger than Europe’s. By 2020, the majority share of the population considered “middle class” is expected to shift from North America and Europe to Asia-Pacific. And over the next 30 years, some 1.8 billion people will move into cities, mostly in Africa and Asia, creating one of the most important new opportunities for financial institutions.

These trends are directly linked to technology-driven innovation. Initially, as developments in agricultural technology improved labour productivity, rural workers began migrating to cities in search of better opportunities. At first, they found jobs in capital-intensive industries like manufacturing for the local market—and then, as technology drove quality improvements, for the global market. Meanwhile, advances in computing and telecommunications made it possible for Western companies to offshore certain support functions to places like the Philippines and India, creating relatively well-paying jobs. Over time, the trend has become self-reinforcing: more jobs in cities have led to better technology infrastructures in cities, which has attracted employers who can now serve global markets. The result: more urbanisation, and a growing middle class across the emerging markets.

10: Regulators will turn to technology, too

The use of technology and its implications are not limited to financial institutions. Regulators are rapidly adopting a wide range of data gathering and analytical tools, too. They are trying to learn more about individual institutions’ activities and overall systemic activity. They also hope to monitor the industry more effectively and to predict potential problems instead of regulating after the fact. Examples of this include the supervisory procedures and data requests tied to ‘stress tests’, asset quality reviews and enhanced reporting requirements coming out of Washington, London, and Basel. Using sophisticated analytical tools on large volumes of data, regulators can compare scenarios and address potential issues before they become full-scale market problems

 

I told you it was fascinating

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https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/financial-services/publications/financial-services-technology-2020-and-beyond-embracing-disruption.html

 

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Good news!1 (for forex traders) This article is equally fascinating

 

2020 Technology Industry Trends

 
5-6 minutes

Last year, we emphasized the growing importance of partnerships as a strategic tool that every technology company should employ. Until recently, strategic discussions typically began with the following question: “Should I buy or build?” As we head into 2020, that question should be modified: “Should I buy, build, or partner?”.

With fast-paced developments in emerging technologies, partnerships can be critical for tech companies looking to enhance their existing solutions or provide more targeted offerings. Based on the key strengths and expertise of partners, companies can pursue research and development; offer more integrated solutions across their hardware, network, platform, or software stack; or target different markets altogether. Tech companies have leveraged this model extensively to offer improved products and services across areas like AI, cloud, and processing.

For many companies, this approach will require a permanent shift in their overall mindset. But today’s ultra-competitive, highly complex technology environment demands nothing less. After all, why buy an asset that’s not best-in-breed when you can team with someone who has the specific capabilities you need? Partnering represents a more efficient use of capital and will probably drive better outcomes.

This “partnership” concept also extends to multiplayer alliances—complex ecosystems of providers who combine best-of-breed assets to create end-to-end solutions for clients. Successful ecosystems are those that simplify issues like systems integration and contractual obligations so that the customer experience is transparent.

When it comes to strategies for developing and expanding their cloud business, many tech companies are increasingly shifting toward the everything-as-a-service (XaaS) model, which encompasses capabilities such as platform-as-a-service (PaaS), infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), and software-as-service (SaaS).

Within the PaaS environment, database and application platform services represent the largest market segments, with blockchain, digital experience, serverless, and AI/machine learning platform services the most recent offerings.13 The global IaaS market is mainly driven by advantages such as improved disaster recovery, ease of deployment, and platform scalability.14 Larger than PaaS and IaaS,15 the worldwide SaaS market features solution providers that leverage microservices to offer customizable end-to end solutions, increased agility, and better ROI measurement.16

Tech companies are also offering new solutions like security-as-a-service, data-as-a-service, and device-as-a-service to help companies deliver XaaS benefits, such as operational efficiency and faster innovation.

In the new world of XaaS, tech companies should deliver highly tailored solutions that reflect a deep understanding of each customer’s business and desired outcomes. Most tech firms can’t do this on their own: They have long relied on indirect channel partners to help drive their business growth. And with the shift to XaaS, tech companies will likely continue to depend on partners’ domestic presence and localized knowledge to serve customers across regions.

Some channel partners are changing their business models to match tech companies’ XaaS transformation efforts and deliver new forms of value. But many partners are struggling to adapt their business approach for the new as-a-service world. Their concerns range from a lack of specialized talent to worries about the near-term financial implications of transforming their business models.

To address this situation, tech companies should invest the time required to make their channel partners an integral part of the XaaS transformation journey. This includes providing a clear XaaS transformation vision to partners, as well as articulating the potential long-term benefits. Some major tech companies are already investing to strengthen their indirect channels in areas such as understanding customer requirements, recommending services, deployment, integration, and simplifying billing and management of diverse cloud services.17

Of course, mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures (M&A&D) will remain a viable growth strategy for tech companies in the coming year, with revenue growth, tech assets, and IP expected to be the top drivers. However, companies are looking to do more than simply enhance technology through M&A&D. Increasingly, they’re employing this strategy to expand into new markets and build their consumer bases.18 In particular, divestitures can be important where best-of-breed assets are becoming a drain on capital and partnering is a preferable alternative.

One other strategy that no tech company can afford to overlook is building a diverse workforce. There is empirical evidence that inclusive companies generate up to 30 percent higher revenue per employee, are more profitable than competitors, and are eight times more likely to achieve positive business outcomes.19 Diversity in the workforce and among partners can also promote ethical use of AI by reducing the potential for bias in certain applications.

 

 

 

https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/technology-industry-outlook.html

 

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14 minutes ago, mitsubishi said:

Good NEWS!!!

You can make good profits in forex if you can fully understand the implications here. in this article An absolutely fascinating read here. Absolutely (fascinating)

Financial services technology 2020 and beyond: Embracing disruption

PricewaterhouseCoopers
17-22 minutes

Our global report Financial services technology 2020 and beyond: Embracing disruption examines the forces that are disrupting the role, structure, and competitive environment for financial institutions and the markets and societies in which they operate. The post-crisis regulatory frameworks have been gradually settling into place, and financial institutions have been adjusting their business models accordingly. It is now becoming obvious that the accelerating pace of technological change is the most creative force—and also, the most destructive one—in the financial services ecosystem today. In this paper, we set out to capture the real world implications of these technological advances on the financial services industry and those who must supervise and use it. 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 


What our Financial Services Technology Leaders have to say

 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 

Julien Courbe, Global Financial Services Technology leader on technology becoming a transforming agent for the industry

 

 

 

Playback of this video is not currently available

 

 

John Lyons, Europe Financial Services Technology leader on why digital should be put at the heart of operation models

 

The ten competitive technology-driven influencers for 2020

1: FinTech will drive the new business model

For a long time, new market entrants found it difficult to break into the financial services industry.

Well, not any more. FinTech disruptors have been finding a way in. Disruptors are fast-moving companies, often start-ups, focused on a particular innovative technology or process in everything from mobile payments to insurance. And, they have been attacking some of the most profitable elements of the financial services value chain. This has been particularly damaging to the incumbents who have historically subsidized important but less profitable service offerings. In our recent PwC Global FinTech Survey, industry respondents told us that a quarter of their business, or more, could be at risk of being lost to standalone FinTech companies within 5 years.

Global investments in FinTech more than tripled in 2014, reaching more than $12 billion. In comparison, banks spent an estimated $215 billion on IT worldwide in 2014, including hardware, software, and internal and external services. This is a material number, and because it is so highly targeted, the FinTech spending will really make an impact.

2: The sharing economy will be embedded in every part of the financial system

By 2020, consumers will need banking services, but they may not turn to a bank to get them. Or, at least, maybe not what we think of as a bank today. The so-called sharing economy may have started with cars, taxis, and hotel rooms, but financial services will follow soon enough. In this case, the sharing economy refers to decentralized asset ownership and using information technology to find efficient matches between providers and users of capital, rather than automatically turning to a bank as an intermediary.

3: Blockchain will shake things up

Several industry groups have come together to commercialise technology and apply it to real financial services scenarios. We expect this surge in funding and innovation to continue as blockchain and FinTech move from a largely retail focus to include more institutional use. And while many of these companies may not survive the next three to five years, we believe the use of the blockchain “public ledger” will go on to become an integral part of financial institutions’ technology and operational infrastructure.

4: Digital becomes mainstream

Two decades ago, many large financial institutions built “e-business” units to ride a wave of e-commerce interest. Eventually, the initial “e” went away, and this became the new normal. Internet development, and large technology investments, drove unprecedented advances in efficiency. Today’s “digital” wave has the same markers: separate teams, budgets, and resources to advance a digital agenda. This agenda extends from customer experience and operational efficiency to big data and analytics. In financial services, we have seen this approach applied to payments, retail banking, insurance, and wealth management, and migrating toward institutional areas such as capital markets and commercial banking.

5: “Customer intelligence” will be the most important predictor of revenue growth and profitability

Do you know what your customers value? Are you sure? Once, customer intelligence was based on some relatively simple heuristics, built from focus groups and surveys. These were proxies for real, individualised data about consumer behaviour, and the results were pretty hazy. Now, technology advances have given businesses access to exponentially more data about what users do and want. It is an amazing opportunity for whomever can use analytics to unlock the information inside, to give customers what they really want.

6: Advances in robotics and AI will start a wave of ‘re-shoring’ and localisation

We are already seeing alliances between leading incumbent financial services and technology companies, using robotics and AI to address key pressure points, reduce costs, and mitigate risks. They are targeting a specific combination of capabilities such as social and emotional intelligence, natural language processing, logical reasoning, identification of patterns and self-supervised learning, physical sensors, mobility, navigation, and more. And they are looking far beyond replacing the bank teller.

Already, some robots can sense the details of their environments, recognize objects, and respond to information and objects with safe, useful behaviours. (Sceptical? You shouldn’t be. Self-driving cars have performed very well in real-world tests.) Over time, they will be able to perform not only more tasks, but more complex tasks. Service robots are in the early stages of a long development cycle, and they still face some big technological hurdles. In the next three to five years, we expect modest, evolutionary gains. After that, though, we anticipate rapid gains, as new models combine increasingly powerful and standard modular platforms with the ability to learn.

7: The public cloud will become the dominant infrastructure model

As significant as the shift toward cloud-based computing has been, it is just getting started. Today, many financial institutions use cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications for business processes that might be considered non-core, such as CRM, HR, and financial accounting. They also turn to SaaS for ‘point solutions’ on the fringes of their operations, including security analytics and KYC verification. But as application offerings improve and as COOs and CIOs get comfortable with the arrangements, the technology is rapidly becoming the way that core activity is processed. By 2020, core service infrastructures in areas such as consumer payments, credit scoring, and statements and billings for asset managers’ basic current account functions will be well on the way to becoming utilities.

8: Cyber-security will be one of the top risks facing financial institutions

Financial services executives are already depressingly familiar with the impact that cyber-threats have had on their industry. In our 2016 global CEO survey, 69% of financial services’ CEOs reported that they are either somewhat or extremely concerned about cyber-threats, compared to 61% of CEOs across all sectors. Unfortunately, it is not likely to change for the better in the coming years, due to the following forces:

  • Use of third-party vendors
  • Rapidly evolving, sophisticated, and complex technologies
  • Cross-border data exchanges
  • Increased use of mobile technologies by customers, including the rapid growth of the Internet of Things
  • Heightened cross-border information security threats

9: Asia will emerge as a key center of technology-driven innovation

Around the world, the middle class is projected to grow by 180% between 2010 and 2040; Asia’s middle class is already larger than Europe’s. By 2020, the majority share of the population considered “middle class” is expected to shift from North America and Europe to Asia-Pacific. And over the next 30 years, some 1.8 billion people will move into cities, mostly in Africa and Asia, creating one of the most important new opportunities for financial institutions.

These trends are directly linked to technology-driven innovation. Initially, as developments in agricultural technology improved labour productivity, rural workers began migrating to cities in search of better opportunities. At first, they found jobs in capital-intensive industries like manufacturing for the local market—and then, as technology drove quality improvements, for the global market. Meanwhile, advances in computing and telecommunications made it possible for Western companies to offshore certain support functions to places like the Philippines and India, creating relatively well-paying jobs. Over time, the trend has become self-reinforcing: more jobs in cities have led to better technology infrastructures in cities, which has attracted employers who can now serve global markets. The result: more urbanisation, and a growing middle class across the emerging markets.

10: Regulators will turn to technology, too

The use of technology and its implications are not limited to financial institutions. Regulators are rapidly adopting a wide range of data gathering and analytical tools, too. They are trying to learn more about individual institutions’ activities and overall systemic activity. They also hope to monitor the industry more effectively and to predict potential problems instead of regulating after the fact. Examples of this include the supervisory procedures and data requests tied to ‘stress tests’, asset quality reviews and enhanced reporting requirements coming out of Washington, London, and Basel. Using sophisticated analytical tools on large volumes of data, regulators can compare scenarios and address potential issues before they become full-scale market problems

 

I told you it was fascinating

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https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/financial-services/publications/financial-services-technology-2020-and-beyond-embracing-disruption.html

 

In the end DIVERSITY IN YOUR PORFOLIO....OH WHAT??!!!

 

 

Top 10 Benefits of Diversity in the Workplace [INFOGRAPHIC INCLUDED]

Kristina Martic
7-9 minutes

What is diversity in the workplace?

Diversity in the workplace means that a company employs a wide range of diverse individuals.  

In other words, a diverse workforce includes people with different characteristics. 

Diversity in the workplace means that a company’s workforce includes people of varying gender, age, religion, race, ethnicity, cultural background, sexual orientation, religion, languages, education, abilities, etc. 

Workplace diversity - inclusion fad or a competitive advantage?

Diversity in the workplace was always one of the hottest topics in the HR industry, but in recent few years, it has become a major goal for many companies. 

Actually, workplace diversity was one of the key workplace trends in 2018.

➡️ Download free eBook: 15 Recruiting Trends You Should Implement in 2019!

Workplace-diversity-one-of.the-key-workplace-trends-2018

Workplace diversity is now something most companies strive to achieve. Why is that? Is it just about improving a company’s reputation and promoting inclusion at the workplace?

While your company’s reputation and workplace inclusion are definitely important goals worth pursuing, workplace diversity has many other immediate and tangible benefits related directly to your company’s bottom line.

Thus, workplace diversity is not just a politically correct fad - it is a serious competitive advantage. Companies with more diverse workplace outperform its competitors and achieve greater profits

What are the benefits of diversity in the workplace?

Here is the list of the top 10 benefits of diversity in the workplace:

Top-10-benefits-of-workplace-diversity

Workplace diversity benefit #1: Variety of different perspectives

Diversity in the workplace ensures a variety of different perspectives

Since diversity in the workplace means that employees will have different characteristics and backgrounds, they are also more likely to have a variety of different skills and experiences.

Consequently, employees in a company with higher workplace diversity will have access to a variety of different perspectives, which is highly beneficial when it comes to planning and executing a business strategy. 

Workplace diversity benefit #2: Increased creativity

Diversity in the workplace leads to increased creativity.

People with different background tend to have different experiences and thus different perspectives. Exposure to a variety of different perspectives and views leads to higher creativity. 

When you put together people who see the same thing in different ways, you are more likely to get a melting pot of fresh, new ideas, thus improving the creativity of your workforce.

Workplace diversity benefit #3: Higher innovation

Diversity in the workplace leads to higher innovation rate.

According to Josh Bersin research, inclusive companies are 1.7 times more likely to be innovation leaders in their market. 

In a diverse workplace, employees are exposed to multiple perspectives and worldviews. When these various perspectives combine, they often come together in novel ways, opening doors to innovation

Workplace diversity benefit #4: Faster problem-solving

Companies with higher workplace diversity solve problems faster.

Harvard Business Review found diverse teams are able to solve problems faster than cognitively similar people.

Employees from diverse backgrounds have different experiences and views, which is why they are able to will bring diverse solutions to the table. Thus, the best solution can be chosen sooner, which leads to faster problem-solving. 

Workplace diversity benefit #5: Better decision making

Workplace diversity leads to better decision making results.

A white paper from online decision-making platform Cloverpop has found a direct link between workplace diversity and decision-making. Researchers found that when diverse teams made a business decision, they outperformed individual decision-makers up to 87% of the time. 

When employees with different background and perspectives come together, they come up with more solutions, which leads to more informed and improved decision-making process and results. 

Workplace diversity benefit #6: Increased profits

Companies with greater workplace diversity achieve greater profits. 

McKinsey & Company, a global management consulting firm, conducted research which included 180 companies in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. They found out that companies with more diverse top teams were also top financial performers.

Companies with diverse workforce make better decisions faster, which gives them a serious advantage over their competitors. As a result, companies with diversity in the workplace achieve better business results and reap more profit. 

Workplace diversity benefit #7: Higher employee engagement

Workplace diversity leads to higher employee engagement.

Deloitte conducted a research which captured the views and experiences of 1,550 employees in three large Australian businesses operating in manufacturing, retail and healthcare. This research showed that engagement is an outcome of diversity and inclusion.

The link between workplace diversity and employee engagement is pretty straightforward - when employees feel included, they are more engaged

Workplace diversity benefit #8: Reduced employee turnover

Workplace diversity is beneficial for employee retention.

Companies with diverse workforce are generally more inclusive of different individual characteristics and perspectives. 

Diversity and inclusion in the workplace cause all employees to feel accepted and valued. When employees feel accepted and valued, they are also happier in their workplace and stay longer with a company. As a result, companies with greater diversity in the workplace have lower turnover rates.

Workplace diversity benefit #9: Better company reputation

Workplace diversity boosts the company’s reputation and brand. 

Companies who are dedicated to building and promoting diversity in the workplace are seen as good, more human and socially responsible organizations.

Workplace diversity also makes your company look more interesting. Finally, if you present a diverse workforce, you will make it easier for many different people to relate to your company and your brand, opening doors to new markets, customers and business partners.

Workplace diversity benefit #10: Improved hiring results

Workplace diversity leads to better hiring results.

Diversity in the workplace boosts a company’s employer brand and presents a company as a more desirable place to work. Workplace diversity is an especially beneficial asset for attracting top talent from diverse talent pools.

According to a survey conducted by Glassdoor, 67% of job seekers said a diverse workforce is important when considering job offers.

Workplace-diversity-benefit-attracting-top-talent

Workplace diversity infographic

How can you leverage the advantages of workplace diversity?

Workplace diversity can take your company culture and your business results to a whole new level. 

If you want to leverage all the advantages of workplace diversity, first you need to learn how to build and manage workplace diversity in an effective way.  

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THAT MEANS forex ..plus Not Forex forex forex all day long loosers tend to choose Forex It's A fact

  1. 80% of all day traders quit within the first two years. 1
  2. Among all day traders, nearly 40% day trade for only one month. Within three years, only 13% continue to day trade. After five years, only 7% remain. 1
  3. Traders sell winners at a 50% higher rate than losers. 60% of sales are winners, while 40% of sales are losers.2
  4. The average individual investor underperforms a market index by 1.5% per year. Active traders underperform by 6.5% annually. 3
  5. Day traders with strong past performance go on to earn strong returns in the future. Though only about 1% of all day traders are able to predictably profit net of fees. 1
  6. Traders with up to a 10 years negative track record continue to trade. This suggests that day traders even continue to trade when they receive a negative signal regarding their ability. 1
  7. Profitable day traders make up a small proportion of all traders – 1.6% in the average year. However, these day traders are very active – accounting for 12% of all day trading activity. 1
  8. Among all traders, profitable traders increase their trading more than unprofitable day traders. 1
  9. Poor individuals tend to spend a greater proportion of their income on lottery purchases and their demand for lottery increases with a decline in their income. 4
  10. Investors with a large differential between their existing economic conditions and their aspiration levels hold riskier stocks in their portfolios. 4
  11. Men trade more than women. And unmarried men trade more than married men. 5
  12. Poor, young men, who live in urban areas and belong to specific minority groups invest more in stocks with lottery-type features. 5
  13. Within each income group, gamblers underperform non-gamblers. 4
  14. Investors tend to sell winning investments while holding on to their losing investments. 6
  15. Trading in Taiwan dropped by about 25% when a lottery was introduced in April 2002. 7
  16. During periods with unusually large lottery jackpot, individual investor trading declines. 8
  17. Investors are more likely to repurchase a stock that they previously sold for a profit than one previously sold for a loss. 9
  18. An increase in search frequency [in a specific instrument] predicts higher returns in the following two weeks. 10
  19. Individual investors trade more actively when their most recent trades were successful.11
  20. Traders don’t learn about trading. “Trading to learn” is no more rational or profitable than playing roulette to learn for the individual investor.1
  21. The average day trader loses money by a considerable margin after adjusting for transaction costs.
  22. [In Taiwan] the losses of individual investors are about 2% of GDP.
  23. Investors overweight stocks in the industry in which they are employed.
  24. Traders with a high-IQ tend to hold more mutual funds and larger number of stocks. Therefore, benefit more from diversification effects.

Conclusion: Why Most Traders Lose Money Is Not Surprising Anymore

After going over these 24 statistics it’s very obvious to tell why traders fail. More often than not trading decisions are not based on sound research or tested trading methods, but on emotions, the need for entertainment and the hope to make a million dollars in your underwear. What traders always forget is that trading is a profession and requires skills that need to be developed over years. Therefore, be mindful about your trading decisions and the view you have on trading. Don’t expect to be a millionaire by the end of the year, but keep in mind the possibilities trading online has.

————

1Barber, Lee, Odean (2010): Do Day Traders Rationally Learn About Their Ability?
2Odean (1998): Volume, volatility, price, and profit when all traders are above average
3Barber, & Odean (2000): Trading is hazardous to your wealth: The common stock investment performance of individual investors
4 Kumar: Who Gambles In The Stock Market?
5 Barber, Odean (2001): Boys will be boys: Gender, overconfidence, and common stock investment
6Calvet, L. E., Campbell, J., & Sodini P. (2009). Fight or flight? Portfolio rebalancing by individual investors.
7Barber, B. M., Lee, Y., Liu, Y., & Odean, T. (2009). Just how much do individual investors lose by trading?
8Gao, X., & Lin, T. (2011). Do individual investors trade stocks as gambling? Evidence from repeated natural experiments
9Strahilevitz, M., Odean, T., & Barber, B. (2011). Once burned, twice shy: How naïve learning, counterfactuals, and regret affect the repurchase of stocks previously sol.
10Da, Z., Engelberg, J., & Gao, P. (2011). In search of attention
11De, S., Gondhi, N. R. & Pochiraju, B. (2010). Does sign matter more than size? An investigation into the source of investor overconfidence

 

https://www.tradeciety.com/24-statistics-why-most-traders-lose-money/

 

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Edited by mitsubishi

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    • once a scammer always a scammer. once a rude pig to a customer always a rude pig to customers and we are never going to go away and forget it
    • you and your mates invented this Nigerian Letter or “419” Fraud Nigerian letter frauds combine the threat of impersonation fraud with a variation of an advance fee scheme in which a letter mailed, or e-mailed, from Nigeria offers the recipient the “opportunity” to share in a percentage of millions of dollars that the author—a self-proclaimed government official—is trying to transfer illegally out of Nigeria. The recipient is encouraged to send information to the author, such as blank letterhead stationery, bank name and account numbers, and other identifying information using a fax number given in the letter or return e-mail address provided in the message. The scheme relies on convincing a willing victim, who has demonstrated a “propensity for larceny” by responding to the invitation, to send money to the author of the letter in Nigeria in several installments of increasing amounts for a variety of reasons.  Payment of taxes, bribes to government officials, and legal fees are often described in great detail with the promise that all expenses will be reimbursed as soon as the funds are spirited out of Nigeria. In actuality, the millions of dollars do not exist, and the victim eventually ends up with nothing but loss. Once the victim stops sending money, the perpetrators have been known to use the personal information and checks that they received to impersonate the victim, draining bank accounts and credit card balances. While such an invitation impresses most law-abiding citizens as a laughable hoax, millions of dollars in losses are caused by these schemes annually. Some victims have been lured to Nigeria, where they have been imprisoned against their will along with losing large sums of money. The Nigerian government is not sympathetic to victims of these schemes, since the victim actually conspires to remove funds from Nigeria in a manner that is contrary to Nigerian law. The schemes themselves violate section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code, hence the label “419 fraud.” Tips for Avoiding Nigerian Letter or “419” Fraud: If you receive a letter or e-mail from Nigeria asking you to send personal or banking information, do not reply in any manner. Send the letter or message to the U.S. Secret Service, your local FBI office, or the U.S. Postal Inspection Service. You can also register a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission’s Complaint Assistant. If you know someone who is corresponding in one of these schemes, encourage that person to contact the FBI or the U.S. Secret Service as soon as possible. Be skeptical of individuals representing themselves as Nigerian or foreign government officials asking for your help in placing large sums of money in overseas bank accounts. Do not believe the promise of large sums of money for your cooperation. Guard your account information carefully.
    • Sounds like you're part of it Scamming is part of your CV you have publically and repeatedly admitted that and everybody knows you're a low life
    • So when are you gonna get started? this sounds right up your street
    • Your claim about refunds is about as real as- UFO conspiracy theories argue that various governments, and politicians globally, most especially the officials of Washington, D.C., are suppressing evidence of extraterrestrial unidentified flying objects and alien visitors. Such conspiracy theories commonly argue that Earth governments, especially the Government of the United States, are in communication or cooperation with extraterrestrials despite public claims to the contrary, and further that some of these theories claim that the governments are explicitly allowing alien abduction.[1] Various UFO conspiracy ideas have flourished on the internet and were frequently featured on Art Bell's program, Coast to Coast AM.[2] According to MUFON, the National Enquirer reported that a survey found 76% of participants felt the government was not revealing all it knew about UFOs, 54.5% thought UFOs definitely or probably existed, and 33% thought UFOs came from outer space.[3] Individuals who have publicly stated that UFO evidence is being suppressed include Senator Barry Goldwater, British Admiral Lord Hill-Norton (former NATO head and chief of the British Defence Staff), Brigadier General Arthur Exon (former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB), Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (first CIA director), astronauts Gordon Cooper[4][5] and Edgar Mitchell,[6] and former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. Beyond their testimonies and reports they have presented no evidence to substantiate their statements and claims. According to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry little or no evidence exists to support them despite significant research on the subject by non-governmental scientific agencies.[7][8][9][10] Contents 1 Chronology 1.1 1930s 1.2 1940s 1.2.1 The Great Los Angeles Air Raid 1.2.2 Ghost rockets 1.2.3 Roswell Incident 1.2.4 Mantell Incident 1.2.5 Project Sign 1.2.6 Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit 1.3 1950s 1.4 1960s 1.5 1970s 1.5.1 Holloman Air Force Base 1.5.2 Paul Bennewitz 1.6 1980s 1.6.1 MJ-12 1.6.2 Linda Moulton Howe 1.6.3 Milton William Cooper 1.6.4 Bob Lazar 1.6.5 UFO Cover-Up?: Live! 1.6.6 July 1989 MUFON Convention 1.7 1990s 1.8 2000s 1.8.1 MoD secret files 1.8.2 Disclosure 2 Allegations of evidence suppression 3 In popular fiction 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 Bibliography 7 External links Chronology 1930s On the night before Halloween in 1938, Orson Welles directed The Mercury Theatre on the Air live radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel, The War of the Worlds (serialized in 1897). By mimicking a news broadcast, the show was quite realistic sounding for its time, and some listeners were fooled into thinking that a Martian invasion was underway in the United States. Widespread confusion was followed by outrage and controversy. Some later studies[citation needed] have argued that the contemporary press exaggerated the extent of the panic, but it remains clear that many people were caught up, to some degree, in the confusion. In other countries, reactions were similar. In 1949, part of the script for The War of the Worlds was read out over the radio in Quito, Ecuador without announcement, as if it were a major piece of breaking news. Huge crowds of people emerged onto the streets and sought refuge inside churches with their families. When the radio station was informed of this, its announcers broadcast the fact that no invasion was happening. An angry mob formed and burned the station to the ground, causing between six and twenty deaths. Many other countries also experienced problems when broadcasting The War of the Worlds. According to U.S. Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt,[11] the Air Force's files often mentioned the panicked aftermath of the 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast as a possible reaction of the public to confirmed evidence of UFOs; however, the files have not been made available to corroborate his assertions. 1940s Donald Keyhoe later began investigating flying saucers for True magazine. Keyhoe was one of the first significant conspiracy theorists, asserting eventually that the saucers were from outer space and were on some sort of scouting mission. Keyhoe claimed to derive his theory from his contacts in Air Force and Navy intelligence. Project Sign, based at Air Technical Intelligence Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and its successors Project Grudge and Project Blue Book were officially assigned to investigate the flying saucers. Edward Ruppelt's book The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects,[12] reports that many people within these research groups did in fact support the hypothesis that the flying saucers were from outer space. Keyhoe later founded NICAP, a civilian investigation group that asserted the U.S. government was lying about UFOs and covering up information that should be shared with the public. NICAP had many influential board members, including Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, the first director of the CIA. To date no substantiating evidence for NICAP's assertions has been presented beyond accounts that are anecdotal and documented hear-say or rumor.[7] The Great Los Angeles Air Raid Main article: Battle of Los Angeles "The Great Los Angeles Air Raid" also known as "The Battle of Los Angeles" is the name given by contemporary sources to the imaginary enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late February 24 to early February 25, 1942 over Los Angeles, California.[13][14] Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox speaking at a press conference shortly afterward called the incident a "false alarm." A small number of modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the reported targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft.[15] When documenting the incident in 1983, the U.S. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of "war nerves" likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries.[16] Ghost rockets Main article: Ghost rockets In 1946 and 1947, numerous reports occurred of so-called ghost rockets appearing over Scandinavian countries, primarily Sweden, which then spread into other European countries.[17] One USAF top secret document from 1948 stated that Swedish Air Force Intelligence informed them that some of their investigators felt that the reported objects were not only real but could not be explained as having earthly origins. Similarly, 20 years later, Greek physicist Dr. Paul Santorini publicly stated that in 1947 he was put in charge of a Greek military investigation into reports of ghost rockets sighted over Greece [ Timothy Good 1988, p 23; Donald Keyhoe, p 142].[17] Again, they quickly concluded the objects were real and not of conventional origin. Santorini claimed their investigation was killed by U.S. scientists and high military officials who had already concluded the objects were extraterrestrial in origin and feared public panic because no defense existed.[18] Roswell Incident Main article: Roswell UFO Incident In 1947, the United States Air Force issued a press release stating that a "flying disk" had been recovered near Roswell, New Mexico. This press release was quickly withdrawn, and officials stated that a weather balloon had been misidentified. The Roswell case quickly faded even from the attention of most UFOlogists until the 1970s. Speculation persisted despite the official denial that an alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell. For example, retired Brigadier General Arthur E. Exon, former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB, told researchers Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt[19] that a spacecraft had crashed, alien bodies were recovered, and the event was covered up by the U.S. government. Exon further claimed he was aware of a very secretive UFO controlling committee made up primarily of very high-ranking military officers and intelligence people. His nickname for this group was "The Unholy Thirteen" (see also Majestic 12).[20] In the 1990s, the US military published two reports disclosing the true nature of the crashed aircraft: a surveillance balloon from Project Mogul. Nevertheless, the Roswell incident continues to be of interest to the media, and conspiracy theories surrounding the event persist. Roswell has been described as "the world's most famous, most exhaustively investigated and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim".[21] Mantell Incident Main article: Mantell UFO incident In 1948, Air Force pilot Thomas Mantell was killed in a crash while pursuing what he described as "a metallic object...of tremendous size".[22]Project Blue Book concluded that Mantell had lost control of his aircraft while chasing a then-classified Skyhook balloon.[23] Some UFOlogists reject Bluebook's conclusion because of its initial suggestion that Mantell was chasing "Venus or a comet".[24] Project Sign Main article: Project Sign The U.S. Air Force may have planted the seeds of UFO conspiracy theories with Project Sign (established 1947) (which became Project Grudge and Project Blue Book). Edward J. Ruppelt, the first director of Blue Book, characterized the Air Force's public behavior regarding UFOs as "schizophrenic": alternately open and transparent, then secretive and dismissive. Ruppelt also revealed that in mid-1948, Project Sign issued a top secret Estimate of the Situation concluding that the flying saucers were not only real but probably extraterrestrial in origin. According to Ruppelt, the Estimate was ordered destroyed by Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg.[11] Project Sign's final report, published in early 1949, stated that while some UFOs appeared to represent actual aircraft, data were insufficient to determine their origin.[25] Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit Some UFOlogists have claimed the existence of a U.S. government group called the "Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit" allegedly established by General Douglas MacArthur that was "supposedly formed to investigate crashed and retrieved flying saucers".[26] 1950s The 1950s saw an increase in both governmental and civilian investigative efforts and reports of public disinformation and suppression of evidence. The UK Ministry of Defence’s UFO Project has its roots in a study commissioned in 1950 by the MOD’s then Chief Scientific Adviser, the great radar scientist Sir Henry Tizard. As a result of his insistence that UFO sightings should not be dismissed without some form of proper scientific study, the Department set up the Flying Saucer Working Party (or FSWP).[27] In August 1950, Montanan baseball manager Nicholas Mariana filmed several UFOs with his color 16mm camera. Project Blue Book was called in and, after inspecting the film, Mariana claimed it was returned to him with critical footage removed, clearly showing the objects as disc-shaped. The incident sparked nationwide media attention. Frank Scully's 1950 Behind the Flying Saucers suggested that the U.S. government had recovered a crashed flying saucer and its dead occupants near Aztec, New Mexico, in 1948. It was later revealed that Scully had been the victim of a prank by "two veteran confidence artists".[28] Donald Keyhoe was a retired U.S. Marine who wrote a series of popular books and magazine articles that were very influential in shaping public opinion, arguing that UFOs were indeed real and that the U.S. government was suppressing UFO evidence. Keyhoe's first article on the subject came out in True magazine, January 1950, and was a national sensation. His first book, Flying Saucers Are Real also came out in 1950, about the same time as Frank Scully's book, and was a bestseller. In 1956, Keyhoe helped establish NICAP, a powerful civilian UFO investigating group with many inside sources. Keyhoe became its director and continued his attacks on the Air Force. Other contemporary critics also charged that the United States Air Force was perpetrating a cover-up with its Project Blue Book. Canadian radio engineer Wilbert B. Smith, who worked for the Canadian Department of Transport, was interested in flying saucer propulsion technology and wondered if the assertions in the just-published Scully and Keyhoe books were factual. In September 1950, he had the Canadian embassy in Washington D.C. arrange contact with U.S. officials to try to discover the truth of the matter. Smith was briefed by Dr. Robert Sarbacher, a physicist and consultant to the Defense Department's Research and Development Board. Other correspondence, having to do with Keyhoe needing to get clearance to publish another article on Smith's theories of UFO propulsion, indicated that Bush and his group were operating out of the Research and Development Board.[29] Smith then briefed superiors in the Canadian government, leading to the establishment of Project Magnet, a small Canadian government UFO research effort. Canadian documents and Smith's private papers were uncovered in the late 1970s, and by 1984, other alleged documents emerged claiming the existence of a highly secret UFO oversight committee of scientists and military people called Majestic 12, again naming Vannevar Bush. Sarbacher was also interviewed in the 1980s and corroborated the information in Smith's memos and correspondence. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Smith granted public interviews, and among other things stated that he had been lent crashed UFO material for analysis by a highly secret U.S. government group which he wouldn't name.[30] A few weeks after the Robertson Panel, the Air Force issued Regulation 200-2, ordering air base officers to publicly discuss UFO incidents only if they were judged to have been solved, and to classify all the unsolved cases to keep them out of the public eye. In addition, UFO investigative duties started to be taken on by the newly formed 4602nd Air Intelligence Squadron (AISS) of the Air Defense Command. The 4602nd AISS was tasked with investigating only the most important UFO cases having intelligence or national security implications. These were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book, leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. [31] In 1954 an automatic working station for UFO monitoring was installed at Shirley's Bay near Ottawa in Canada. After this station detected the first suspicious event, all data gained by this station was classified as secret, although the cameras of the monitoring station could not make any pictures because of fog.[32] 1956 saw the publication of Gray Barker's They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers, the book which publicized the idea of sinister Men in Black who appear to UFO witnesses and warn them to keep quiet. There has been continued speculation that the men in black are government agents who harass and threaten UFO witnesses. Also in 1956, the group Foundation for Earth-Space Relations, led by film producer Tzadi Sophit, tested their own flying saucer outside the Long Island town of Ridge Landing. It is speculated in Robertson's The Long Island Saucer that an FBI cover-up silenced witnesses.[33] On January 22, 1958, when Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before", CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release". What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and a 1952 Project Blue Book engineering analysis of UFO motion presented at the Robertson Panel. [34] Astronaut Gordon Cooper reported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFB range photographers on May 3, 1957. Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object, clearly showing a dish-like object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. When later interviewed by James McDonald, the photographers and another witness confirmed the story. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times. The official explanation was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air.[35] 1960s Throughout much of the 1960s, atmospheric physicist James E. McDonald suggested—via lectures, articles and letters—that the U.S. Government was mishandling evidence that would support the extraterrestrial hypothesis.[36] 1970s Jerome Clark comments that many UFO conspiracy theory tales "can be traced to a mock documentary Alternative 3, broadcast on British television on June 20, 1977 (but intended for April Fools' Day), and subsequently turned into a paperback book."[37] Holloman Air Force Base Clark cites a 1973 encounter as perhaps the earliest suggestion that the U.S. government was involved with ETs. That year, Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler of Los Angeles, California were in contact with officials at Norton Air Force Base in order to make a documentary film. Emenegger and Sandler report that Air Force Officials (including Paul Shartle) suggested incorporating UFO information in the documentary, including as its centerpiece genuine footage of a 1971 UFO landing at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. Furthermore, says Emenegger, he was given a tour of Holloman AFB and was shown where officials conferred with Extraterrestrial Biological Entities (EBEs). This was supposedly not the first time the U.S. had met these aliens, as Emenegger reported that his U.S. military sources had "been monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar, and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no" [38] The documentary was released in 1974 as UFO's: Past, Present and Future (narrated by Rod Serling) containing only a few seconds of the Holloman UFO footage, the remainder of the landing depicted with illustrations and re-enactments. In 1988, Shartle said that the film in question was genuine, and that he had seen it several times. In 1976 a televised documentary report UFOS: It Has Begun[39] written by Robert Emenegger was presented by Rod Serling, Burgess Meredith and José Ferrer. Some sequences were recreated based upon the statements of eyewitness observers, together with the findings and conclusions of governmental civil and military investigations. The documentary uses a hypothetical UFO landing at Holloman AFB as a backdrop. Paul Bennewitz The late 1970s also saw the beginning of controversy centered on Paul Bennewitz of Albuquerque, New Mexico.[40] 1980s MJ-12 The so-called Majestic 12 documents surfaced in 1982, suggesting that there was secret, high-level U.S. government interest in UFOs dating to the 1940s. Upon examination, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) declared the documents to be "completely bogus", and many ufologists consider them to be an elaborate hoax.[41][42] Linda Moulton Howe Linda Moulton Howe is an advocate of conspiracy theories that cattle mutilations are of extraterrestrial origin and speculations that the U.S. government is involved with aliens.[43][44][45][46] Milton William Cooper In the 1980s, Milton William Cooper achieved a degree of prominence due to his conspiratorial writings.[47] Bob Lazar In November 1989, Bob Lazar appeared in a special interview with investigative reporter George Knapp on Las Vegas TV station KLAS to discuss his alleged employment at S-4.[48] In his interview with Knapp, Lazar said he first thought the saucers were secret, terrestrial aircraft, whose test flights must have been responsible for many UFO reports. Gradually, on closer examination and from having been shown multiple briefing documents, Lazar came to the conclusion that the discs must have been of extraterrestrial origin. He claims that they use moscovium, an element that decays in a fraction of a second, to warp space, and that “Grey” aliens from the Zeta Reticuli star system. According to the Los Angeles Times, he never obtained the degrees he claims to hold from MIT and Caltech.[49][50] UFO Cover-Up?: Live! On October 14, 1988, actor Mike Farrell hosted U.S. UFO Cover-Up: Live!, a two-hour television special "focusing on the government's handling of information regarding UFOs" and "whether there has been any suppression of evidence supporting the existence of UFOs".[51] July 1989 MUFON Convention The Mutual UFO Network held their 1989 annual convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 1, 1989. The Ufologist Bill Moore was scheduled as the main speaker, and he refused to submit his paper for review prior to the convention, and also announced that he would not answer any follow-up questions as was common practice. Unlike most of the convention's attendees, Moore did not stay at the same hotel that was hosting the convention. When he spoke, Moore said that he and others had been part of an elaborate, long-term disinformation campaign begun primarily to discredit Paul Bennewitz: "My role in the affair ... was primarily that of a freelancer providing information on Paul's (Bennewitz) current thinking and activities".[52] Air Force Sergeant Richard C. Doty was also involved, said Moore, though Moore thought Doty was "simply a pawn in a much larger game, as was I."[52] One of their goals, Moore said, was to disseminate information and watch as it was passed from person to person in order to study information channels. Moore said that he "was in a rather unique position" in the disinformation campaign: "judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved in it, [the disinformation] definitely had something to do with national security. There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by ... I would play the disinformation game, get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing I was doing what they wanted me to do, and all the while continuing to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why."[53] Once he finished the speech, Moore immediately left the hotel and Las Vegas that same night. Moore's claims sent shock waves through the small, tight-knit UFO community[citation needed], which remains divided as to the reliability of his assertions. 1990s On November 24, 1992, a UFO reportedly crashed in Southaven Park, Shirley, New York.[54] John Ford, a Long Island MUFON researcher, investigated the crash. Four years later, on June 12, 1996, Ford was arrested and charged with plotting to poison several local politicians by sneaking radium in their toothpaste. On advice of counsel Ford pleaded insanity and was committed to the Mid Hudson Psychiatric Center. Critics say the charges are a frame-up. The Branton Files have circulated on the internet at least since the mid-1990s. They essentially recirculate the information presented above, with many asides from "Branton", the document's editor. Philip Schneider of the patriot movement, an engineer and geologist formerly working for the U.S. government, made a few appearances at UFO conventions in the 1990s, espousing essentially a new version of the theories mentioned above. He claimed to have played a role in the construction of Deep Underground Military Bases (DUMBs) across the United States, and as a result he said that he had been exposed to classified information of various sorts as well as having personal experiences with EBEs. He claimed to have survived the Dulce Base catastrophe and decided to tell his tale.[55] He died by suicide on January 17, 1996, after a series of lectures given in late 1995 on topics including the Black Budget and underground alien bases. Others believe that Schneider did not take his own life and that he was actually murdered by the government.[56] In 1999 a group in France published a study, "UFOs and Defense: What Must We Be Prepared For?" Among other topics, the study concluded that the United States government has withheld valuable evidence.[57] 2000s 2003 saw the publication of Alien Encounters (ISBN 1-57821-205-7), by Chuck Missler and Mark Eastman, which primarily re-stated the notions presented above (especially Cooper's) and presents them as fact. MoD secret files Eight files from 1978 to 1987 on UFO sightings were first released on May 14, 2008, to the National Archives' website by the British Ministry of Defence. Two hundred files were set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The information can be downloaded.[58] Copies of Lt. Col. Halt's letter regarding the sighting at RAF Woodbridge (see above[where?]) to the U.K. Ministry of Defence were routinely released (without additional comment) by the USA's base public affairs staff throughout the 1980s until the base closed. The MoD released the files due to requests under the Freedom of Information Act.[59] The files included, among other things, alien craft flying over Liverpool and Waterloo Bridge in London.[60] Disclosure In the early 2000s, the concept of "disclosure" became increasingly popular in the UFO conspiracy community: that the government had classified and withheld information on alien contact and full disclosure was needed, and was pursued by activist lobbying groups. In 1993, Steven M. Greer founded the Disclosure Project to promote the concept. In May 2001, Greer held a press conference at the National Press Club in D.C that demanded Congress hold hearings on "secret U.S. involvement with UFOs and extraterrestrials".[61][62][63] It was described by an attending BBC reporter as "the strangest ever news conference hosted by Washington's August National Press Club."[64] The Disclosure Project's claims were met with by derision by skeptics and spokespeople for the U. S. Air Force.[65][66] In 2013, the production company CHD2, LLC[67] held a "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club in D.C from 29 April to 3 May 2013. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to participate, and to preside over panels of academics and former government and military officials discussing UFOs and extraterrestrials.[68] Other such groups include Citizens Against UFO Secrecy, founded in 1977. Allegations of evidence suppression Allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence have persisted for many decades. Some conspiracy theories also claim that some governments might have removed and/or destroyed/suppressed physical evidence; some examples follow. On July 7, 1947, William Rhodes photographed an unusual object over Phoenix, Arizona.[69] The photos appeared in a Phoenix newspaper and a few other papers. Angoldmann sachs are run by sociopathic hypocrite lying greedy slimy jew cunts Army Air Force intelligence officer and an FBI agent interviewed Rhodes on August 29 and convinced him to surrender the negatives, which he did the next day. He was informed he wouldn't be getting them back, but later he tried, unsuccessfully, to retrieve them.[70][71] The photos were analyzed and subsequently appeared in some classified Air Force UFO intelligence reports. (Randle, 34–45, full account)[19] A June 27, 1950, movie of a "flying disk" over Louisville, Kentucky, taken by a Louisville Courier-Journal photographer, had the USAF Directors of counterintelligence (AFOSI) and intelligence discussing in memos how to best obtain the movie and interview the photographer without revealing Air Force interest. One memo suggested the FBI be used, then precluded the FBI getting involved. Another memo said "it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner," but if that wasn't feasible, one of the Air Force scientists might have to negotiate directly with the newspaper.[72][73] In a recent interview, the photographer confirmed meeting with military intelligence and still having the film in his possession until then, but refused to say what happened to the film after that.[74] In another 1950 movie incident from Montana, Nicholas Mariana filmed some unusual aerial objects and eventually turned the film over to the U.S. Air Force, but insisted that the first part of the film, clearly showing the objects as spinning discs, had been removed when it was returned to him.[75] According to some conspiracy theorists, during the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico, UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27, 1949. They claim that the final report in 1951 on the green fireball investigation claimed there was insufficient data to determine anything. Conspiracy theorists claim that documents later uncovered by Dr. Bruce Maccabee indicate that triangulation was accomplished. The conspiracy theorists also claim that the data reduction and photographs showed four objects about 30 feet in diameter flying in formation at high speed at an altitude of about 30 miles. According to conspiracy theorists, Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.[76] On January 22, 1958, when NICAP director Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before," CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release." Conspiracy theorists claim that what Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and Blue Book's 1952 engineering analysis of UFO motion). (Good, 286–287; Dolan 293–295)[17][77] A March 1, 1967 memo directed to all USAF divisions, from USAF Lt. General Hewitt Wheless, Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, stated that unverified information indicated that unknown individuals, impersonating USAF officers and other military personnel, had been harassing civilian UFO witnesses, warning them not to talk, and also confiscating film, referring specifically to the Heflin incident. AFOSI was to be notified if any personnel were to become aware of any other incidents. (Document in Fawcett & Greenwood, 236.)[78] John Callahan, former Division Chief of the Accidents and Investigations Branch of the FAA, Washington D.C., also a Disclosure Project witness, said that following the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident that involved a giant UFO over Alaska, recorded by air and ground radar, the FAA conducted an investigation. Callahan held a briefing a few days later for President Reagan's Scientific Study Group, the FBI, and CIA. After the briefing, one of the CIA agents told everybody they "were never there and this never happened," adding they were fearful of public panic.[79] According to one theory related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the CIA killed Kennedy in order to prevent him from leaking information to the Soviet Union about a covert program to reverse-engineer alien technology (i.e., Majestic 12).[80] Nick Cook, an aviation investigative journalist for Jane's Information Group and researcher of Billion Dollar Secret[81] and author of The Hunt for Zero Point[82] claims to have uncovered documentary evidence that top-secret US Defense Industry technology has been developed by government-backed Defense Industry programs, beginning in the 1940s using research conducted by Nazi scientists during WWII and recovered by Allied Military Intelligence, then taken to the U.S. and developed further with the collaboration of the same former German scientists at top-secret facilities established at White Sands, New Mexico, and later at Area 51, allegedly resulting in production of real-world prototype operational supersonic craft actually tested and used in clandestine military exercises, with other developments incorporated later into spy aircraft tasked with overflying hostile countries: the UFO story that evidence of alien technology is being suppressed and removed or destroyed was generated and then promoted by the CIA, beginning 1947, as false-lead disinformation to cover it all up for the sake of National Security, particularly during the Cold War, at a time when (his investigations found) the Soviet Union too was developing its own top-secret high-tech UFO craft. Cook's conclusions, alleging suppression of evidence of advanced human technology instead of alien, together with what he presents as declassified top-secret documents and blueprints, and his interviews of various experts (some of doubtful reliability), was developed and broadcast as a feature documentary on British television in 2005 as "UFOs: The Secret Evidence" and in the US in 2006 as a two-part episode on the History Channel's UFO Files, retitled "An Alien History of Planet Earth", with an added introduction by actor William Shatner. The History Channel program teaser promised "...a look at rumors of classified military aircraft incorporating alien technology into their designs." In 1993, Steven M. Greer founded the Disclosure project to promote the concept of disclosing allegedly suppressed evidence of extraterrestrials. In May 2001, Greer held a press conference at the National Press Club in D.C that featured "20 retired Air Force, Federal Aviation Administration and intelligence officers" who demanded that Congress begin hearings on "secret U.S. involvement with UFOs and extraterrestrials"[61][62][63] In 2013, Sen. Mike Gravel claimed that the government was suppressing evidence of extraterrestrials.[83] Benjamin Radford has pointed out how unlikely such suppression of evidence is given that "[t]he UFO coverup conspiracy would have to span decades, cross international borders, and transcend political administrations" and that "all of the world's governments, in perpetuity, regardless of which political party is in power and even among enemies, [would] have colluded to continue the coverup."[84] In popular fiction In fiction and Sci reality, television programs (like The X-Files, Stargate, and Project Blue Book), films (such as Men in Black and Independence Day), and any number of novels have featured elements of UFO conspiracy theories. Fictionalized elements may include the government's sinister operatives from the men in black, the military bases known as Area 51, RAF Rudloe Manor or Porton Down, a rumored crash site in Roswell, New Mexico, the Rendlesham Forest Incident, a political committee dubbed "Majestic 12", or the successor of the UK Ministry of Defence's Flying Saucer Working Party (FSWP).[85] The novel The Doomsday Conspiracy by Sidney Sheldon includes a UFO conspiracy in its plot.[86] See also Bielefeld Conspiracy Brookings Report Crop circle Flying Saucers Kecksburg UFO incident List of major UFO sightings Magazines of anomalous phenomena New World Order (conspiracy) Storm Area 51 The Disclosure Project Ummo United States gravity control propulsion research (1955–1974) Notes and references   Paul Harris: Cold War hysteria sparked UFO obsession, study finds   Genoni Jr., Thomas C., Peddling the Paranormal: Late-Night Radio's Art Bell, Skeptical Briefs, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, volume 8, issue #1, March 1998 http://www.csicop.org/sb/show/peddling_the_paranormal_late-night_radios_art_bell/   John F. Schuessler (January 2000). "Public Opinion Surveys and Unidentified Flying Objects 50+ years of Sampling Public Opinions". Mutual UFO Network. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.   David, Leonard. "Gordon Cooper Touts New Book Leap of Faith". Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   Martin, Robert Scott. "Gordon Cooper: No Mercury UFO". Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #218: The Astronauts and the Aliens". Skeptoid. Retrieved 27 December 2016.   CSI | UFOs and Aliens in Space   Michael Barkun (15 August 2013). Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-0-520-95652-0.   Barna William Donovan (20 July 2011). Conspiracy Films: A Tour of Dark Places in the American Conscious. McFarland. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-7864-8615-1.   Joe Nickell (24 October 2001). Real-Life X-Files: Investigating the Paranormal. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 120–. ISBN 0-8131-7083-4.   Ruppelt: Roswell UFO Cover   The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, Doubleday Books   Caughey, John; Caughey, LaRee (1977). Los Angeles: biography of a city. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03410-5.   Farley, John E. (1998). Earthquake fears, predictions, and preparations in mid-America. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2201-5. Retrieved May 17, 2010.   Documents Dated Prior to 1948 The Majestic Documents   San Francisco virtual museum article   Ghost Rockets: Timothy Good, Above Top Secret, 1988, William Morrow & Co., ISBN 0-688-09202-0 Timothy Good, Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence, 2007, Pegasus Books, ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5 Donald Keyhoe, Aliens From Space, 1973, Doubleday & Co., ISBN 0-385-06751-8 Jenny Randles, UFO Retrievals: The Recovery of Alien Spacecraft, 1985, Blandford Press, ISBN 0-7137-2493-5 Reuben Stone, Alien Worlds, 1993, Longmeadow Press, ISBN 0-681-45414-8 (Contains photo of search for ghost rocket seen crashing in Lake Kölmjärv)   Ghost Rockets: list of External links to sources.   Roswell: Randle and Schmitt Kevin Randle & Donald Schmitt, UFO Crash at Roswell, 1991; The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, 1994 see also Kouff, Kal (August 1997). "What Really Happened at Roswell". Skeptical Inquirer. 21 (4). Retrieved February 5, 2013.   "Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon".   Gildenberg, B.D. (2003). "A Roswell requiem". Skeptic. 10 (1): 60.   Clark, Jerome, The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial, Visible Ink, 1998 ISBN 978-1-57859-029-2   Wenz, John. "11 UFO Photos Unearthed From the Air Force's Vaults". Popular Mechanics Magazine. Hearst Media. Retrieved 30 November 2018.   Kirkpatrick, Nick; Moyer, Justin Wm. "Two decades of mysterious Air Force UFO files now available online". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 30 November 2018.   Blum, Howard, Out There: The Government's Secret Quest for Extraterrestrials. Simon and Schuster, 1990   Stephen J. Spignesi. The Ufo Book of Lists. Citadel Press; 2000. ISBN 978-0-8065-2109-1. p. 24–.   Nick Pope, UFOs: An Official History.   J. P. Cahn exposé, True Magazine, 1952.   Roswell Proof: Smith Papers   Presidential UFO.com Archived 2009-04-08 at the Wayback Machine Roswell Proof.com   Dolan, Richard M. UFOS and the national security state : chronology of a cover-up 1941-1973. Hampton Roads Pub. Co. pp. 210-211. ISBN 978-1571743176.   Canada's UFOs, Shirley's Bay, Ontario, Project Magnet, 1952, Library and Archives of Canada.   "Long Island's UFO plot Trial: A flying saucer true believer must answer charges that he intended to kill three people he believed were covering up alien landings". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2018-06-04.   Dolan, Richard M. UFOS and the national security state : chronology of a cover-up 1941-1973. Hampton Roads Pub. Co. pp. 293-295. ISBN 978-1571743176.   "McDonald, 1968 Congressional testimony, Case 41" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-24.   see James E. McDonald: External links.   Clark The UFO Book, p. 213–14   Clark The UFO Book, p. 144   UFOS: It Has Begun, Producer Allan F. Sandler, Director Ray Rivas, Writer Robert Emenegger, 1976, Featuring Rod Serling, Special Appearances by José Ferrer and Burgess Meredith – VCI Sci-Fi DVD Double Feature: UFOs: It Has Begun / UFO Syndrome, Distributed by VCI Entertainment http://www.vcient.com   see Paul Bennewitz: References and External Links.   Donovan, Barna William (2011-07-20). Conspiracy Films: A Tour of Dark Places in the American Conscious. McFarland. pp. 107–. ISBN 9780786486151. Retrieved 17 September 2014.   "FBI – Majestic 12 Part 1 of 1". An FBI archive containing details of "Majestic 12". Retrieved April 10, 2011.   Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Michael Barkun (4 May 2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Nancy Lusignan, Editor (1 September 1998). Fear Itself: Enemies Real and Imagined in American Culture. Purdue University Press. pp. 415–. ISBN 978-1-55753-115-5. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   Richard Landes (6 July 2000). Encyclopedia of Millennialism and Millennial Movements. Taylor & Francis. pp. 731–. ISBN 978-0-415-92246-3. Retrieved 18 October 2012.   see Milton William Cooper: References.   KLAS-TV: 8 News Now: George Knapp, Investigative Reporter: "Bob Lazar The Man Behind Area 51: NEW: Area 51 Exposed retrieved 21 March 2013   Los Angeles Times: May 6, 1993, Rivenberg, Ray, "Unusually Fanatical Observers Ike Struck Deal With Aliens!"   The Presidents UFO Website: The True Story of Area 51: A Look at the Actual Evidence, Written by Grant Cameron, Monday, 03 October 2011 18:29 retrieved 21 March 2013   "UFO Cover-Up?... Live (1988". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved 29 November 2017.   Clark The UFO Book, p. 163   Clark The UFO Book, p. 164   UFO Crash At Southaven Park at www.ufocasebook.com   "The Phil Schneider Story". APFN. Retrieved 26 April 2013.   "Message from ex-wife of Phil Schneider". www.apfn.org. Retrieved 2017-12-16.   UFO Evidence : COMETA Report at www.ufoevidence.org   UFO files from The National Archives at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk   "Files released on UFO sightings". BBC News. 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2008-08-05.   afp.google.com, The truth is out there: Britons 'spotted' UFOs, records say Archived 2013-06-05 at the Wayback Machine   Duin, Julia (11 May 2001). "Government is covering up UFO evidence, group says". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on May 16, 2001. Retrieved 8 March 2013.   "They're Here; UFO watchers to reveal proof that aliens have visited Earth". The Daily Record. May 9, 2001.   Katelynn Raymer; David Ruppe (10 May 2001). "Group Calls for Disclosure of UFO Info". ABC News. Retrieved 11 March 2013.   "UFO spotters slam 'US cover-up'". BBC News. May 10, 2001.   Kehnemui, Sharon (May 10, 2001). "Men in Suits See Aliens as Part of Solution, Not Problem". Fox News. Retrieved 2007-05-10.   McCullagh, Declan (May 10, 2001). "Ooo-WEE-ooo Fans Come to D.C." Wired News. Retrieved 11 May 2016.   "The Citizen Hearing on Disclosure". Official Citizen Hearing on Disclosure website.   "Visitors From Outer Space, Real or Not, Are Focus of Discussion in Washington". New York Times. May 3, 2013.   Rhodes_Phoenix   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-913   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-920   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-218   http://bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-219   Strange rocket-like UFO over California/Nevada, June 24, 1950   Clark The UFO Book, p. 398   NCP-12: The White Sands Proof – Maccabee   Richard M. Dolan, UFOs and the National Security State: Chronology of a Cover-up 1941–1973, 2002, ISBN 1-57174-317-0.   Lawrence Fawcett and Barry J. Greenwood, The UFO Cover-Up (originally Clear Intent), New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992, ISBN 0-671-76555-8   UFO Evidence.org documents   Speigel, Lee (April 18, 2011). "The JFK-UFO Connection: Bogus Documents or Unanswered Questions?". AOL News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013.   Review of Billion Dollar Secret and The Hunt for Zero Point, "Into the Black" by Frank Bures, The Atlantic magazine.   Review of "The Hunt for Zero Point" by Kurt Kleiner at Salon.com   "Out there: Former Sen. Mike Gravel says White House suppressing evidence of ETs". Yahoo! News/ABC News. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2013-05-04.   Radford, Benjamin (2018). "The Phantom Menace of UFO Revelation". Skeptical Inquirer. 42 (4): 28–29.   David G. Robertson (25 February 2016). UFOs, Conspiracy Theories and the New Age: Millennial Conspiracism. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-4742-5321-5.   "THE DOOMSDAY CONSPIRACY by Sidney Sheldon THE DOOMSDAY CONSPIRACY". Kirkus Reviews. Kirkus Media LLC. Retrieved 6 December 2017. Bibliography Clark, Jerome. The Ufo Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Visible Ink, 1998. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Dolan, Richard M. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973. Keyhole Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. Fawcett, Lawrence and Greenwood, Barry J. The UFO Cover-Up (originally Clear Intent). New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Timothy Good. Above Top Secret. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. Philip J. Klass. UFOs Explained New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 0-394-49215-3. Peebles, Curtis. Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth. Washington, DC:Smithsonian Institution, 1994. ISBN 1-56098-343-4. Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Ruppelt, Edward J.. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. 1956, available online: [1] dont forget to like and subscribe
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